Criminal Law - Guide to Penal Law
What is Criminal Law: Find Comprehensive Information for US and International Crime Law
Criminal law envelops the criminal procedure employed when charging, trying, sentencing and imprisoning defendants convicted of crimes, as well as regulation concerning how suspects are investigated, charged and tried. Criminal law is typically enforced by the government. The state, through a prosecutor, initiates the suit. Criminal Defense law covers the legal area of defending against a criminal charge. Some subcategories of criminal law include Substantive Criminal law; Criminal Procedure; and the special problems and issues arising in administration and enforcement of criminal justice.
Substantive Criminal law deals with the “substance” of the law. It identifies what the crimes are, their classifications (i.e. petty crime, misdemeanor, felony) and how they should be charged, as well as their possible penalties. Which courts have jurisdiction over what cases and who will be responsible for prosecuting them is determined by criminal statutes.
Criminal Procedure picks up where substantive criminal law leaves off. It deals with the enforcement of these laws. Most notably, it addresses how an individual accused of a crime may be handled, dealt with and prosecuted, especially with regard to the individual’s constitutional rights. It also covers rules of evidence, witnesses, investigations and the like. When someone demands their due process, evokes his right to silence, to a speedy trial or to legal representation, this is part of the process of criminal procedure.
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Criminal Law - US
- ABA Criminal Justice Section
The mission of the Criminal Justice Section is to improve the criminal justice system and to serve its members, the profession and the public.
- Bureau of Justice Statistics
BJS mission: To collect, analyze, publish, and disseminate information on crime, criminal offenders, victims of crime, and the operation of justice systems at all levels of government. These data are critical to Federal, State, and local policymakers in combating crime and ensuring that justice is both efficient and evenhanded.
- Crimes and Criminal Procedures, Title 18 - United States Code
Includes the body of statutes and other laws that defines conduct which is prohibited by the government because it is held to threaten, harm or otherwise endanger the safety and welfare of the public, and that sets out the punishment to be imposed on those who breach these laws.
- Differences between Civil and Criminal Law in the US
Criminal law is much better known to laymen than civil law, as a result of journalists' reports of famous criminal trials. In talking with people about law, I find that they often misapply principles from criminal law to situations in civil (e.g., tort) law, which results in their misunderstanding. They are surprised when they learn the actual legal principles that apply to a problem. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast criminal and civil law.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Our mission is to help protect you, your communities, and your businesses from the most dangerous threats facing our nation—from international and domestic terrorists to spies on U.S. soil…from cyber villains to corrupt government officials…from mobsters to violent gangs…from child predators to serial killers. Learn more here about our work with law enforcement and intelligence partners across the country and around the globe.
- Federal Rules of Evidence
The Federal Rules of Evidence generally govern civil and criminal proceedings in the courts of the United States and proceedings before U.S. Bankruptcy judges and U.S. magistrates, to the extent and with the exceptions stated in the rules. Promulgated by the U.S. Supreme Court and amended by Congress from time to time, the Federal Rules of Evidence are considered legislative enactments that have the force of statute, and courts interpret them as they would any other statute, employing traditional tools of statutory construction in applying their provisions.
- Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manuals
The United States Sentencing Commission is an independent agency in the judicial branch of government. Its principal purposes are: (1) to establish sentencing policies and practices for the federal courts, including guidelines to be consulted regarding the appropriate form and severity of punishment for offenders convicted of federal crimes; (2) to advise and assist Congress and the executive branch in the development of effective and efficient crime policy; and (3) to collect, analyze, research, and distribute a broad array of information on federal crime and sentencing issues, serving as an information resource for Congress, the executive branch, the courts, criminal justice practitioners, the academic community, and the public.
- National Center for Victims of Crime
The National Center for Victims of Crime works to make sure all crime victims get the assistance and information they need. We are committed to doing our best to help you.
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)
NCJRS is a federally funded resource offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide.
- Office for Victims of Crime (OVC)
The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) was established by the 1984 Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) to oversee diverse programs that benefit victims of crime. OVC provides substantial funding to state victim assistance and compensation programs-the lifeline services that help victims to heal.
- United States Department of Justice
To enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans.
Criminal Code by State
- Alabama - Title 13A
- Alaska - Title 11
- Arizona - Title 13
- Arkansas - Title 5
- California Penal Code
- Colorado - Title 18
- Connecticut - Title 53a
- Delaware - Title 11
- District of Columbia - Title 22
- Florida - Title XLVI
- Georgia - Title 16
- Idaho - Title 18
- Illinois - Chapter 720
- Indiana - Title 35
- Iowa - Title XVI
- Kansas - Chapter 21
- Kentucky - Titles XL, L
- Maine - Titles 17 and Titles 17A
- Maryland - Crimes and Punishments
- Massachusetts - Title I
- Minnesota - Chapters 609-624
- Mississippi - Title 97
- Missouri - Title XXXVIII
- Montana - Title 45
- Nebraska - Chapter 28
- Nevada - Title 15
- New Hampshire - Title LXII
- New Jersey - Title 2C
- New Mexico - Chapter 30
- New York - Penal
- North Carolina - Chapter 14
- North Dakota - Title 12.1
- Ohio - Title 29
- Oklahoma - Title 21
- Oregon - Chapters 161-169
- Pennsylvania- Title 18
- Rhode Island - Title 11
- South Carolina - Title 16
- South Dakota - Title 22
- Tennessee - Title 39
- Texas Penal Code
- Utah - Title 76
- Vermont - Title 13
- Virginia - Title 18.2
- Washington - Title 9
- West Virginia - Chapter 61
- Wisconsin - Chapters 938-951
- Wyoming - Title 6
Criminal Law - Europe
- Criminal Justice System for England and Wales
The CJS is one of the major public services in the country. Across the CJS, agencies such as the police, the Crown Prosecution Service, the courts and the National Offender Management Service work together to deliver criminal justice. The work of these agencies is overseen by three government departments: the Ministry of Justice, the Home Office and the Attorney General's Office.
- European Criminal Bar Association (ECBA)
The European Criminal Bar Association (ECBA) is an association of independent specialist defence lawyers. The association itself if wholly independent and free from outside interference. Its affairs are managed by an executive committee and advisory board elected by the membership in general assembly every three years. Members are motivated by their desire to keep up to date with professional developments, to be fully informed of developments at European level which affect their clients, and by their motivation to protect and resist where necessary any attempted diminution of defence rights.
Criminal Law - International
- Canadian Criminal Code - Department of Justice
Under Canada’s federal system, the administration of justice is an area of shared jurisdiction between the federal government and the provinces. The Department supports the Minister of Justice in his responsibilities for 49 statutes and areas of federal law by ensuring a bilingual and bijural national legal framework principally within the following domains: criminal justice (including youth criminal justice); family justice; access to justice; Aboriginal justice; and, general public law and private international law.
- International Criminal Law - Wikipedia
International criminal law is an autonomous branch of law which deals with international crimes and the courts and tribunals set up to adjudicate cases in which persons have incurred international criminal responsibility. It represents a significant departure from 'classical' international law which was mainly considered law created by states for the benefit of states, but tended to ignore the individual as a subject of the law.
- The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime. Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNODC operates in all regions of the world through an extensive network of field offices.
- United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)
The Master's programme is designed for those who seek to develop a unique insight in International Criminal Law, its implementation and the International Organisations' activities in the area. In particular, it is aimed at: University Graduates in Law, Political Science, International Relations, or equivalent qualifications; Young professionals in government institutions, local authorities, international organisations, NGOs; Lawyers seeking a specialisation in the field of international criminal justice.
Organizations Related to Criminal Law
- Coalition for the International Criminal Court
The Coalition for the International Criminal Court includes 2,500 organizations around the world working in partnership to strengthen international cooperation with the ICC; ensure that the Court is fair, effective and independent; make justice both visible and universal; and advance stronger national laws that deliver justice to victims of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
- European Criminal Law Academic Network (ECLAN)
The objective of ECLAN is to promote academic research and education on the field of European Criminal Law.
- Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law - ASIL
Most legal scholars agree that a recognizable body of international criminal law does exist. However, the precise parameters of this body of law are often unclear, perhaps due to the rapid and complex developments of our global society. In its widest context, the source of international criminal law might be derived from the general principles of international law recognized by civilized nations; and therefore, found in the customary law accepted by states, the general criminal law recognized by nations, and the treaties which govern particular conduct.
- International Criminal Court (ICC)
The International Criminal Court (ICC), governed by the Rome Statute, is the first permanent, treaty based, international criminal court established to help end impunity for the perpetrators of the most serious crimes of concern to the international community.
- International Criminal Law Bureau (ICLB)
The International Criminal Law Bureau is a group of highly-qualified lawyers with unrivalled expertise in international criminal law, international humanitarian law, human rights law and criminal law. The Bureau’s lawyers provide clients with the skill and experience needed to handle the most complex international criminal cases, political situations and problems. The Bureau provides advice, consultancy and training services to States, international organisations, international courts and private clients.
- International Criminal Law Network (ICLN)
For the advancement of international criminal law professional and social interaction between academics, policymakers and legal professionals on a worldwide level is essential. In addition, with the establishment of new institutions such as the ICC and Eurojust, the exchange of knowledge needs to be structured.
- International Criminal Law Society (ICLS)
The International Criminal Law Society is actively engaged in dissemination of knowledge about and implementation of international criminal law, so that perpetrators of the most serious international crimes will no longer benefit from impunity.
- UN - Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
The Commission develops, monitors and reviews the implementation of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice programme and facilitates the coordination of its activities. The Commission provides substantive and organizational direction for the quinquennial United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. The United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme Network supports the implementation of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice programme and contributes to the work of the Commission. The Commission acts as the governing body of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Fund, the United Nations fund that provides resources for promoting technical assistance in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice carried out by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
Publications Related to Criminal Law
- American Criminal Law Review
The American Criminal Law Review is the nation's premier journal of criminal law. The ACLR is the most-cited criminal law review in the nation, and it also ranks among the country's most-cited law reviews of any kind. Recently, ExpressO, an online submission service for legal scholars, ranked the ACLR as the top subject-specific law review in the area of Criminal Law and Procedure.
- Federal Crime Law - US Guide
This site has been designed primarily to provide criminal defense attorneys with a single-stop, easy-to-use, and affordable source of the latest and most significant developments in America's fastest growing field of law - criminal law. However, this site can also be an invaluable guide to anyone interested in the field of criminal justice.
- Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure
Criminal procedure deals with the set of rules governing the series of proceedings through which the government enforces substantive criminal law. Municipalities, states, and the federal government each have their own criminal codes, defining types of conduct that constitute crimes. Title 18 of the U.S. Code outlines all federal crimes. Typically, federal crimes deal with activities that either extend beyond state boundaries or directly impact federal interests.
- International Criminal Law - Resource Guide
The purpose of this guide is to provide researchers with a selective quick guide to basic and significant materials, both print and electronic, in the topic area of international criminal law and its processes. As a hyperlinked, contextual guide, it is not intended as a substitute for the compilation of any updated, comprehensive bibliography by using electronic indexes and catalogues and their print equivalents (for older and historic materials).
Articles on HG.org Related to Criminal Law
- FL Texting While Driving Ban Signed Into LawThe “Florida Ban on Texting While Driving Law” is set to go into effect on October 1, 2013 and has already come under criticism for being too weak, leaving a lot to be desired in the realm of enforcement.
- Extraordinary Dismissal in Cases of Suspected Personal Enrichment - GermanyThe Hamburg Labor Court recently ruled that the strong suspicion of credit memos belonging to a business being used for private purposes can justify an extraordinary dismissal.
- Alternative Criminal Sentencing – Drug CourtsSometimes jail just isn’t the answer. To help combat criminal activity in a more effective manner, alternatives to the standard criminal sentencing are being used, namely, drug courts.
- House Arrest: Florida’s Community Control ProgramThe Florida Community Control Program places offenders under house arrest or electronic surveillance as an alternative to a traditional incarceration sentence.
- Pending Litigation Determines Whether Alcohol “Sniffing” Device Violates the Fourth AmendmentA recent program has been initiated by the National Traffic Safety Board, and it is referred to as the “Sniffer.” The “Sniffer,” has been overshadowed by another proposal to decrease BAC levels from 0.08% to 0.05%; however, if enacted, it may have just as serious implications to drivers apprehended for driving under the influence.
- How to Beat a Reckless Driving TicketUnlike speeding tickets, which are considered to be civil violations a reckless driving charge is defined as a criminal offense and comes with more, and more severe penalties. One will not be able to simply pay a fine and move on with their life if they are charged with a willful or wanton act.
- Effect of out-of-state DUI Convictions in IllinoisPursuant to the Illinois Driver License Compact (625 ILCS 5/6-700), the ‘home state’ of a driving license holder is the state which has issued and has the power to suspend or revoke the use of the license or permit to operate a motor vehicle.
- Increasing Use of DNA Evidence Both Convicts and Exonerates in TexasOne of the more recent technological advancements in the criminal justice world is DNA analysis. More and more frequently, especially in Texas, DNA evidence gathered from a crime scene is used to identify someone who may have been present. It is also used to exclude someone from consideration as a suspect or to save him or her from a wrongful conviction.
- Investigators Deploy Various Tools in Texas Internet Solicitation CasesBecoming the subject of an Internet investigation related to the online solicitation of a minor is life altering. Not only are there criminal penalties, but also if convicted sex offender registration rules apply and jobs and housing can be hard to come by with required background checks.
- Michigan's MIP Law Offers Deferred ProsecutionThe Michigan MIP law allows Courts to dismiss the case if the minor successfully completes a probationary period. Deferred prosecution protects the underage drinker from jail and a permanent criminal record. On the other hand, the repeat offender faces potential jail time, costly probation conditions and a mandatory license suspension.
- All Criminal Law Articles
Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide discussing legal aspects related to Criminal Law including: arson, assault, battery, bribery, burglary, child abuse, child pornography, computer crime, controlled substances, credit card fraud, criminal defense, criminal law, drugs and narcotics, DUI, DWI, embezzlement, fraud, expungements, felonies, homicide, identity theft, manslaughter, money laundering, murder, perjury, prostitution, rape, RICO, robbery, sex crimes, shoplifting, theft, weapons, white collar crime and wire fraud.