Antitrust and Trade Regulation Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Antitrust and Trade Regulation.


Comparative Advertising Featuring Third-Party Trademark May Be Permissible in Germany

  May 24, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The use of a third-party trademark in comparative advertising does not automatically constitute an infringement of trademark law. That was the decision of the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice (Az.: I ZR 167/13).

OLG Koblenz on Misleading Advertising

  May 24, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Companies promoting their products need to ensure that consumers have a realistic opportunity to purchase them. That was the verdict of the OLG Koblenz (Higher Regional Court of Koblenz) in a recent ruling.

Unfair Competition in California

  May 2, 2016     By Watkins Firm, A Professional Corporation
California Law protects trade secrets, while restricting deceptive advertising and price manipulation. California is home to some of the strictest unfair competition laws in the United States. Governed by Section 17200 of the Business and Professions Law, and in conjunction with other state and federal laws, California works to eliminate unfair competition, and establish a fair and even playing field for business competition.

Germany's Rail Cartel: Bundeskartellamt Imposes Fine Running Into Millions of Euros

  April 25, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Germany’s Federal Cartel Office, the Bundeskartellamt, has brought a close to the so-called “Schienenfall” (rail case) and imposed a fine amounting to millions of euros on a rail company for illegal price-fixing agreements.

Merger Controls Under Chinese Law

  April 18, 2016     By MMLC Group
Merger control, as a mechanism to prevent anti-competitive activity or transactions, refers to the review of mergers and acquisitions under antitrust law. The majority of merger control regimes are based on the general principle to prevent the creation of dominant positions that might result in a substantial impediment to competition.

Are Resale Price Maintenance Agreements Legal Under the Antitrust Laws?

  April 11, 2016     By Bona Law PC
The legality of resale price maintenance agreements under US antitrust law.

How to Legally Fight Businesses that Are Posting Fake Good Reviews on the Internet

  April 6, 2016     By HG.org
Recognizing the power of first-hand user experiences, some businesses flood review sites with positive reviews about their product or service by paying writers to manufacture this content. Rather than reading a real review by someone who has actually used the product or service, the consumer is duped by someone who has no contact with the product or service other than a paycheck.

Why Writing Fake Good Reviews to Boost Your Business May Be Illegal

  April 6, 2016     By HG.org
National studies have found that many consumers check online reviews before making a purchase. Additionally, many consumers directly cite such reviews for the reason why they chose a particular product. Hoping to tap into the upside of this strategy, some businesses encourage consumers to post positive reviews.

Do I Have a Lanham Claim Against My Competitor for False Advertising?

  April 6, 2016     By Bona Law PC
The elements that a party must prove to prevail on a Lanham Act Claim for False Advertising.

The Colgate Doctrine and Other Alternatives to Resale-Price-Maintenance Agreements

  April 5, 2016     By Bona Law PC
Resale-price-maintenance agreements (or vertical price-fixing) are still illegal under the law of certain states. This article discusses alternatives to resale-price maintenance agreements that are less likely to violate the antitrust laws.

Distant Trade in Ukraine of Non-resident Companies: Features of Tax Regulation

  March 31, 2016     By Kydalov & Partners
Remote trading in Ukraine is developing rapidly, created favorable conditions, therefore it would be reasonable it would be prudent for many companies of distant trade - non-residents to consider the Ukrainian market as one of the high-potential.

A Short Guide to Agency Agreements in the UK and Europe

  March 31, 2016     By Dixcart Legal Limited
A very brief look at some of the headline issues involved when entering into Agency Agreements – both for trade within the UK and within Europe.

UK Competition Law Compliance Checklist

  March 31, 2016     By Dixcart Legal Limited
A brief overview of the main principles of competition law and what is prohibited, followed by a quick checklist of actions that businesses can take to ensure compliance with competition law. It may also assist businesses to identify illegal anti-competitive behaviour by others.

Bundeskartellamt Commences Proceedings Against Internet Company in Germany

  March 31, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
On March 2, the Bundeskartellamt (Germany’s Federal Cartel Office) commenced proceedings against an internet giant. According to the Federal Cartel Office, there is reason to suspect that the company has abused its dominant market position

Transitioning Broker Alert - FINRA Adopts New Comp Disclosure Rule

  March 31, 2016     By Shustak Reynolds & Partners, PC
The Securities and Exchange Commission approved last week a new rule proposed by FINRA, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, which requires brokers departing one broker dealer for another, to send “educational information” to clients about their move to another firm and the financial compensation and incentives they will receive from the new firm for making the move.

Safe Harbour Provisions in China’s Intellectual Property Guidelines

  April 14, 2016     By MMLC Group
China’s Anti-Monopoly Law of the People’s Republic of China principally seeks to prohibit practices restricting free trading and competition between businesses; abusive behavior by a dominant market player or anti-competitive practices leading to such dominant positions; and supervises mergers and acquisitions of large corporations, including joint ventures.

FINRA Investigations Under Rule 8210

  March 16, 2016     By Shustak Reynolds & Partners, PC
It is every registered person’s nightmare. You receive a letter from a FINRA office notifying you that you are the subject of a FINRA investigation.

Draft Guidelines on Cartel Leniency in China

  March 10, 2016     By MMLC Group
In February 2016, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)released the Draft Guidelines on Application of Leniency to Horizontal Monopoly Agreements(the “Draft Guidelines”) seeking public comments due February 22, 2016.

LG Frankfurt Prohibits Taxi Broker’s Discount Promotion

  March 9, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Promotional discounts can give rise to unfair predatory competition and infringe competition law. The Landgericht Frankfurt (Regional Court of Frankfurt) prohibited a promotional discount from the provider of a taxi app for this very reason.

Extending Discount Promotion an Infringement of Competition Law in Germany

  March 7, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
According to a judgment of the LG Hamburg (Regional Court of Hamburg), extending fixed-term promotional discounts for no particular reason constitutes an infringement of competition law.

Legal Aspects of Marketing of Organic Products in Ukraine

The Ukrainian land is the most fertile in the European Union, the development of agro-industries are a significant and also market of organic agricultural products has been growing.

German Kartellamt Prohibits Best-Price Clause on Hotel Reservation Portals

The Bundeskartellamt (German Federal Cartel Office) has prohibited a hotel reservation portal from using so-called “narrow” best-price clauses, arguing that they restrict competition.

Bundeskartellamt has Audio Books in its Sights in Germany

Audio books have attracted the attention of the Bundeskartellamt (German Federal Cartel Office). The competition watchdog is investigating whether an online mail order company and a manufacturer of consumer electronics are acting contrary to competition law.

Restrictions for Imported Products by Establishing a Register for Eligible Factories in Egypt

The Ministry of Commerce and Industry issued a decision to establish a register at the General Authority for Control on Exports and Imports for the eligible factories to export a number of finished products to the Egyptian Markets.

Established National Business Center in Albania

Starting from December 29th, 2015 functions of National Registration Center and National Licensing Center in Albania shall be unified in one single entity.

Anti-Counterfeiting Measures in Uzbekistan in the Absence of Customs Recordation

Foreign manufacturers and brand owners as well as Uzbekistan-based official or exclusive importers of branded goods are facing pressing challenges in connection with promoting their proprietary products, protecting their reputation and image, and dealing with counterfeiting and pricing strategies of unscrupulous competitors.

How Overseas Buyers Claim for Quality Responsibility against China Sellers?

For overseas buyers it is very important to inspect goods after delivery. The inspection should prompt and contribute to official report. With related knowledge on China law, buyers may put inpsection period, defect types, and form of valid report into contract clauses. This may greatly alleviate buyers burden of proof.

Competition Commission of India Issues Guidelines on Competition Impact Assessment for Upcoming Legislations

The Competition Commission of India (‘CCI’), has recently issued the Competition Commission of India (Competition Assessment of Legislations and Bills) Guidelines, 2015 (‘Guidelines’) . The Guidelines will come into effect on 1 January 2016. A brief overview of the Guidelines, as proposed by the CCI.

The Conflict in Licensing between Intellectual Property Rights and the Antitrust Regime

  By MMLC Group
How China is regulating competition law aspects of intellectual property licensing.

The Concept of ‘Advertising’ and Unfair Competition Rules in Bulgaria

The Concept of ‘Advertising’ and Unfair Competition Rules in Bulgaria

Supplements to the Sale of Products in the Light of Unfair Competition Rules in Bulgaria

Art. 36 of the Bulgarian Protection of Competition Act (PCA) is titled “unfair soliciting of clients”. It is a part of the unfair competition rules in Bulgarian law and contains four paragraphs providing for four different prohibitions. One of these prohibitions relates to supplements offered or given upon the sale of a product.

Changes in Advertising Law of Russia

Provisions of the Advertising Law are detailed as regards limiting the sound level for advertisements entered into effect on May 25, 2015. Illegal use of intellectual property in advertising does not violate advertising laws. Stricter liability for credit institutions for violations in advertising financial services.

China's NDRC to Issue Price-Focused Competition Rules Involving IP Transactions

  By MMLC Group
Looking at the recent SAIC competition law guidelines regarding IP transactions, and predicting what the NDRC is likely to refer to when it introduces its competition IP guidelines later this year.

Singapore The Island Nation with Global Significance

Singapore is a hub for international arbitration. Learn more about the city-state and what to do to prepare for an upcoming arbitration.

Issues in Competition Law and Franchise Agreements in Australia

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at Australian competition law issues, as applied to franchise agreements, including plans to extend unfair contract terms legislation.

Overview of Cyprus Merger Control Rules

The Cypriot regime governing the control of concentrations is often surprising for foreign businesses and their counsel, due to the relatively low thresholds. Considering however that entirely foreign-to-foreign mergers and acquisitions, as well as joint ventures, can be caught under the Cypriot merger control regime, we have authored this note as guidance to all parties involved in a transaction that meets the jurisdictional thresholds that trigger a Cyprus filing.

China Releases Notice Regulating Intellectual Property Rights from a Competition Law Perspective

  By MMLC Group
The State Administration for Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”) issued the finalized Provisions on Prohibiting the Abuse of Intellectual Property Rights to Preclude or Restrict Competition (“the Provisions”) on April 7, 2015, which has been almost a year since the draft thereof was released for public opinion. The Provisions will be effective as of August 1, 2015.

Spotlight: Concerns about Constitutionality of Turkey’s New IP/O Regime in Civil Industrial Sectors

On 06 February 2014, Turkish Parliament has enacted a 6518 Omnibus Bill, gazetted February 19th 2014, which adjoins a provision to article 3 of the Law No 4734 Public Procurement Law (“Law”) stipulating that purchase of goods and services provided to ensure innovation, local production and technology transfer under offset/industrial participation programs are not subject to Law No 4734.

Parallel Import to be Legalized in Russia in 2015 - Antitrust Risks

Parallel import allows import of goods not only by their owner or dealer, but also by any importer.

Turkey’s Civil Offset/Industrial Participation Enthusiasm

Most probably many people would not know more about where offset/industrial participation discussions were moving toward before the article titled “The defence industry: Guns and Sugar” was published on The Economist’s on 25 May 2013.

Draft Law on Shopping Malls in Turkey

Turkey has been becoming a “shopping mall heaven” ever since 1988 which is the time that the first shopping mall was built in Turkey.

Anti-Trust snd Strategic Approval Requirements for Investments in Russia

Like other jurisdictions, Russia has a set of requirements which may impact upon persons considering investing or investing into Russian businesses.

Developments in Chinese Antitrust/Competition Law

  By MMLC Group
Starting from the year of 2013, the Chinese Anti-monopoly Law Enforcement Authority has initiated a series of anti-monopoly investigations and imposed fine in total over RMB 3.25 billion Yuan (about US$ 531 million). Although such anti-monopoly law enforcements have attracted a lot of attention, there are also some remarkable developments happened in the anti-monopoly of the intellectual property field that is worth of noticing.

Russian Antitrust Law: Prohibition of Monopolistic Behavior and Unfair Competition

The Russian Law "On the Protection of Competition" (the "Competition Law") came into effect on October 26, 2006.

What Are Monopolies and Why Are They Bad?

  By HG.org
Aside from the board game, a lot of people may not really know what a monopoly is. They make their way into the news once in a while, but what does it really mean when something becomes a monopoly and why do we care? Everyone says they are bad, but why?

Russian Antitrust Law: Important Considerations For Non-Russian Investors

To successfully structure a cross-border transaction, it is important to do a careful antimonopoly law analysis at an early stage.

Distribution Agreements In Russia

Distribution agreement is not a concept that is well-developed in Russia. There is not an established court guidance on most of the terms and conditions a reasonable non-Russian supplier seeks to include into the distribution agreement.

Higher Regional Court of Hamm on Misleading Dental Advertisement Online

The use of the slogan “the only complete programme throughout Germany” in an advertisement for a dental care programme is misleading in the opinion of the Higher Regional Court of Hamm.

German Act Against Unfair Competition Protects The General Public

Consumers and suppliers ought to benefit in equal measure from fair competition. In the event of infringements of competition law, legal action can be taken.

The “Legality Rating” for Most Ethical Companies in Italy

A Legality Rating was established as an opportunity for: spreading the culture of legality, demonstrating your company’s ethical credentials, obtaining financing and verifying your organization and your suppliers.

Immoral But Not Always Illegal: Price Gouging After Natural Disaster

  By HG.org
The recent floods in Colorado have brought a problem to the forefront: post-disaster price gouging. While 35 states have made this a crime, there are still 15, Colorado included, where this is merely considered capitalism.

Merger of American Airlines and US Airways After Bankruptcy May Face Anti-Trust Law Issues

  By HG.org
A bankruptcy judge in New York has endorsed a plan to merge American Airlines and US Airways. That approval, however, is contingent upon the outcome of an anti-trust lawsuit filed by the US Department of Justice which asserts that such a merger would deprive the marketplace of choice and competition.

China's SAIC Looks at Abuses of IP Rights to Eliminate or Restrict Competition

  By MMLC Group
On June 11, 2014, the State Administration of Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”) published a draft of Rules of the Administration for Industry and Commerce on Prohibition of Abusing Intellectual Property Rights to Eliminate or Restrict Competition (“the drafted Rules”) to solicit public opinions.

A Digest of National Development and Reform Commission Antitrust Cases To Date

  By MMLC Group
This article provides a useful digest of many of the NDRC antitrust cases announced/decided to 14 August 2014.

Antitrust Investigations in China

  By MMLC Group
A series of anti-trust investigations intensively initiated by the Price Supervision and Anti-Trust Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC Anti-Trust Bureau”) since last year, has brought a lot of attention to this Chinese anti-trust law enforcement authority. This article is aimed at introducing the NDRC Anti-Trust Bureau via a decided case.

Practical and Legal Aspects of Debt Collection in Ukraine

Despite all the current geopolitics, trade goes on in Ukraine, but what if you are an exporter and have concerns about repayment?

China's MOFCOM Rejects Maersk's P3 Alliance

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the recent decision by MOFCOM regarding Maersk's P3 Alliance, being only the second case ever where MOFCOM has refused approval. The implications of this decision need to be kept in mind by parties with large market shares, looking at entering into M&A transactions or cooperative ventures, affecting China.

New Merger Control Legislation in Cyprus Enacted

The 2014 merger control regime replaces the previous framework in place since 1999 and increases the powers of the Commission for the Protection of Competition in assessing, investigating and clearing merger, acquisitions and joint ventures.

Netflix Accused of Mudslinging

Verizon, the US telecommunications giant, has issued Netflix with a “cease and desist” letter following media reports claiming that Netflix was blatantly telling its customers that the Verizon network was responsible for faulty streaming.

Entering Azerbaijani Market: Franchising and Distribution

In this note we provide general information about some of the legal issues that a foreign franchisor or supplier (in distribution agreements) should consider when entering Azerbaijani market.

Concessions in Albania / PPP in Albania

According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared to international standards, the implementation of AML being a strong pillar and institutional frameworks and policy pillars were weak.

Infamous Antitrust Cases

  By HG.org
Capitalist nations such as the United States recognize the advantages of free competition. Some landmark cases had direct consequences on antitrust regulation. Some of the most infamous antitrust cases are discussed below.

A Tax Exempt Start up for Multinational Companies: Liasion Offices in Free Trade Zones of Turkey

Today, in global cash flow around the world made multinational companies to think more on tax benefits and cost effectiveness before they invest in a country.

Turkish Retail Sector and the Problem of Unfair Competition

The growth of the Turkish economy in unprecedented rates during the course of the last decade have generated a strong demand for consumer goods.

A Dentist’s Advertising Measures Can Be Considered Unfair Competition – Germany

If a dentist offers his services via a coupon portal, this conduct can be viewed as promotional advertising and thus as unfair competition.

Anti-Competitive Violation When Disparaging a Competitor – Germany

If someone makes disparaging remarks about a competitor to its employees, this can give rise to an anti-competitive violation.

Amendments to the Trade Descriptions Ordinance in Hong Kong

To promote fair trade, enhance protection for individual consumers and to prevent unfair business practices in Hong Kong, the Trade Descriptions (Unfair Trade Practices) (Amendment) Ordinance 2012 was passed on 17 July 2012 to amend the Trade Descriptions Ordinance (Cap 362) (“TDO”).

Requirement for Price Description under Competition Law - Germany

A reference to sales tax under the tab “shipping and payment options” might not satisfy legal requirements.

Jurisdiction over the Turkish Steel Cases at the U.S. Court of International Trade

U.S. domestic steel producers consistently raised concerns about the Turkish steel industry, alleging that it is subsidized and unfairly aided. U.S. Commerce Department and International Trade Administration found a variety of Turkish subsidy programs to be dependent on export performance and imposed countervailing duty and anti-dumping penalties. As a response, Turkish steel producers have challenged these rulings in the U.S. Court of International Trade (CIT) with varying degrees of success.

EU Commission Follows through and Fines Microsoft

For over a year, Microsoft has been under the watch of the EU Commission regarding a perceived breach in EU competition law due to their “Windows” operating system being shipped with a pre-loaded internet browser.

Google Survives US Investigations – EU Investigates Further

The software giant Google has recently come under scrutiny from both the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the European Union Commission for suspected anti-competitive behaviour. It was initially being suspected that Google was doctoring search results in a manner that would prejudice its competitors.

European Court Holds that Companies are Now Liable for Joint Ventures They Control

The concept of a joint venture has been a difficult issue for legislators and legal professionals alike since time immemorial. Every time a joint venture is created a great variety of issues arise, primarily with respect to the way that such a joint venture will affect the market from the perspective of competition.

Video Deposition Formats - What They Are and How to Choose

This article was written to help explain the various video formats available to attorneys after conducting a video deposition.

Approval of M&A Transactions by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce - 2012 Annual Review

  By MMLC Group
This article reviews the activities of the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and the Anti-Monopoly Bureau, in reviewing applications for approval for M&A transactions under the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law, over the last 12 months.

European Commission Re-Ignites the Browser Wars

In 2009, Microsoft made an agreement with the European Commission, in its capacity as the pan-European antitrust watchdog that it would offer the opportunity to users to choose which web browser to use on its Windows 7 operating system. The discussions that brought about this agreement were labelled as the “Browser Wars”.

The Advantages of Trading Through a Limited Company in the Bahamas

Is your business trading in the most cost effective way and is your legal status adequately protected? Choosing the best legal ‘vehicle’ through which to operate your business is perhaps the most important decision you can make as a business owner – particularly with the advice of an expert companies lawyer.

What to Look for in a Video Deposition

This article is an attempt to illuminate both the rudimentary and nuanced strategies required to consistently produce high-quality video depositions. I often worry that attorneys who order them are unaware that the footage for which they have paid dearly, is of exceedingly poor production value. The bottom line: all video depositions should look nearly identical (except for the witness, of course); it is the means by which that end is achieved that separates excellence from inferiority.

Hong Kong and Chile Sign Free Trade Agreement

September 7, 2012. On September 7th, 2012, Hong Kong and Chile signed a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (the Agreement), marking a new milestone in the furtherance of trade and investment co-operation between the two economies. The Agreement will enter into force on a date to be mutually determined by Hong Kong and Chile after completing necessary domestic procedures.

On the Way to the New Height: Walmart’s Acquisition of Yihaodian Cleared on Conditions in China

The global retailing giant Walmart announced in February that it would further acquire 33.6% interest in Yihaodian, a leading B2C e-commerce company in China. Before the investment, Walmart already held 17.7% interest in Yihaodian. The new deal is subject to government regulatory approvals, including antitrust approval from the Chinese anti-monopoly regulator, the Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”). On 13 August 2012, Walmart announced that it has received conditional approval from MOFCOM.

China's Competition Law - New Regulatory and Policy Developments

  By MMLC Group
China’s Anti-monopoly Law took effect on 1 August 2008. During the last four years, over 400 business transactions have been reviewed under this law, including most of the world’s largest international transactions. This article looks at some of the major developments in this area of Chinese law, from a regulatory and policy perspective.

Clinical Integration and the Rochester Network Advisory Opinion

  By Ruder Ware
The Rochester Network Advisory Opinion is one of the few sources that we have to get a glimpse of what is required for a health care organization to "clinically integrate." Clinical integration is one method to reduce risk under the antitrust laws. Some of the details of the advisory opinion are discussed and analyzed by provider integration attorney John Fisher.

Google Reaching Amicable Settlement with the EU Over Anti-competitive Practices

On the 17th July 2012 the European Commission announced that it had reached an agreement with internet giant ‘Google’ that would put to rest recent anti-competitive practice claims against Google. The EU has been investigating Google since 2010. This started when European search providers began complaining that Google was burying search results for products that competed with Google’s own, without disclosing the alleged bias.

The Consumer Complaints Handling Procedures in Malta

Pursuant to article 20 of the Malta Financial Services Authority Act (Chapter 330 of the Laws of Malta), the MFSA is required to appoint a Consumer Complaints Manager (“CCM”) empowered to investigate complaints from private consumers (as opposed to companies or enterprises) in connection with any financial services transaction involving a financial entity regulated by the MFSA...

May a Physician Compete against His or Her Former Practice?

If you are in a group medical practice, you might wonder, “Can I or another doctor in this practice set up a competing practice?” “Will a non-competition agreement prevent it?” These questions are crucial both to the existing group and the physician who would set up the competing practice.

Shareholder Buy-sell Agreements for Medical Corporations

In this article I explain shareholder buy-sell agreements for physicians and medical corporations. A buy-sell agreement (also called a shareholders agreement) protects the corporation from the physician / shareholders, specifically their death, loss of license, disability, divorce and dispute.

The 2011 Amendments to the Competition Act in Malta

Act VI of 2011 which enacted the Malta Competition and Consumer Affairs Authority Act (MCCAA Act) (Chapter 510 of the Laws of Malta) significantly amended the Competition Act (Chapter 379 of the Laws of Malta). This article attempts to summarize the most important developments in this regard.

Ukraine Competition Law Aspects in M&A Transactions: Questions and Answers

Sophisticated M&A transactions include not only straightforward share purchase agreements but may also contemplate ancillary agreements (e.g. option agreements, share pledge agreements, repo financing, etc.). Moreover, share purchase agreements may envisage non-compete clauses, which also fall within the ambit of Ukrainian competition law.

The Stamp War - Shoot Five: Gaylord v. United States

In litigation that already has lasted nearly twice as long as the war itself, volleys are still being fired over the copyright for a portion of the memorial to a war that ended in armistice and not peace. On May 14, 2012, Gaylord v. United States was remanded by the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit to the U. S. Court of Federal Claims for another shot at determining the amount of damages, the fifth courthouse battle in this protracted campaign.

Transborder Dataflows and Jurisdictional Issues in the Cloud - Australia

Transborder data flows are a significant concern for those interested and involved in cyber-security and information privacy. The issue is given particular focus in the context of cloud computing. A key new source of risk for users on cloud computing services is that associated with the storage of data and the execution of transactions in foreign jurisdictions. This whitepaper examines government and industry responses to cross-border data flows in the context of cloud computing.

Data Security in the Cloud: Issues in Cloud Law - Australia

Inadequate data security leaves businesses open to significant damage and embarrassment. Whilst data security is a key concern for any business when it considers the use of its IT resources, businesses that operate within, or are seeking to operate within, the cloud need to be particularly attuned to the increased risks and dilemmas that cloud computing poses for their data security. - Data Security in the Cloud - A Whitepaper by Nicholls Legal

Privacy and the Cloud: Issues in Cloud Law - Australia

The adequate protection of the privacy of personal and sensitive data has proved to be one of the key concerns that has emerged in the area of cloud computing. Adequate protection of privacy intersects with many other issues affecting cloud computing, including data security, jurisdictional concerns and contractual issues. Cloud Computing and Privacy - A Whitepaper by Nicholls Legal

Attorneys: Five Tips to Sour Your Relationship With Your Court Reporter

A recent meeting of court reporting firm owners from across the country began with an ice breaker. In two minutes each table was challenged to list as many things lawyers do that frustrate us. As a representative from each table read off their lists, among growing laughter and groans, clear trends were revealed. It seems the top five ways to sour your relationship with your court reporter are:

China Approved Western Digital and Hitachi Storage Deal on Conditions

On 2 March 2012, MOFCOM published its conditional approval to the $4.5 billion acquisition of Viviti Technologies Ltd (a company directly holding Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. ,which holds Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Singapore Pte. Ltd.) (“Viviti”) by Western Digital Corporation (“Western Digital”).

Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements and Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies (“CFC”) in Turkey

Although it has been long time to have CFC regulation in Turkey, in parallel with the increasing rate of growth of Turkish economy, many major entrepreneurs making Turkey related businesses required to focus on management of their taxation policies in consideration of CFC regime in Turkey.

Competition Law in Bulgaria

Bulgarian Competition Law is designed to protect and foster competition and free enterprise in economic activity. Over the years the law was repeatedly changed by the legislature to meet the requirements of economic life.

New Competition Regulation Aimed at M&A Transactions Commences

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the long awaited regulation that outlines penalties for non-compliance with transactional approval aspects of the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law. This new regulation commenced on 1 February 2012.

Chinese Antitrust Law

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the makeup of the Chinese antitrust authority, its development and its case history. Establishment of Anti-Monopoly Bureau: The Chinese Anti-Monopoly Bureau was formally established within the Ministry of Commerce (‘MOFCOM’) in September 2008 under Notice on the Establishment of the Anti-Monopoly Bureau. It replaced the previous Antitrust Investigation Office under the Law and Treaty Bureau of MOFCOM.

European Commission Imposes Simplified Rules on Mergers and Divisions in Six Member States among Which Cyprus

Directive 2009/109/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009, regarding the simplification of the rules on merger and divisions, has not been yet implemented in some Member States of the EU. Cyprus is one of those Member States which failed to fulfill their obligations and commitments under the relevant Directive.

SOPA Analysis: Why One Bill Threatened the Entire Internet

The reason that SOPA garnered so much attention was largely due to vague language that seemed to provide the government with a very wide scope of power to shut down websites and block access. While the possibility of restrictions may have looked like censorship to a public used to a laissez-faire approach to internet access, the main targets of SOPA were primarily foreign websites that hosted libraries of pirated content.

The Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This article shares the views on the Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo including Employment, Business Taxation, Environment, Physical Planning, Health & Safety, Consumer Protection, Competition Policy & Law, Monetary Policy, Foreign Exchange and Foreign Investors, Public Procurement, Intellectual Property, Investment Protection and Dispute Settlement.


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