HG.org Legal Resources

Business and Industry Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Business and Industry.


Florida Franchise Law: Do I Want to Be Part of a Franchise?

  July 21, 2017     By Apfelbaum Law
There are a number of good reasons to be part of a franchise relationship. For prospective franchisees (the person buying on a franchise), one...

Blocking a Competitor from Using a Similar Name

  July 21, 2017     By HG.org
The name of a company is often one of the most important aspects of building a brand, a business and something to remember. The best...

Legal Consequences of Broker's License Suspension When Assisting with Real Estate Dealings

  July 20, 2017     By HG.org
Having a broker’s license is important to real estate dealings. Without these, it is not legal for the individual to handle the processes that...

Can Multiple Properties be Split into Additional 501c3’s?

  July 19, 2017     By HG.org
There are numerous non-profit organizations with property where meetings, fund-raisers and conferences are held. These buildings are usually tax...

Unjustified Suspension of Payment of Shares in the Netherlands: What Are the Consequences?

  July 19, 2017     By AMS Advocaten
A debtor whose claim has become due and payable to his creditor is authorised to suspend compliance with his commitment – e.g. payment – until...

Benefits of Implementing a Joint Venture

  July 18, 2017     By HG.org
Companies often work together through forming relationships such as supplier and distributor. However, there are other relationships that are...

Issuing Equity to Employees in a Startup

  July 17, 2017     By HG.org
Startup companies often look for a certain type of employee that will remain loyal as all the kinks are worked out of the initial problems. This...

The Silent Partnership under German Law

  July 17, 2017     By Rose & Partner LLP
German law provides for a large number of different financing instruments which have in common that they allow for straight forward financing...

A Guide to an Agreement to Purchase Real Estate Form in Queensland

  July 17, 2017     By Carter Capner Law
If you are a real estate agent who is helping someone buy a property in Queensland, you should know what needs to go into an agreement to...

3 Reasons Why You Need Attorney Advice for Your Business

  July 14, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Many times, businesses make the mistake of waiting until they are in deep legal troubles before hiring an attorney. Usually, when you find...

How "Red Penciling" and “Blue Penciling” Affects Covenants Not to Compete?

  July 13, 2017     By HG.org
Many businesses choose to have employees sign covenants not to compete in order to protect their proprietary information. However, simply...

Deciding between an LLC and a C Corporation

  July 12, 2017     By HG.org
There are many considerations when determining which type of company to create initially. Some of these factors revolve around liability versus...

Big Businesses Litigating Against Each Other

  July 11, 2017     By HG.org
Litigation is often the last path taken when negotiation, mediation or arbitration become undesirable or infeasible based on the opposing party....

Assessing Managers’ Liability Risk in Germany

  July 11, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Company managers bear a high level of not only responsibility but also risk. Various measures can be taken to reduce the risk of directors’ and...

The “Pop-Up-Keyboard" Defense: How Apps, Mobile Phones, and "Terms of Use" Work Together

  July 10, 2017     By Randazza Legal Group
Unlike the Blackberry keyboards of yesteryears, your smartphone probably has a pop-up touch-screen keyboard. Recently, the Northern District of...

Converting an LLC to a C Corporation

  July 10, 2017     By HG.org
In many situations where the owner of a new company does not have the resources to create a corporation, he or she may opt for a limited...

Steps an Employer Can Take when an Employee Violates a Non-Compete Agreement

  July 7, 2017     By HG.org
In order to protect certain business interests, some employers may choose to have employees sign a non-compete agreement. This agreement can...

LLC or a C Corporation?

  July 7, 2017     By HG.org
When first considering starting a new business, there are various factors and elements of the company to consider including taxes, how many...

Mandatory Mediation in Labor Disputes in Turkey

  July 7, 2017     By Serap Zuvin Law Offices
Mediation, as one of the alternative dispute resolution methods, has been introduced into the Turkish Law system with the Law on Mediation in...

Major Pitfalls for Foreign Entrepreneurs in Thailand

  July 7, 2017     By Siam Legal International
Thailand is a popular destination for entrepreneurs from other countries who wish to start a business and a new life. The cost of doing business...

Chief Financial Officers Can Be Held Liable

  July 7, 2017     By Nicoll Davis & Spinella, LLP
CFO and corporate accountants must be aware that the improprieties of their superiors could lead to their own personal liabilities. This is...

Buyers: Make Sure You're Getting What You Bargained For

  July 6, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Businesses often buy equipment, supplies, and other materials on a contract basis. The contract itself often is not standard, but instead, is...

Noncompetitive Contracts in Place for Trade Secret Reveals

  July 5, 2017     By HG.org
Trade secrets are vital intellectual property for certain businesses that employ them. These ingredients, methods, processes or recipes are...

What to Look for in a Business Start Up Law Firm

  July 5, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Along with your investors and startup management team, you will want to have the services of an experienced and knowledgeable California...

Antitrust Law in Germany: 9th Amendment to the GWB

  June 30, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Antitrust law is not something that merely concerns large corporations. It also affects small and medium-sized businesses. Violations of...

Watch Out for These Pitfalls of Minority Ownership

  June 29, 2017     By HG.org
Many individuals dream of owning a business during some point in their life. Some invest a small percentage into a business while leaving...

The Business Judgment Rule and Liability

  June 28, 2017     By HG.org
Many business rules apply to employee, management or both. Some of these regulations affect what is permitted, which circumstances are allowed...

What Happens in a Legal Mediation Proceeding?

  June 28, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
There are several ways that a California business dispute can be resolved, but litigation is usually not the preferred method for doing so.

Start-Ups in Switzerland: Do's and Don'ts from a Tax Point of View

  June 27, 2017     By Wenger & Vieli Ltd.
The founders of a start-up company will inevitably be confronted, sooner or later, with tax questions. The situation which gives rise to such...

The “One Mandatory Holiday and One Non-Mandatory Holiday” Policy in Taiwan

  June 26, 2017     By Brain Trust International Law Firm
The newly enacted Labor Standard Act in Taiwan is confusing every employer with regard to its "one mandatory holiday and one non-mandatory...

Setting Up a Company in Italy: Advantages for Foreign Investors

  June 26, 2017     By Arnone & Sicomo
Italy represents a very attractive Country for foreign investors who want to set up a company. This is due to the great success of the "made in...

Necessary Documents for Opening of Liquidation Procedure of Company in Bulgaria

  June 23, 2017     By Valova & Angelova Law Firm
Before starting the company's liquidation, the manager of the company or his proxy must notify the relevant Tax Office for the liquidation.

Transfer of Company Shares in Bulgaria

  June 23, 2017     By Valova & Angelova Law Firm
Transferring the whole company to another person is the cheaper way for transfer of the property in Bulgaria when the company has been...

As an Independent Contractor, Can I Work for More than One Client?

  June 23, 2017     By HG.org
Independent contractors are a different classification of workers than employees. The distinctions between these two groups of workers are...

Looking at Anti-Bribery Legislation in Turkey and Beyond

  June 22, 2017     By Guden Law Firm
Corruption is a widespread phenomenon in international business transactions all over the World. In accordance with corruption perception index...

Business Litigation: Don’t Wait after Getting Court Papers

  June 22, 2017     By HG.org
When a person gets court papers, it is important that they quickly take certain steps. These steps can help preserve a person’s rights and...

Dismissal with the Option of Altered Conditions of Employment Needs to Be Sufficiently Precise in Germany

  June 21, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
In the case of dismissal with the option of altered conditions of employment, the offer to continue the employment relationship needs to clearly...

What to Accomplish in the First 90 Days of Your Business

  June 20, 2017     By HG.org
When creating a new business, the first 90 days are often critical in order to ensure revenue starts so that it is possible to retain customers,...

When Do I Need a Subordination, Non-Disturbance and Attornment Agreement?

  June 20, 2017     By HG.org
Many commercial leases for business owners or management have subordination, non-disturbance and attornment types of agreements in the...

Misrepresentation of Tax Procedures and Complications for Real Estate Dealings

  June 20, 2017     By HG.org
Real estate dealings often require exact documentation that specifies certain terms, conditions and details about the buyer, seller and...

5 Steps to Forming a Virginia Limited Liability Company (LLC)

  June 20, 2017     By The Law Office of Tonya N. Gibbs, PLC
So you want to start a business and you don't know where to start. Well this may help get you headed in the right direction, "5 steps to forming...

10 Things to Consider When Drafting Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDA)

  June 20, 2017     By The Law Office of Tonya N. Gibbs, PLC
A Non-Disclosure Agreement or NDA is a contractual agreement between the Discloser (the party sharing information) and the Receiver (the party...

General Legal Services Help Employees Avoid Employee Misclassification Claims

  June 19, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Employers are often in a precarious position in which they may be sued by business partners, employees and customers. However, there are often...

Business Entities: What's in a Name?

  June 19, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
When you think about a business entity choice, the name of a business may come to mind. However, a business entity is so much more than just the...

Fifty Tips for Writing the 21st Century Contract that Stays Out of Court

  June 19, 2017     By James W. Martin, P.A.
Welcome to the 21st Century. Where practicing law requires us to don the garb of computers and the Internet. And where litigation is as costly...

Commercial Agency Law in Germany

  June 16, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
In the event that a commercial agency agreement is terminated, the commercial agent often has a right to compensation. Frequent points of...

C Corporation 101 – Everything You Need to Know

  June 16, 2017     By HG.org
C corporations are more commonly known as just corporations. These are usually what are talked about when someone is explaining a big business....

Why California is Chosen for Business Partnerships

  June 15, 2017     By HG.org
Some parts of the country are more prominent with specific business types. California is a better state to create or grow a company with...

Contractor Hired External Advisor Without Permission?

  June 15, 2017     By AMS Advocaten
Contractors often hire external experts to provide specific recommendations and advice. Consider environmental reports with a construction...

The Need for a Business Lawyer when Litigation Occurs with Unsatisfactory Services

  June 13, 2017     By HG.org
When someone has purchased the service of someone or an organization, it is possible to be left with unsatisfactory results. This may occur when...

Company Managers on the Blacklist in Hungary

  June 13, 2017     By Jalsovszky Law Firm
Many people could be in for a nasty surprise when trying to set up a company: the company court refuses to register the majority owner or...

Britain’s Businesses Must Start Planning for Brexit

  June 12, 2017     By Giambrone Law
The think-tank Resolution Foundation commissioned a survey to clarify the preparedness of British business for the radical changes that Brexit...

China Solicits Opinions Concerning Exportation of Personal Information and Important Data

  June 12, 2017     By MMLC Group
As China's new Cyber Law kicks off, multinationals are turning their attention to compliance issues, including data transfer issues. This...

Breach of Duty by an Agency and Resolution

  June 12, 2017     By HG.org
Agencies often owe a duty of care to clients or customers, and there is usually some form of contract drafted and signed between businesses in...

Is There a Way to Have a Designated Law Firm as a Small Business without a High Retainer Fee?

  June 8, 2017     By HG.org
Small businesses may run into legal problems from time to time. They may need help with their startup filings, as well as need advice after they...

Apostille and the Hague Convention

  June 8, 2017     By Erdem Topak Law Office
The Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement for Legalization for Foreign Public Documents (“Hague Convention”) is an international treaty,...

What Is Civil Litigation?

  June 7, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Disputes and disagreements are commonplace in the business world, and civil litigation is one method whereby these disputes and disagreements...

Making Timely Arrangements for Business Succession in Germany

  June 7, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The demographic trend poses a serious challenge to medium-sized businesses, particularly in relation to the unavoidable issue of making...

Considering Purchasing a Franchise in California?

  June 7, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Get Your Franchise Lawyer Involved Early.

Myths and Realities of Panamanian Corporations

  June 7, 2017     By Icaza, Gonzalez-Ruiz & Aleman
Some have come across diverse and perhaps incompatible information on the legal framework regarding the creation of corporations and private...

Economic Damages of an Employee Reselling Company Products

  June 6, 2017     By HG.org
Many employees are able to purchase products at their places of employment and then resell them at a higher price or without the discount they...

Third Party Funding for Arbitration - The Hong Kong Version?

  June 6, 2017     By Angela Wang & Co.
A Third Party Funder in international commercial arbitration finances part or all of the cost of the proceedings in return for a remuneration...

All You Need to Know for Foreigners Doing Business in Ghana (GIPC Requirements)

  June 6, 2017     By Swiftlaw
As a foreigner intending to establish a business in Ghana, you may be confronted with varied and sometimes conflicting information on what the...

Avoiding Expensive Lawsuits in Small Business Transactions

  June 5, 2017     By HG.org
Small business transactions can sometimes morph into serious and significant lawsuits. Fortunately for small business owners, there are...

Liquidation of Entities in Egypt

  June 5, 2017     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
The liquidation of companies in Egypt is governed by the Egyptian Companies Law. No. 159/1981[1], the law governs all the aspects of the...

How Small Businesses Can Afford Legal Counsel

  June 5, 2017     By Kohler Legal - A Business & IP Law Firm
With limited capital at the start of a business, hiring a lawyer can be a daunting prospect, and is commonly perceived as being too expensive,...

How Revenue is Accrued without Products or Services

  June 2, 2017     By HG.org
Revenue is the backbone of any company. Without accruing money, the business will fail unless it is in the game for other means. Some...

Does My Business Really Need An Attorney On Retainer?

  June 2, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Have you ever heard the old saying, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure"? That is exactly why every business should have a law firm...

3 HR Areas an Attorney Strengthens in Business

  June 2, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
There is no doubt that the current state of politics is affecting the mood of the entire country. Many social justice and human rights issues...

9 Tips for a Successful Deposition

  June 2, 2017     By Riley Bennett & Egloff, LLP
So you received a Notice of Deposition. What is a deposition and what does that mean for you, the witness? A deposition is the legal term for a...

Expert Witness Explains Small Business Litigation with Big Business Economic Damages

  June 1, 2017     By HG.org
Small businesses operate under the fear that they will one day be sued. Today, someone can sue a company for nearly anything. Even if the...

Preserving Your Assets after Disclosing Them

  June 1, 2017     By HG.org
Disclosure of assets is usually necessary when in a court case where the information has been required as per the situation. However, protecting...

Pre-formulated Tie-in Clause in Employment Contract for Managing Director

  June 1, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
According to a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Karlsruhe [Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe], clauses in an employment contract for a...

Tax Professionals Report More Audits as Stricter IRS Deadlines Approach

  May 31, 2017     By Brown, PC
The tax code is incredibly complicated and intricate. Even when a business or an individual intends to be in compliance with tax requirements,...

When Misleading Advertising Causes a Deal to Fall Through

  May 31, 2017     By HG.org
Some companies advertise products or services in a way that is considered false. This means that what is proposed by the business to the public...

Can an Owner Refuse to Continue a Profit-Sharing Agreement Due to Expiring Lease?

  May 30, 2017     By HG.org
Some business owners agree to a contractual obligation of profit-sharing when the circumstances are just right. However, knowing what to do when...

Exceptional Notice of Dismissal Effective if There Is Video Evidence in Germany

  May 30, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Even covert video footage can potentially justify exceptional notice of dismissal. That was the verdict of the Bundesarbeitsgericht (BAG),...

Can an Employer Make Me Pay for Damages to Other Vehicle?

  May 26, 2017     By HG.org
Employment contracts are often complicated with wording that appears to be tricky or difficult to understand. Most persons that are hired sign...

What Are You Agreeing to When You Shop Online?

  May 25, 2017     By Mann Law Firm
Shopping online is big business, projected to surpass $3.5 trillion by 2020. Although China spends far and away more money in e-commerce than...

Business Contracts: Which Need to Be in Writing and Which May be Oral

  May 23, 2017     By HG.org
The need for business contract is obvious to anyone that works in the commercial world. These may be used for a variety of reasons, but some of...

Incorporate a Company in Sri Lanka

  May 23, 2017     By D.L. & F. De Saram
Establishment of an Entity in Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka is ranked highly among the South Asian countries that offer ease in terms of establishing an...

Takeovers and Mergers in Sri Lanka

  May 23, 2017     By D.L. & F. De Saram
In Sri Lanka, the administration of the Company Takeovers and Mergers Code (Code) is the function of the Sri Lankan Securities & Exchange...

Winding Up of a Limited Liability Company in Sri Lanka

  May 23, 2017     By D.L. & F. De Saram
Companies may be wound up in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act and the Companies Winding up Rues. Winding up of a company may...

3 Common Mistakes in Contract Law & How to Prevent Them

  May 23, 2017     By Carter Capner Law
Have you ever wondered what is a mistake in contract law and what does it imply? A mistake in contract law is an erroneous meaning of words or...

How a Corporate Attorney Can Help You Negotiate Master Service Agreements

  May 23, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Do you feel like you waste time developing new contracts for the same services, or worry that you're exposing your business to risks because you...

Why Testimony of an Expert Witness Aids in Business Transactions between Companies

  May 22, 2017     By HG.org
Business transactions between companies are often complicated due to the amount of information that must be passed back and forth between them....

ESOP (Employee Share Ownership Programme): The Latest Craze in Hungary

  May 22, 2017     By Jalsovszky Law Firm
ESOP (Employee Share Ownership Programme) entities have been springing up like mushrooms in Hungary since last year, and the acronym itself has...

The Necessary Steps to Remove the Owner of a Corporation When Revenue Falls

  May 19, 2017     By HG.org
One common reason to remove an owner or shareholder from a corporation is because he or she is not providing an adequate profit for the...

Purchase of Further Tax CDs Possible – Voluntary Disclosure for Tax Evasion in Germany

  May 19, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Since 2010, the German exchequer has reeled in a nationwide total of around six billion euros by way of voluntary declarations for tax evasion....

When Co-Owners Split, Disaster Strikes

  May 18, 2017     By HG.org
Just like with married couples, many businesses decide to get a “divorce.” However, in this instance getting a divorce may mean the end of an...

Can My Lawyer Refuse to Continue with My Case Unless I Pay in Full?

  May 18, 2017     By HG.org
Sometimes during the middle of representation, a lawyer and client may reach an impasse due to billing issues. In some cases, a lawyer may be...

How to Remedy Business Fraud with the Help of an Expert Witness

  May 17, 2017     By HG.org
Business processes are often difficult to analyze and understand in a court room for the average person. Numerous complicated cases are...

Is a Surrogacy Contract Valid in the U.S. or Abroad?

  May 16, 2017     By HG.org
Surrogacy contracts are often complicated to enforce. There are many terms that protect the mother until she gives her rights away.

Reform of Law Governing Challenges to Debtor’s Transactions in Insolvency Proceedings in Germany

  May 16, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The reform of insolvency law is meant to bolster the rights of creditors in the event that a business partner becomes insolvent as well as...

M&A in Germany - Initial Guidance for Foreign Investors

  May 16, 2017     By Rose & Partner LLP
Germany is a premier destination for foreign investments. There are almost no regulatory restrictions for the acquisition of domestic companies,...

Preparing for the Second Round of Startup Funding in Israel

  May 16, 2017     By Barnea & Co. Law Offices
Funding your startup company is an inexact science. The first round of funding helps get your company established, but often leads to a...

Ten Golden Tips for Distribution Agreements in Israel

  May 16, 2017     By Barnea & Co. Law Offices
Distributors, agents, resellers and OEM partners all share the same commercial function of selling goods to end users. Thus, although there are...

How to Lose Personal Liability Protection in Your Business

  May 15, 2017     By HG.org
There are many forms of liability protection available to businesses, but there are numerous actions and activity that may lead to a loss of...

False or Deceptive Competitor Advertising Hurting Your Bottom Line?

  May 12, 2017     By Watkins Firm, A Professional Corporation
There are resources and options available for business owners when competitors undercut pricing by selling inferior goods or services.

Legal Reasons Why a 50/50 Partnership Split Should be Avoided

  May 11, 2017     By HG.org
Partnerships are complicated relationships that often cause conflict without contracts and agreements explaining obligations and...


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