Banking and Finance Law Articles
Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Banking and Finance.
September 14, 2014 By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The turning point for regulating the market dates back to 2001 for Turkish banking industry after a major banking crisis in Turkey.
September 1, 2014 By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The effect of climate change is not only an environmental problem today as it directly relates to the resource based industries. In today’s world, the scientific assessments lead the players of energy to reflect on their project viability. In direct proportion to the growth in financing renewable projects, insurance companies and underwriters are also expected to formulate their risk assessments on resource-oriented allocation models.
August 28, 2014 By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkish banking industry is considered one of the strongest in Europe. The crisis ridden global banking industry had experienced numerous difficulties following the 2008 market collapse, but Turkish banking industry had survived the crisis with relatively insignificant scars.
August 28, 2014 By Global Jurix
Today, the Real Estate Investment Trusts [REITs] are highly successful in more than 20 countries worldwide, including USA, UK, Australia, France, etc. Therefore, SEBI has rightly allowed trading of such REITs in India also, in August 2014, to pave the way for desired growth and transparency in the vast and fast-paced real estate sector of India. Besides bringing in the globally accepted practices, these REITs are expected to infuse a new lease of life and zing in the Indian real estate sector.
August 21, 2014 By Cobb Law Group
After a vendor extends credit, it is vital that the vendor continually monitor the debtor for changes in its credit profile in order to minimize the vendor's risk of nonpayment. The following list of 20 early warning indicators, will help you see the risk coming before it happens.
August 12, 2014 By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The 2008 global economic meltdown had served as an important wake up call for the global banking industry. The complicated web of interrelated financial instruments created by investment banking gurus, accompanied by a lax regulatory regime came to create one of the biggest financial disasters after the Great Depression and itself termed by many as the Great Recession costing millions of people their savings, jobs and houses.
August 6, 2014 By GRP Rainer LLP
Banking law is one of the fields of law that almost everyone comes into contact with, yet it features many pitfalls which can be expensive for clients.
July 27, 2014 By Anastasios Antoniou LLC
Cyprus provides an established, stable and solid legislative framework under which Cyprus companies can be formed for intermediary or ultimate holding purposes within corporate groups, in project finance, cross-border transactions or even investment management contexts.
July 24, 2014 By Anastasios Antoniou LLC
In what constitutes a pivotal step in the transformation of Cyprus into one of the primary investment funds jurisdictions, new legislation is in place to regulate the establishment of Alternative Investment Funds. The Alternative Investment Funds Law of 2014 (the Law) provides a much-expected overhaul to Cyprus' investment funds regime, which commenced with the Alternative Investment Fund Managers framework enacted in 2013.
July 22, 2014 By Loeb Smith & Brady
The Cayman Islands (“Cayman”) continue to be the leading offshore jurisdiction for the establishment of both hedge funds and private equity funds. Typically, private equity funds are structured in Cayman as exempted limited partnerships (“ELPs”) and the introduction of the Exempted Limited Partnership Law, 2014 (the “New ELP Law”), which came into force on 2nd July 2014, will enhance the attractiveness of Cayman as the leading offshore jurisdiction for private equity funds.
July 21, 2014 By Tornaritis Law Firm LLC
Cyprus Guidelines on Completing and Submitting Applications for Authorization as an Electronic Money Institution (‘EMI’) and Payment Institution under Directive 2012 [“the EMD”]; the Appointment of Agents & the Establishment of Branches
July 19, 2014 By Studio Misuraca, Attorneys Firm
EEIG in Italy ("Gruppo Europeo di Interesse Economico", GEIE) is an associative organization. GEIE or EEIG can exclusively be used within European area, it encourages cooperation between companies, others economic entities, professionals and physical persons even, and its main requirement is that, at least, partners are coming from two States members of the U.E. This tool can be easily employed in the participation to tenders.
Significant Changes to Several Requirements on Registration of Foreign Invested Enterprises in China
July 18, 2014 By UB & Co. Attorneys and Counselors
On June 17, 2014, the Ministry of Commerce of China issued a notice regarding the improvement of review & approval and statistical rules of foreign investment in China (the “Notice”) and the Notice shall take effect as of its promulgation date. The Notice revised several important issues regarding the review and approval of registration of foreign-invested enterprises (the “FIE”) in China.
July 17, 2014 By CSB Advocates
When the AIFMD was adopted, no harmonised definition of “closed-ended” Alternative Investment Funds (“AIFs”) was provided within the Directive’s text.
July 17, 2014 By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Mixed signals are recently coming from the Turkish Banking sector. The industry, on the one hand, has recently seen an unprecedented levels of volume which is estimated to be USD$ 855 billion to dwarf the economic might of 22 of the 28 EU member states and on the other hand has been witnessing a reduction in the credit volume that went down to 1.130 trillion Turkish liras as of the July 2014.
July 16, 2014 By Leks&Co
Profit utilization of limited liability company is regulated under Article 70-73 Law Number 40 of 2007 on Limited Liability Company (“Company Law”).
July 15, 2014 By Cobb Law Group
A grading subcontractor was not paid for putting in the roads in a new subdivision; after the construction lender foreclosed upon the project developer, the subcontractor sought payment from the bank. After the trial court awarded the subcontractor its full claim plus attorneys fees, the Georgia Court of Appeals reversed. Some very important lessons for subcontractors and lien claimants are made clear in the ruling.
July 15, 2014 By CSB Advocates
Following the signature of the intergovernmental agreement (“IGA”) between Malta and the US on the 16th December, 2013 whereby the latter agreed to implement Foreign Account Tax Compliance provisions (commonly known as FATCA) in Malta, the Inland Revenue Department (“IRD”) has issued draft FATCA Regulations and Guidelines implementing the said intergovernmental agreement.
July 15, 2014 By CSB Advocates
The European Banking Authority (EBA) published on the 4th of July 2014 an Opinion addressed to the EU Council, European Commission and European Parliament setting out the requirements that would be needed to regulate ‘virtual currencies'.
July 11, 2014 By MMLC Group
On May 12, State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) issued Regulations on Cross-Border Security as well as its Implementation Guidelines (the “Regulations”). The Regulations has become effective on June 1.
July 10, 2014 By Brown, PC
In 2008, when it was revealed that wealthy individuals around the world were utilizing accounts and trusts in Liechtenstein to evade taxes, the United States initiated a coordinated effort with foreign governments to combat tax evasion through the use of offshore trusts and accounts. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) has since launched criminal investigations of several foreign banks, many of which are ongoing.
July 7, 2014 By Heygood Orr & Pearson
A Texas judge has rejected a motion by Life Partners Holdings, Inc. to toss a class action lawsuit filed by investors who allege they were misled by the life settlements company. Three Life Partners executives were also named in the lawsuit, which alleges that the company fraudulently misrepresented the nature of life settlements that were sold to investors, making them appear more valuable than they actually were.
July 7, 2014 By CSB Advocates
On Friday the 4th of July the European Banking Authority (EBA) published an opinion addressed to the EU Council, European Commission and European Parliament outlining its view on how ‘virtual currencies' should be regulated.
July 6, 2014 By CSB Advocates
The UCITS V Directive shall shortly be published in the Official Journal of the European Union later on this year.
June 23, 2014 By Reckmeyer Law, LLC
Congratulations on making the decision to plan for your retirement accounts through a trust or trusteed IRA. You’ve selected a cost-effective, responsible plan for your future. Now the question is, “What do I do in this plan?”
June 23, 2014 By Brown, PC
U.S. taxpayers hiding assets abroad should take note of the Internal Revenue Service’s plan to sharply increase penalties for such acts, while those who unintentionally fail to disclose offshore accounts will experience much more leniency.
A million dollar retirement account sounds like a significant sum. If something tragic were to happen, a retirement account of this size would seem to financially care for it’s beneficiaries for a long time. However, studies have shown that a typical inheritance is spent within 17 months.
Licence and Registration, Please! – New Licensing and Registration Regime for Directors of Cayman Companies
On 4th June 2014, the Directors Registration and Licensing Law, 2014 (the “Law”) came into force in the Cayman Islands. The Law requires all directors (wherever they reside in the world) of “Covered Entities” to register with the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (“CIMA”). The Law has also introduced a licensing regime for “Professional Directors” and “Corporate Directors”.
More and more couples are racking up excessive amounts of debt. To make matters worse, some debt, especially credit card debt, is hidden from the other spouse. Some blame this phenomenon on the fact that more marriages consist of two-income couples. Each spouse may find it difficult to relinquish control of his or her own money. But when divorce is on the horizon, how is this debt ultimately divided?
Spurred by various enquiries on the matter, the MFSA has last week launched the Investment Services Rules for Loan Funds (the “Rules”) which provide for the licensing and regulation of collective investment schemes investing through loans (“Loan Funds”). This paper will analyse the Rules and how these fit into the current Maltese fund legislation.
Moneyval's Statement Calling for Enhanced Due Diligence Measures for Bosnia and Herzegovina Transactions
On 1st June 2014, the Council of Europe Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism (MONEYVAL) issued a public statement about the persistence of deficiencies in the anti-money laundering and counter financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regime in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
According to a bill presented during the Ministers’ Council of August 8th, 2013, the Republic of Congo just promulgated Law No. 1-2014 of January 6th, 2014 on the establishment of a Congolese investment fund.
The main objects of the Bill are to propose amendments to the Development Bank of Southern Africa Act, 1997 (Act No 13 of 1997 - "the Act")
A growing number of people are divorcing late in life. No matter what the reason it is imperative to protect your financial security throughout and after the divorce process. You have accumulated a lot of things during the marriage—now is the time to retain as many as possible. There are savings and investment accounts, real estate and other personal and in some cases business assets to consider. An estate plan must be updated, health and other insurance replaced and the list goes on.
The economic relations between European Union and the United States have been far from smooth. Even during the Cold War, when the two economic powers were supposed to be on the same side of the Cold War divide, rows occurred that led to a serious political tensions.
Extra! Extra! Read All About It! IRS Commissioner Announces That Changes Are In the Offing For OVDP 2012
On June 3, 2014 the new IRS Commissioner, John A. Koskinen, gave a speech before the International Business - OECD International Tax Conference. His speech covered the history of the offshore enforcement initiative since the UBS debacle in 2009. His remarks acknowledge what most professionals in the tax community have recognized since the inception: that OVDP needs more tweaking in order to meet the overall goals of enforcement and fairness.
By CTM Avvocati
Limited Liability Company is one of the simplest companies to use in the Italian market with limited costs and -of course- limited liability. This article features the main steps and information you will need to incorporate it.
In a case that has raised eyebrows in the tax community, a jury in the Southern District of Florida has sustained the IRS’s assessment of multiple willful FBAR penalties against an American business man and bank director.
Long gone are the days the American economy by itself producing almost the 50% of the total world economic output immediately following the Second World War. Gone, together with the predominance in the global economic output is the cheap energy prices that sustained the American economy and its new role back in the post war world as the workshop of the world following the British political and economic decline.
What is an installment agreement? An installment agreement is an option for those who cannot pay their entire tax bills by the due date. It allows taxpayers to pay the amount due over a period of time
In case you have a secret account in Switzerland with a Swiss bank, if you are a US person, if you have received a letter from a Swiss bank demanding to waive your rights to have bank secrecy, is a good idea if you start to act proactively. You can qualify for the OVDP or you file a late FBAR. It is worth to analyse this complex topic on a case-by-case basis.
With FATCA set to take effect on July 1, financial institutions around the world have been lobbying to delay implementation of the law, citing concerns about costs and potential disruptions to global markets.
Since the IRS announced the 2009 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) over five years ago, our firm has been assisting taxpayers submit accurate and complete disclosures in accordance with the program guidelines and procedures. The evolution of the OVDP through the 2011 and 2012 programs has brought a longer look-back period, steeper penalties, and more insight into IRS positions and procedures at different points in the program.
The liability of financial supervisory authorities and deposit-guarantee schemes. However, it has proved not to be sufficient: bank failures still do happen, causing serious negative consequences not only on depositors’ personal level – they become unable to recover their savings – but also on a general level, since the solidity of the financial sector will appear undermined. With a view to limit such risks, deposit-guarantee schemes have been created and are being constantly improved.
FBAR and FATCA are two important abbreviations for those who have overseas financial interests. Failure to file the FBAR report, in view of the IRS’s continuing application of FATCA, can get you into what old military veterans used to call FUBAR.
Pilot Programme for Mutual Connection of Transactions in Shanghai and Hong Kong Stock Markets Approved
The China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) and the Securities and Futures Commission (“SFC”) have approved, in principle, the development of a pilot programme for establishing mutual stock market access between Mainland China and Hong Kong in order to promote the common development of the capital market.
ESMA, the European Securities and Markets Authority issued consultation documents for the implementation of the revised Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II) and Regulation (MiFIR) on 22nd May 2014.
The payment of the cheque (check in American English) should not be conditional. Whereas, if the payment of the cheque was related to some conditions, and those conditions were not fulfilled, the cheque will still remain due on its date
Cheque (Check in American English) is a replacement for money. It is one of the most common methods to execute payments especially in commercial transactions. Since a cheque is meant to replace money, people must have trust in it. Therefore the UAE penal law levied a punishment against anyone issuing insufficient funds its due date. Such a crime is known as the bounce cheque crime.
Tax cases are document-intensive cases. As any white-collar criminal defense attorney knows all too well, summonses and grand jury subpoenas routinely seek documents. And there is a good reason why. If the government cannot get the requested documents, it often cannot make a case. It is for this reason that the seminal issue in document production cases is whether the taxpayer has a Fifth Amendment privilege with respect to documents that he possesses.
Below are the rules governing taxation of foreign nationals.
The last decade in Turkey has seen an immense macro-economic growth that spilled over to various different branches of the national economy. The banking sector has been one of the leading industries to benefit from this growth. What accounted for such growth was in part domestic and in part international.
The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Law, 2014 (the “Law”) has now been passed into law in the Cayman Islands and is expected to enter into force shortly. The Law will grant to one or more persons who are not parties to a contract (each a “Third Party”) the ability to enforce rights and benefits expressly granted to the Third Party in the contract.
Be absolutely free from the driving rules - is the most popular "law" in the Egypt for car holders. There are probably only women drive carefully but that fact doesn't decrease the count of accidents with people on the streets. Car accident may happen with anyone in any country. Here an a real example of financial fraud according to the car troubles.
United States v. Tweel is the most famous example of a motion to suppress in a tax case. In Tweel, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held that it constitutes trickery, fraud, and deceit for the IRS to conduct a criminal investigation under the guise of a civil examination. Because of how fact-sensitive the holding of this case is, a recitation of the facts is necessary.
Malta Individual Investor Program – Facilitating Citizenship Through Investment in the Republic of Malta
The Republic of Malta allows investors to apply for citizenship, with all of its advantages. Acquiring Maltese citizenship also confers the benefits of European Union citizenship, since Malta has been a member of the European Union since 2004. Maltese citizenship also provides a visa exemption to more than 160 countries around the world, including the U.S.A.
A financial advisor was recently arrested at a seminar in Los Angeles on financial elder abuse charges.
Law That May Reduce Tax Evasion Goes Into Effect On July 1 The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) became law in the United States in 2010, but the clock is still ticking on its implementation. The clock will stop ticking on July 1, 2014.
According to the New Regulation on Undertaking of Liabilities by the Undersecretariat of Treasury ("Regulation"), which has entered into force on 19.04.2014, the Treasury may provide guaranty for public private partnership ("PPP") projects over the limits that have been determined by the Regulation.
The general legal principles regarding corporate personality under the law of the Cayman Islands are similar to those under English law.
Of the professionals that you can turn to for help with IRS problems, tax attorneys can most effectively help you sort through legal issues. Hiring such an expert is the most efficient way of getting on the right track. Here are seven reasons that make them valuable and indispensable.
Contrary to popular belief, the IRS doesn’t want to throw you in jail. Criminal investigations consume a lot of resources, take time, and are expensive. For most taxpayers, a criminal investigation isn’t a first step, but rather the last step in a lengthy process to get you to resolve your tax debt. In other words, it’s rare that an agent will show up on your doorstep one day with cuffs in hand.
The PFIC regime was not introduced until 1986. Prior to 1986, U.S. taxation of foreign corporations was strictly tied to control of the corporation held by U.S. persons. This allowed not only the foreign mutual fund to avoid U.S. taxation, but also U.S. persons who invested in the fund. How so?
On the 23rd of April 2014, the European Parliament adopted updated rules for MiFID II. The Directive and the Regulation are expected to enter into force in June 2014.
On the 25 February 2014 an agreement was reached for the amendment of the UCITS Directive (2009/65/EC). UCITS V has been designed to enhance investor confidence and protection by introducing additional safeguards:
Subject to certain conditions, a sub-fund of a PIF or of an AIF which is constituted as a SICAV is allowed to invest up to 50% of its assets into another sub-fund or sub-funds within the same umbrella scheme.
The Malta Individual Investor Programme (IIP) is to allow for the grant of citizenship by a certificate of naturalization to foreign individuals and their families who contribute to the economic development of Malta.
On the 24th December 2013, Chapter 529 of the Laws of Malta was promulgated, comprising the new Company Service Providers Act. This Act aims to regulate corporate services providers with a view to strengthen the industry’s arsenal against abuse of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering and terrorist financing.
It should come as no surprise that the IRS has authority to assess FBAR civil penalties. However, what might come as a surprise is that an FBAR violation doesn’t automatically mean that a penalty will be asserted. Why not?
United States citizens, residents and other persons must annually report their direct or indirect financial interest in, or signature authority over, a financial account that is maintained with a financial institution located in a foreign country if, for any calendar year, the aggregate value of all foreign accounts exceeded $ 10,000 at any time during the year.
Islamic finance has been gaining ground in global markets as well as in Turkey throughout the recent years. In this regard what is especially important for the business world is the transformation of Islamic finance from simple financial tools to highly specialized tools for project finance.
Law enforcement and financial regulators everywhere are on the lookout for money laundering. Big corporations and financial institutions hire compliance experts, and those experts cooperate fully rather than face huge fines and penalties.
Sometimes the problem with “food for thought” is that it can almost choke you with its stark simplicity. Take our tax system, for example. The federal government prints our money, regulates the places where we keep it and has vast powers to take it away from us if we don’t give them their cut.
The rising stock market has also broadened the appeal of certain investments such as variable universal life and indexed universal life insurance policies that are linked to stock performance.
A Los Angeles area insurance agent accused of defrauding senior citizens will spend five years in jail and was ordered by the court to pay $1.2 million to compensate his victims.
The most common white-collar offenses run the gamut of nonviolent crimes from antitrust violations to money laundering. The FBI estimates that white-collar crime costs the United States more than $300 billion annually. These estimates do not take into account cases where aggressive and ambitious prosecutors snare an unwary person, who eventually pleads guilty in the face of intimidation and threats. Then there is the plethora of regulations where ignorant noncompliance is, nevertheless, a crime.
In 2010 President Obama signed P.L. 111-147, the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act. The purpose of the law is in its eponymous title, but the IRS got into the act with the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) provisions.
Ordinarily, the United States taxes U.S. citizens and resident aliens on their worldwide income, even when they live and work abroad for an extended period of time. To provide some relief, a U.S. citizen or resident who meets certain requirements can elect to exclude from U.S. taxation a limited amount of foreign earned income plus a housing cost amount. A double tax benefit is not allowed, however, and a taxpayer cannot claim a credit for foreign income taxes related to excluded income.
The 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was enacted to assist the government with discovering financial fraud. A recent SEC whistleblower received a $14 million dollar reward for reporting a real estate scam.
Bid rigging is mostly a current issue at public institutions however it has become widely encountered at public sector as well ant it surely causes serious financial damage.
The one of the most significant principle in an M&A transaction is “the principle of maintenance of partnership structure” (or the maintenance principle) under Turkish Commercial Code.
It is convenient neither for the consumers nor for the producers to get accustomed to a global financial market which is marked by liquidity shortages after a decade of growing global money supply to be present virtually in every part of the globe.
Transfer agents play a key role in the going public process. Transfer agents are the record keeper for a company’s securities when it goes public. Share ownership is reflected on the issuer’s shareholder list. In addition, transfer agents issue and cancel certificates to reflect changes in the ownership of securities and act as an intermediary for the company and its stockholders during the going public process.
Regulation D under the Securities Act of 1933,as amended (the “Securities Act”), sets forth a safe harbor from the registration statement requirements of the Securities Act for certain private placements of securities. In connection with these exemptions, offerings made in reliance upon Regulation D, Rule 504, 505 and 506 can be made to up to 35 non-accredited investors and an unlimited number of “accredited” investors.
Rule 144 (“SEC Rule 144”) under the Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”) provides a safe harbor from the registration provisions of the Securities Act for resales of restricted and control securities by persons other than the issuer if all conditions of the rule are complied with.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), Division of Corporate Finance frequently notes disclosure deficiencies in the disclosure of reverse merger transactions in on 8-K Filed. This post summarizes SEC staff comments in response to reports on Form 8-K reporting of reverse mergers with public shell companies or similar transactions that result in a public company no longer being designated as a shell company.
Typically, foreign companies seeking to raise capital attempt to obtain public company status. Foreign companies that go public in the U.S. may complete a public offering by registering securities with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) or by registering a class of securities under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”).
The OTCMarkets OTCQX offers foreign issuers seeking to go public in the U.S. an appealing alternative to listing on a stock exchange. Foreign issuers whose securities are listed on a foreign stock exchange that qualify for the exemption from the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”),
A private placement memorandum (“PPM”) is also referred to as a confidential offering circular or memorandum. PPM’s are typcially prepared by securities lawyers who assist private companies with their going public transactions. PPM’s are used to raise capital by selling either debt or equity in an exempt offering that has not been registered with the SEC. These exempt offerings are often called private placements.
Addressing the most common questions we receive about going public using Form S-1 and the SEC registration statement process.
Shareholders and management of private companies are often unaware of their reporting obligations upon completion of a going public transaction. Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) requires the reporting of beneficial ownership by the officers, directors and stockholders who hold stock directly or indirectly, beneficially owning more than 10% of the company’s common stock or other class of equity securities registered under Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act.
On July 10, 2013, the SEC adopted final rules as required by Title II of the JOBS Act, which directed the SEC to eliminate the ban on general solicitation and advertising for certain offerings conducted under Rule 506 of Regulation D, of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) provided the securities are sold only to accredited investors.
The suspension of erstwhile Governor of Central Bank of Nigeria, Sanusi Lamido Sanusi by President Goodluck Jonathan has generated a lot of heated legal debate on the legality or illegality of the suspension.
Recently one of the world renowned leading credit rating institutions has stated that Turkish banking industry has the necessary liquidity capacity to pay back the short term debts.
Cyprus continues to implement a series of temporary capital restrictions measures, with the aim to support the banking sector and safeguard the stability of the Cypriot banking system. The temporary Cyprus restrictive measures were implemented through decrees issued by the Minister of Finance pursuant to the provisions of the Restrictive Measures on Transactions in case of Emergency Law of 2013.
Turkey has been incrementally applying for new implementations on the grounds of mitigate the current account deficit. New Individual Retirement System is one of the most efficient way for this new austerity plan.
Despite a slowdown in 2013 with 13% decline by sukuk volume, it is most likely to witness a distinct expand in next year since it will lie beyond Gulf region.
A whistleblower will receive $63.9 million for providing information to the government that lead to a recovery.
BEPS ( "Base Erosion and Profit Shifting") is a tax strategy which is driven by asymmetries and mismatches amongst different jurisdictions in terms of tax issues.
By LPA Law Firm
According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared to international standards, the implementation of AML being a strong pillar and institutional frameworks and policy pillars were weak.