Business and Industry Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Business and Industry.

Common Contract Clauses

  January 21, 2015     By Alimohammad & Zafar, PLLC
This article intends to highlight and decipher some of the most common clauses that appear in a typical business contract. These basic provisions, called boilerplates, are included in agreements to protect the contracting parties. They typically follow a standard format and they are worded carefully in order to hold up in a court of law. Even though most contracts include these boilerplates, many people do not read nor understand what they are signing.

Less Talk, Less Liability

  January 20, 2015     By Matt Dickstein, Business Attorney
Don’t say it if you don’t have to, and never in writing.

Who Owns the Patient’s Medical Records in CA?

  January 20, 2015     By Matt Dickstein, Business Attorney
Who gets the patient medical records after a physician leaves a group medical practice? Here's a proposed structure that is fair and resolves the problem up-front for all sides.

Independent Bank Guarantee in Italy

  January 19, 2015     By Princivalle Apruzzi Danielli - Studio Legale
Business clients dealing with international trade frequently asked us whether an independent bank guarantee issued under the URDG 758 (the ICC Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees 2010) is valid, binding and enforceable under the Italian law or not and, if not, whether and how it can be amended in order to ensure it is valid, binding and enforceable as an independent bank guarantee under the Italian law.

Spain's 3rd of December 31/2014 Bill has Reformed Capital Companies Law

  January 19, 2015     By Abad & Asociados Abogados Y Economistas, S.R.L.
This reform is of crucial importance since it makes numerous amendments to the listed company’s regime.

Civil and Commercial Court Rulings Will Have Effectiveness in All the EU

  January 19, 2015     By Abad & Asociados Abogados Y Economistas, S.R.L.
Savings of up to €48 million thanks to new rules for cross-border judgments.

Turkey: Mergers and Acquisitions Deals in 2014, Expectations for 2015

  January 18, 2015     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey, as an emerging market, has its ups and downs to invest from time to time. These times depend on several different factors, but tracing them has crucial importance for investors. Focusing into Mergers & Acquisitions deals can be inspiring when taking decisions for investments.

Procedures of Land Acquisition in the Framework of Investment – Land Acquisition Deriving in Indonesia

  January 12, 2015     By Leks&Co
Land Acquisition in the framework of investment is particularly regulated by Decree of State Minister for Agrarian Affairs/ Head of the National Land Agency Number 21 of 1994 on Procedures of Land Acquisition for Company in the Framework of Investment (“Kepmenag No.21/1994”).

How Are Private Investigators Paid?

  January 11, 2015     By
Like lawyers, private investigators may charge in a variety of ways. In order to have a clear understanding, ask for a written explanation of fees.

Executing Foreign Judgments: Enforcing Law Across Borders

  January 8, 2015     By GRP Rainer LLP
The jurisdiction of courts ends at state borders. This makes it difficult to enforce claims against foreign debtors. Notwithstanding this, creditors can be helped to ensure that justice is done to them.

The Gateway to Europe

  January 7, 2015     By Heskia-Hacmun Law Firm
Despite the fact that the German market is considered to be the third biggest economy in the world, with an annual turnover of (if you mention turnover an exact figure is expected) Billions of Euros, Israeli business presence in Germany is still relatively poor. How should business be done in Germany? Which Israeli businesses succeed in Germany and in interacting with Germans, and how can the Israeli “Chuzpa” be more helpful? These are things one ought to consider.

Conducting A Case: Legal Disputes not Decided in Court

  January 7, 2015     By GRP Rainer LLP
Legal proceedings are not decided in court; rather, it is comprehensive and detailed preparation that is decisive for the successful conduct of a case.

Inherited IRAs and Creditor Protection

  January 6, 2015     By Robison, Curphey & O'Connell, LLC
Your IRA is protected from creditors if you have to file bankruptcy, but what happens to that IRA if you die and leave it to a child? Many assumed that the inherited IRA retained that creditor protection in a child’s bankruptcy. The United States Supreme Court ruled otherwise in Clark v. Rameker, 134 S. Ct. 2242 (2014).

Tax Evasion in Germany: Voluntary Disclosure Only Effective If All Requirements Are Satisfied

  January 6, 2015     By GRP Rainer LLP
The rules pertaining to voluntary disclosure in the event of tax evasion are set to be tightened from 2015, but even now a voluntary declaration has to be able to satisfy certain conditions for it to be effective.

Hong Kong’s Draft Competition Law Guidelines

  January 6, 2015     By Angela Wang & Co.
As part of the implementation of the Competition Ordinance (Cap 619), the Hong Kong Competition Commission (“Commission”) is required to issue guidelines on how it expects to interpret and enforce the Ordinance (Section 35). For that reason, the Commission together with the Communications Authority on 9 October 2014 jointly published 6 draft guidelines (“Guidelines”) for public consultation.

Who Bears Risk of Non-Payment Between General and Sub-Contractor in Ohio?

  January 5, 2015     By Robison, Curphey & O'Connell, LLC
A recent decision by the Supreme Court of Ohio highlights the importance of having clear terms in contracts between general contractors and subcontractors, especially in regard to payment provisions.

It's OK, I've Got it in Writing - Michigan's Uncertain Treatment of Dual Source Supply Contracts

  January 5, 2015     By Robison, Curphey & O'Connell, LLC
Parties to a contract usually feel a sense of security knowing that their agreement is embodied in a written, properly executed document containing all of the agreed upon terms. However, if such an agreement is a “dual source” supply contract executed under Michigan law, the parties may not be as secure as they believe.

Piercing the Corporate Veil

  January 5, 2015     By Robison, Curphey & O'Connell, LLC
Just how limited is your liability if you own a limited liability company?

Tax Evasion in Germany: Take Every Precaution Regarding Voluntary Disclosure

  January 5, 2015     By GRP Rainer LLP
Voluntary disclosure can spell a return to a state of legal tax affairs for tax evaders. However, despite growing pressure, voluntary declarations should be thoroughly considered and well prepared.

Quality in Consulting : How Hard is it in Application

  December 31, 2014     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
TQM is commonly known for the principles of continuous improvement, awareness of total cost of quality, recognition that everyone holds responsibility for quality, customer orientation/focus, process orientation, commitment of senior management etc. However, quality has been commonly associated with industries where it originated and not with services which are difficult to measure, evaluate and apply a zero-defect concept to.

Tax Dispute in Germany: Ways of Putting Up a Fight Against the Tax Authorities

  December 31, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Legal action can be taken even against the assessment notice of a tax office. Those who get involved in a tax dispute normally require plenty of stamina and competent legal representation.

G20 Declares War on Tax Evasion - Submit Voluntary Declaration on Time

  December 30, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
The finance ministers of the G20 are continuing to expedite the fight against tax evasion. Account data is rapidly set to be automatically exchanged among them.

Growth Through Corporate Mergers and Acquisitions in Germany

  December 29, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
In order to assert oneself in an increasingly global market, many firms are making growth their priority. Yet there are many legal aspects that need to be observed in cases involving takeovers, acquisitions or mergers.

German Leasing Law: The Devil is in the Detail

  December 24, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Thanks to relatively favourable conditions for the financing or use of property, leasing enjoys great popularity. The lease agreement regulates the corresponding rights and obligations.

International Procedural Law: Correctly Enforce Justified Claims

  December 23, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
The receipt and service of papers play a vital role in international procedural law, e.g. they set in motion important time-limits.

Trademark Law: BGH on the Protection of a Colour Trademark

  December 22, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
The German Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof (BGH)) reached a decision on September 18 in a trademark lawsuit and prohibited the defendant from using a registered colour trademark (Az.: I ZR 228/12).

Twentynine Palms Marine Accidents and Fatalities on CA Hwy 62, The Killer Highway - A Personal Injury Tragedy

  December 20, 2014     By The Law Offices of R. Sebastian Gibson
At least 182 people have died on CA Hwy 62 since 2002. More than 90 lives have been lost since 2007. The risks of dying on Hwy 62 make this highway a dangerous road to travel and the stretch of Hwy 62 from 29 Palms to Palm Springs one of the most dangerous stretches of highway in California. Marines from the Twentynine Palms Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center and personal injury attorneys who represent grieving families know all too well what is known as “The Killer Highway.”

Company Formation in Dubai and UAE

  December 20, 2014     By STA Law Firm
Setting up a business in a new jurisdiction often calls for deciding on legal structure of entity to be incorporated. Investors may consider setting up a sole proprietorship, a limited liability partnership, joint-venture from of business or operate as co-operative society. There is no yardstick in choosing the entity type - a lot depends on careful planning, understanding governance norms, exit strategy & more. The best choice isn't always obvious or readily available.

Doing Business in Cuba After Obama Restores Relations And Lifts Restrictions

  December 19, 2014     By The Law Offices of R. Sebastian Gibson
In January 2015 the Treasury Dept. is expected to issue regulations to establish banking relations and allow U.S. companies to export items for sale in Cuba without the trade barriers that have existed for decades. While some Republican leaders have criticized Obama’s actions, normal relations with Cuba are only a matter of time and the opportunities for attorneys representing American and European companies wishing to pursue commercial opportunities in Cuba have never been greater.

Tax Evasion: Voluntary Disclosure Relieves Pressure on Tax Evaders

  December 19, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Untaxed illicit earnings in foreign clandestine accounts are preying on the minds of more and more tax evaders. A voluntary declaration can ensure they sleep easy again.

Optimise Corporation Tax

  December 18, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Corporation tax is a type of income tax for legal persons, e.g. corporations. It is for this reason that some of the rules of income tax are applied to its taxation.

Can a Minor Enter into a Contract?

  December 17, 2014     By
Yes, a minor can legally enter into a contract. However, whether the contract is enforceable will depend on a number of factors.

Tax Evasion: Small Mistakes in Voluntary Declaration Can Have Serious Repercussions

  December 17, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Voluntary declarations leading to immunity serve as an incentive to return to a state of legal tax affairs, yet they will only succeed if they are error-free.

Criminal Tax Law: High Penalties For Tax Evasion in Germany

  December 16, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
German tax law is complex and constantly changing. It is therefore easy to unwittingly render oneself guilty of tax evasion. The consequences can be drastic penalties.

What Is Anticipatory Repudiation?

  December 15, 2014     By
When a person indicates that he or she is not planning to perform his or her obligations under the contract, this is considered anticipatory repudiation. The party who was not planning to breach the contract can use anticipatory repudiation in order to seek remedies against the other party.

Tax Evasion: Tightening Up Of Voluntary Declarations Has Cash Tills Ringing

  December 15, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
The planned tightening up of voluntary declarations supposedly has cash registers ringing. Die Welt reports that this will apparently entail additional revenues of around 15 million euros a year.

Mandatory Biometric Registration in Russia?

  December 15, 2014     By Levine Bridge Law Firm
The State Duma was sent a draft law on mandatory biometric registration of citizens of Russia. According to the authors of the draft law, mandatory biometric registration will allow getting away from the practice of presenting identity documents and will allow solving problems in the law and in the social sphere in time.

Gift Tax in Germany: Make Use of Room for Manoeuvre

  December 12, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
The state looks to profit even from gifts, levying gift tax as soon as the tax allowance is exceeded. There are, however, different possible arrangements in connection with gift tax.

Inherited Illegal Earnings – Voluntary Disclosure Can Help

  December 11, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Heirs must file an inheritance tax declaration with the tax authorities. If the estate includes illicit earnings, these must be reported immediately.

Notice Period of Resignation for Directors in Malaysia

  December 10, 2014     By JK LIM Advocates & Solicitors
There is always the beginning and the end. Upon being appointed as directors, many of these directors may not be aware of the requisite notice period of resignation from their high office.

Voluntary Declaration: Hessen Not Ruling Out Further Purchase of CDs on Tax Evaders

  December 10, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
The pressure on tax evaders continues to rise. Since North Rhine-Westphalia announced an additional purchase of CDs on tax evaders, Hessen is now also not ruling out this option.

Three Things You Need to Know About Business Formation in Thailand

  December 9, 2014     By Thai International Law Firm Co., Ltd.
In Thailand, business formation in Thailand is very expensive in order to comply with the rules and regulations set forth by the government. Many might have expected that it is going to be cheap, but it is more of a hassle than one could anticipate.

International Tax Law: Avoiding Double Taxation

  December 9, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Due to the advancing pace of globalisation, international tax law is becoming increasingly more important. This affects private individuals, but especially internationally operating businesses.

Contracting the Petroleum Operations Under Turkish Petroleum Law

  December 8, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
As exception to liberty of contracting and unlike a number of other industries, Turkey's petroleum industry imposes certain obligations to petroleum right owners in contracting the conduct of the petroleum operations. At the first glance this seems that it aims to strengthen the management of hazards by enhancing the safety however the liability imposed to petroleum right owners in case of contracting the operations still remains unclear in terms of limitation.

Tax Law: Key To A Closed Book

  December 8, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
For many people, tax law is a closed book. Expert help is frequently necessary in order to pay taxes correctly and at the same time avoid giving away too much money.

Company Formation in Russia

  December 7, 2014     By Egorov, Mazavina, Petrov And Partners
A brief description of corporate vehicles commonly used for doing business in Russia.

Planned Obsolescence - Shouldn't Be an Offense Punishable like Any Deception

  December 7, 2014     By
Planned obsolescence occurs when a product designer creates a design that is meant to phase out after a certain period of time. This makes the product have a lifespan of a limited duration, often influencing consumers to upgrade to a more expensive model. Many times, the product fizzles out just after the warranty period.

Which Business Entity is Right for You?

  December 5, 2014     By Alimohammad & Zafar, PLLC
There are many different types of business entities, each having their own advantages and disadvantages. This article intends to define and explain some of the most common entities. Since people have different goals and circumstances, it is important for one to know which option is the best fit for his or her business.

Things to Consider When Buying a Franchise

  December 5, 2014     By Alimohammad & Zafar, PLLC
Buying a franchise can be an immensely profitable business opportunity. You can sell goods and services that have instant name recognition, and get training and support that can help you succeed. However, buying a franchise is no guarantee of success. Here is some useful information about franchises to consider before you decide to purchase one.

Germany Tax Evasion: Only Those Who Take Notice of the Details Pertaining to Voluntary Declarations Emerge Unpunished

  December 5, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
It is a misapprehension to believe that a voluntary declaration automatically leads to immunity following tax evasion. Strict rules apply for voluntary disclosure.

Tax Evasion: Federal Government Passes Stricter Rules For Voluntary Disclosure in Germany

  December 4, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
On September 24, the federal government adopted a tightening of the rules for voluntary disclosure in the event of tax evasion. Amounts shall only remain unpunished up to 25,000 EUR.

Risk Of Discovery Continues To Increase – Return To A State Of Legal Tax Affairs Via Voluntary Declaration

  December 3, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Owing to so-called group enquiries, German tax investigators are able to retroactively search for tax evaders in Switzerland up to February 1, 2013.

Public Chamber of the Russian Federation Regarding "On Migration Control"

  December 3, 2014     By Levine Bridge Law Firm
Public Chamber of the Russian Federation held a hearing to discuss issues on improving legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of migration control. Part of the hearing dealt with the basic provisions of the second version of the bill "On Immigration Control of the Russian Federation".

As of January 1, 2015, Foreign Citizens Will Not Be Required to Obtain Work Permits in Russia

  December 3, 2014     By Levine Bridge Law Firm
On November 24, the President of the Russian Federation signed the Federal Law eliminating the need for foreign citizens obtaining a work permit in the Russian Federation who arrived via a visa-free regime. From January 1 2015 for the implementation of the work in Russia CIS citizens have to be issued a patent. The patent will allow the specified foreign citizens to work as for legal entities and for physical persons.

Save on Inheritance Tax Through Tax Optimisation

  December 2, 2014     By GRP Rainer LLP
Anyone coming into an inheritance generally has to pay inheritance tax. However, by observing certain regulations, they can ensure that the tax authorities take a smaller share.

Anti-Trust snd Strategic Approval Requirements for Investments in Russia

  December 1, 2014     By Egorov, Mazavina, Petrov And Partners
Like other jurisdictions, Russia has a set of requirements which may impact upon persons considering investing or investing into Russian businesses.

Overseas Service Businesses Under the Thai Foreign Business Act

  November 27, 2014     By Siam Legal International
The Foreign Business Act of 1999 generally restricts service businesses under Category (21) of List Three, with certain explicit exemptions such as hotel management services under Category (17). Furthermore, the Ministerial Regulation Re: List of Service Businesses Exempt from Requiring a Foreign Business License of B.E. 2556 (2013) also exempts certain businesses related to securities and investment from requiring a Foreign Business License.

Opening and Closing Branches and Representative Offices of Non-Russian Companies in Russia

  November 27, 2014     By Egorov, Mazavina, Petrov And Partners
Effective January 1, 2015, a new regulation on opening and closing branches and representative offices of non-Russian companies shall come into force in Russia.

Court of Appeals of Georgia Confirms the Importance of a Well-Drafted Contract

  November 26, 2014     By Cobb Law Group
In large construction projects, it is not unusual to have a joint venture between parties; when these joint venture agreements are terminated, however, the specific terms must be scrutinized. A recent Georgia Court of Appeals case discusses some important issues such as fiduciary responsibility, contract ambiguity, and indeminification.

If Your Debtor is a Resident of the Ukraine

  November 24, 2014     By Kydalov & Partners
Debt collection is a complicated juridical procedure, especially if your debtor is in the other country. Along with the already familiar problems there are some additional aspects (like linguistic barrier, country’s specific legislation). It seems nearly impossible, but it can be solved easily. To solve the problem, a foreign businessman needs Ukrainian lawyers’ help.

Russian Antitrust Law: Prohibition of Monopolistic Behavior and Unfair Competition

  November 20, 2014     By Egorov, Mazavina, Petrov And Partners
The Russian Law "On the Protection of Competition" (the "Competition Law") came into effect on October 26, 2006.

Russian Antitrust Law: Important Considerations For Non-Russian Investors

  November 18, 2014     By Egorov, Mazavina, Petrov And Partners
To successfully structure a cross-border transaction, it is important to do a careful antimonopoly law analysis at an early stage.

Distribution Agreements In Russia

  November 17, 2014     By Egorov, Mazavina, Petrov And Partners
Distribution agreement is not a concept that is well-developed in Russia. There is not an established court guidance on most of the terms and conditions a reasonable non-Russian supplier seeks to include into the distribution agreement.

Patentability of Business Methods in Ukraine

  November 17, 2014     By IPStyle
In different countries Patentability of business methods has always been the subject of controversy. Ukraine is not exception of this rule.

Visa Appeal: An Important Part of Immigration in Bangladesh

  November 17, 2014     By Advocate Md Mahmudul Hasan and Associates
Immigration laws are very important factor for the developing countries who used to export manpower to developed countries. In the developed countries, the immigration practices are handled by skilled lawyers but unfortunately in Bangladesh it is mainly handled by brokers,agents, Travel Agencies and illiterate people. That is why the applicants are not getting proper legal advice and facing serious problems as well as harassment regarding Immigration matters.

An Introduction to Personal Guarantee in the UAE

  November 10, 2014     By Al Rowaad Advocates & Legal Consultancy
The economic boom in UAE has resulted in huge developments and a considerable increase in trade. This in turn has led to a rise in transactions which require a fast debt recovery mechanism.

Collecting A Judgment From an Employer in California

  November 9, 2014     By Evanns Collection Law Firm
A large part of our judgment collection law practice is collection of labor awards, or more specifically enforcement labor judgments. Essentially, these result when an employer fails to properly pay an employee for wages, overtime pay, or otherwise violates California labor laws.

Foreign Skilled Technicians and Experts Under the Board of Investment in Thailand

  November 7, 2014     By Siam Legal International
The Investment Promotion Act of B.E. 2520 (1977) allows three categories for foreigners to enter Thailand in addition to the standard immigration rules. Section 24 of the Act allows for foreigners to enter the country in order to survey investment opportunities. Section 25 allows foreigners who are skilled technicians or experts (and their dependents) to enter the country to work for a company that has been promoted by the Board of Investment (BOI).

Testing Foreign Citizens in the Russian Language, History and Basic Understanding of Russian Law

  November 5, 2014     By Levine Bridge Law Firm
Testing of foreign citizens in the Russian language, history and basic understanding of Russian law. In the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation the issue of control over the organization where foreign citizens are tested for knowledge of Russian language was discussed. This issue is particularly relevant in relation to foreign citizens who hold certification, but are not able to speak in Russian.

Georgia Court of Appeals Decides Against Material Supplier

  November 4, 2014     By Cobb Law Group
A recent decision by the Georgia Court of Appeals has given homeowners loop-hole against lien claims as the lien claimant's summary judgment against the homeowner was reversed.

An Introduction to Corporate Guarantee in the UAE

  November 2, 2014     By Al Rowaad Advocates & Legal Consultancy
Strong relationships with customers remain the key to successful contractual lending and borrowing arrangements in the UAE. However, lending on the strength of relationship (or name) alone is not economically viable or justified.

Work Permits for Foreign Shareholders and Managers in Turkey

  October 27, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Since last 10 years the financial developments and the promising financial and technological progresses notably in energy, tourism and infrastructure sectors have attracted the foreign investors' interest.

Divorce Can Derail A California Family Business

How a marital dissolution action can affect an family business in California.

Business Taxes, Payroll Taxes and Trust Fund Recovery Penalty

When the business faces a cash flow problem, many business owners use the payroll taxes collected but not yet turned over to the IRS.

Cyprus Nominee Shareholders - Valid Trusts Arrangements or a Mere Façade?

First to be explored is the legal nature of the so called “nominee shareholder”. Nominee shareholder is a shareholder of a company holding shares nominally only, that is, only in name. In such a way the identity of the ultimate beneficial owner (“UBO”) of the shares is not disclosed.

Voluntary Disclosure Leading To Immunity: Planned Tightening From January 1, 2015

The German government has approved a bill to tighten the rules for voluntary disclosure in the event of tax evasion. The law is expected to enter into force on January 1, 2015.

Collecting from an Out of Business Company or Employer

Collecting on a judgment even in ideal circumstances can often be a time-consuming and complex process, and that presumes the debtor is solvent, and doing business and/or making money. When the judgment enforcement against a debtor who is a company or legal entity, which appears to be (or is) out of business, the process can be considerably more troublesome and taxing.

Commercial Indemnity Provisions: The Devil’s in the Detail

The practical effect of indemnity provisions in commercial contracts is dependent upon the detail in their drafting, an important ruling has confirmed.

Joint Ventures – Protecting with Contract Terms

Joint ventures take many different forms but few have such an unusual background as a recent dispute involving what started as a simple agreement.

Association Law: Pay Attention to Fiscal and Legal Aspects When Establishing an Association

An association is frequently established as a way of pooling the strengths of individuals to form a strong special interest group. Legal and fiscal aspects must be observed when establishing an association.

Corprorate Spin Offs and Carve Out Transactions in Dubai and under UAE Law

All change is not growth, as all movement is not forward (Ellen Glasgow). The term ‘change’ in simplest form means going from one state to a new state. Although the word ‘change’ is broad enough to connote positive as well as negative change, the likelihood of ‘change’ unfolding positive or welcoming outcome cannot always be pre-determined. A well-conceived and planned change could however result in positive if everything related with the plan goes right.

Foundation Law: Constitutive Documents Regulate The Purpose Of The Foundation

Many foundations serve charitable purposes, but there are also those foundations that are run for private benefit, such as the family foundation. The latter can e.g. be used to avoid inheritance disputes.

Contract Law: Precisely Defining Rights and Obligations in a Contract

Breaches of the terms of a contract may entail legal consequences, such as e.g. damages claims. It is therefore all the more important to regulate rights and obligations in the contract in detail.

Business Ownership in the Family

Family owned businesses may thrive over multiple generations. To have lasting success, the family owned business needs to transition ownership from generation to generation. To preserve family harmony and maintain a healthy business, it may be best to transition ownership to family members that are active participants in the business, while allowing non-active family members an opportunity to “cash out” and direct their funds elsewhere as desired by their preferences.

Tax Evasion: Risk of Discovery Increases – Amended Tax Return as a Way Out

It is becoming increasingly difficult for tax evaders to remain undetected due to the automatic exchange of information between EU member states, particularly as Switzerland has signalled its willingness to cooperate.

Travel Operator Breaks Price Agreements with Agent

Partnerships between agents and principals in agency relationships don’t always go smoothly. In this case, a dispute arose between a travel agent and a travel operator related to ‘price manipulation’.

Amsterdam Shareholders’ Agreement Decisive in Conflict

In January 2014, the judge hearing the application for interim relief at the Amsterdam district court was required to pronounce on the continued operativeness on a company of a shareholders’ agreement. Company law specialist Hein Hoogendoorn explains the judgement by the judge hearing the application for interim relief on this question.

Higher Regional Court of Hamm on Misleading Dental Advertisement Online

The use of the slogan “the only complete programme throughout Germany” in an advertisement for a dental care programme is misleading in the opinion of the Higher Regional Court of Hamm.

Unpaid Income Tax Establishes Liability of the Managing Director of a German Limited Liability Company

In terms of the overall responsibility, a managing director is also liable for the income tax of employed workers that is not paid to the tax office.

Amended Tax Return: North Rhine-Westphalia Wants to Continue Purchasing CDs on Tax Evaders

North Rhine-Westphalia’s (NRW) Minister of Finance, Walter Borjans, announced in the Rheinischen Post Online that NRW will continue purchasing CDs with data on suspected tax evaders.

How to File a Mechanics and Materialmen's Lien in Georgia

Contractors and suppliers, whose labor, services, equipment or materials were used to improve real estate, may be entitled to file a claim of lien under the Georgia Mechanics and Materialman's Lien Statute if they are not paid. Navigating this law, however, can be difficult so we have put together this step-by-step guide to help you understand the complexities of Georgia's Lien Laws.

The New Angola: Legal Developments and Trends

  By FCB&A
Angola now offers much more than just a promising opportunity for foreign investors with its positive investment strategy, a thriving economy and a strong willingness to grow.

German Act Against Unfair Competition Protects The General Public

Consumers and suppliers ought to benefit in equal measure from fair competition. In the event of infringements of competition law, legal action can be taken.

The “Legality Rating” for Most Ethical Companies in Italy

A Legality Rating was established as an opportunity for: spreading the culture of legality, demonstrating your company’s ethical credentials, obtaining financing and verifying your organization and your suppliers.

EMRA Approval for Transfer of Shares in Electricity Generation Companies in Turkey

Company structuring in Turkey mainly focuses on two types; joint stock and limited liability companies. Alteration in partnership structure or share transfer of these kinds of companies shall be subject to commercial legislation.

Finding the Right Company Form when Establishing a Business in Germany

If someone wishes to establish a business, the right company form must be found. Different rights and obligations emerge depending on the chosen company form.

Security for Cost in Turkey

Security for costs is money that a plaintiff is ordered to provide to the court as a condition of continuing with a claim or execution proceeding, and which will be applied on any costs order that may be made against the plaintiff. It provides a safeguard to the defendant in financial terms so as to ensure that he is not unduly burdened by having to bear his own costs in defending claims by plaintiffs who may be unable or unwilling to pay costs to the defendant when ordered by the court.

Recognition of a Foreign Judgment and Public Policy Requirement

Do you have court order from court of your country that you wish to seek recognition of it in Turkey, but you are concerned that it might not be recognized, because it does not contain the grounds on which the decision is built? Well, here is a good news!

Commercial Agency Law: Rights and Obligations of Commercial Agents

For commercial agents, some rights and obligations are regulated separately in the German Commercial Code (Handelsgesetzbuch (HGB)). Special attention needs to be paid e.g. to claims for commission and compensation.

Tax Evasion: In The Case Of An Amended Tax Return, All Cards Must Be Laid on the Table

If someone wants to correct a false tax declaration by means of an amended tax return, they must disclose all tax matters pertaining to the past five years. A partial amended tax return is insufficient.

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