HG.org Legal Resources

Business and Industry Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Business and Industry.


The Features of Surrogacy Contracts in Ukraine

  July 21, 2016     By Aleksey Pukha & Partners
The complexity of procedures for implementing surrogacy requires fixing contractual relationships between the parties and fixing the potential risks for each party.

Last Legs For Get-Out-of-Jail-Free Card – Loan Withdrawal Possible Until June 21, 2016 in Germany

  July 21, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Anyone who withdraws from a real estate loan concluded between 2002 and 2010 stands to potentially benefit from low interest rates and save a lot of money. Having said that, withdrawal only remains an option until June 21, 2016.

Romanian Employment Regulations

  July 21, 2016     By Hammond, Minciu and Associates
Being an employer in any jurisdiction seems to become more complicated as time goes on. I was recently reminded of this when we were advising an international client of the Firm on employment issues in Romania.

Go Realtime - Foreign Depositions

  July 21, 2016     By Planet Depos
Litigation involving foreign witnesses can be challenging. Paralegals will no doubt find that their cases will require the services of both deposition interpreters, also known as legal interpreters, and realtime court reporters who are up to the task.

Getting a Permit for Permanent Residence in Ukraine by a Foreigner Based on Investment

  July 20, 2016     By Kydalov & Partners
The most plausible reason of getting an immigration permit is making investments to the Ukraine economy by a foreigner, that is a convertible currency in the amount not less than one hundred (100) thousand USD registered in the proper order

Should You Invest in a Resale Franchise?

  July 19, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
There are many reasons franchisees decide to sell their franchise – life changes like death, divorce or retirement comes to mind – and if you are looking at investing in a resale franchise, you should neither discount nor leap into it without careful investigation.

Bundeskartellamt Imposes Fines Against Cartel in Sanitary Sector in Germany

  July 19, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
At the end of March, the Bundeskartellamt, Germany’s Federal Cartel Office, imposed fines amounting to around 21 million euros against the so-called “Sanitär-Kartell” (cartel in the sanitary sector) on account of anti-competitive agreements.

Licenses and Permits for Opening a Restaurant in Florida

  July 20, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
If you are opening a new restaurant in Florida or are the new owner of an existing restaurant, you are required by law to obtain a business license from the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation’s Division of Hotels and Restaurants before you can begin operation.

OLG Koblenz: Misleading Advertising Concerning Pharmaceuticals in Germany

  July 18, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Advertising for pharmaceuticals is impermissible if the content of a promotional statement is not based on sound scientific evidence. That was the verdict of the Oberlandesgericht Koblenz (OLG) [Higher Regional Court of Koblenz].

Breach of Contract Litigation: What Do I Need in a Contract?

  July 16, 2016     By HG.org
If a party sues for breach of contract, the onus is on that party to prove the validity of a contract. This party has the duty to show that all of the necessary elements are present. The following elements must be in all valid contracts

How Businesses Benefit from Good Contracting Practices

  July 14, 2016     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Starting and running a small business has never been more challenging. Now more than ever the small business owner has to navigate a patchwork of confusing and oftentimes contradictory laws and regulations that can add extra costs to legal compliance.

Innovations of Ukrainian Law on Protection of Minority Owners of Corporate Rights

  July 13, 2016     By Kydalov & Partners
The Law of Ukraine "On amendments to some legislative acts of Ukraine on the protection of investors" included a norm of judicial consideration of disputes between business entity and its official by the economic courts to the Economic Code of Ukraine, even after his official powers have been terminated.

Declaration of Discontinuance Tied to a Condition Subject to Strict Requirements in Germany

  July 12, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Declarations of discontinuance are a possible consequence of violations of competition law. They can be tied to a condition, but for this to happen strict requirements need to be met.

A Trap in Romanian SRL Statutes for the Unwary

  July 12, 2016     By Hammond, Minciu and Associates
Most investors and companies that wish to incorporate a company in Romania chose to form a limited liability company (SRL). As Romanian lawyers we are often asked to advise on the type of company to be formed. In many cases we agree with the client’s initial instructions as to the form of the company to be incorporated.

Terms of Service For E-Commerce Websites

  July 12, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Although the average consumer tends to disregard the fine print found in a terms of service contract, this legal documentation provides protection and security to business owners and/or service providers in the event of an unforeseen situation or unexpected outcome. Especially for companies that conduct business or facilitate various transactions via the internet, a website’s terms of use is imperative to compensate for the lack of or limited verbal and/or written communications.

SEC v. Dawn J. Bennett: From “Financial Myth Busting” To “Busted”

  July 12, 2016     By Shustak Reynolds & Partners, PC
Last fall, the SEC initiated disciplinary proceedings against financial advisor and self-proclaimed “Financial Myth Buster” Dawn Bennett, accusing her of publicly inflating her client assets under management (or “AUM”) and exaggerating her investment returns.

Investment Guarantees and Incentives in Egypt

  July 12, 2016     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
In general : Business entities in Egypt that have been incorporated after the enactment of the Law 8 of 1997 enjoy further guarantees and incentives.

Indirect Business Activity in Egyptian Market

  July 8, 2016     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
Consider: the case of foreign entities marketing their products to Egypt directly without the requirement of business entity incorporation in Egypt but with the help of certain form of representation.

Important Facts of Franchise and Licensing Agreements in Latin America

  July 7, 2016     By B&R Latin America IP LLC
Franchise agreements: In general terms, a franchise agreement is a contract in which one part known as franchiser, allows the use of its intellectual property (Know-how, trademarks, patents, copyrights, etc.) to another person, called the franchisee, with the aim of economically exploit a business or company within a given geographical area.

How to Defend Against a Breach of Contract Claim

  July 6, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
One of the most common business disputes involves a breach of contract, where lawsuits are filed because one party believes another party has failed to deliver on the terms of a written – or sometimes oral – contract.

Requirements to the Name of Entities in Ukraine

  July 6, 2016     By Kydalov & Partners
The company name is a very important part of the business, because thanks to their names companies can promote their brand in the market, shape the perception of consumers, a name can become a trademark, etc.

Misuse of Authority in Company’s Own Bankruptcy Application in Amsterdam

  July 6, 2016     By AMS Advocaten
In a recent case before the Court of Appeal of Amsterdam, a dismissal of a company’s own application for bankruptcy was upheld in appeal. The Court of Appeal found that the authority of a company to apply for its own bankruptcy had been misused. When is there misuse?

Limitation of Seller's Liability under Commercial Warranties and Indemnities in the UK

  July 5, 2016     By Summerfield Browne Solicitors
If you are selling a business then you should ensure that you minimize any ongoing commercial liability by limiting or excluding liability under the corporate warranties or indemnities.

Privatization: Attracting Foreign Investors to Ukraine

  July 6, 2016     By DLF Attorneys at Law
The long announced plans of Ukraine in relation to massive privatization are being gradually implemented. The importance of privatization is backed by the need, on the one hand, to fulfill the state budget, and, on the other hand, to increase the effectiveness of state enterprises’ management.

Investment in Egypt

  July 5, 2016     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
Legal Framework: Post 25th of January, 2011 Revolution Direction following Revolution of 25th of January, 2011, Egypt has been heading towards the future in a slightly different track. Political and economic distress has led to significant changes in the political, economic and legal landscapes.

Business Fraud Committed by Employees

  June 30, 2016     By Pike & Lustig, LLP
Business owners place significant faith in the hands of their employees. Unfortunately, sometimes this trust is misplaced and insider employees commit major fraud against the business. Florida companies of all sizes have been seriously damaged by employee business fraud. If you believe that your company has been victimized by an employee, please contact an experienced West Palm Beach business fraud attorney for immediate legal assistance.

Letter of Intent: Is It Enforceable in California?

  June 28, 2016     By Gehres Law Group, P.C.
It often happens, when negotiating business deals, that one or both of the parties wants some assurance that their negotiations are serious and will ultimately result in a binding contract rather than a waste of valuable time.

Import & Export in Egypt

  June 27, 2016     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
Import is strictly regulated by the Egyptian government permitting Egyptian nationals only and fully owned and managed Egyptian companies to import into Egypt. For importation into Egypt for the purpose of trade, companies/individuals should register with the Register of Importers.

USCIS Issues Draft Policy Memorandum on L-1B Specialized Knowledge Visas

  June 24, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
On March 24, 2015, the U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services (“USCIS”) issued a draft policy memorandum on L-1B adjudications, calling for feedback by May 8, 2015, before the policy becomes effective on August 31, 2015.

How to Enforce a Foreign Judgment in Georgia (Domestication)

  June 24, 2016     By Cobb Law Group
Creditors who have sued (and won), may find that the debtor has moved its business operations or move its assets to another state. When this happens, the creditor should consider domesticating their judgment in the new state.

California Corporations Facing Lawsuit Must Be Represented by an Attorney

  June 23, 2016     By Kaass Law
If you are an officer, president, or owner of a California corporation and have been served for purposes of a lawsuit or pending legal proceedings it is vital that you hire a business defense attorney to represent you in court. Pursuant to Paradise v. Nowlin (1948) 86 C.A.2d 897, Code of Civil Procedure § 116.540(b).

Urban Development Boundary

  June 23, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
For the majority of cities and places, development is a good thing. Not only is it often a sign of economic growth, it can also mean additional jobs being brought into the area, especially when the projects include office buildings, warehouses, and other commercial properties.

Business Acquisition by Foreign in Ukraine: Basic Errors

  June 23, 2016     By Kydalov & Partners
Business acquisition is a complex and long process that can confound even the most experienced businesspersons, because different business aspects, legal aspects, and human factors are important. This article will show you basic errors.

How to Form an LLC in Florida

  June 22, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
The primary benefit of establishing a business as a limited liability company (LLC) is asset protection. The personal assets of LLC owners are protected from business liabilities — including debts and litigation — as long as the LLC is maintained properly.

Understanding the Risks and Benefits of a Partnership in Texas

  June 22, 2016     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Partnerships are simple business entities to form but they do have inherent risks. Make sure you evaluate every aspect of your potential partnership before you move forward.

California Startup Seeking to Hire Foreign Employee on H-1B Visa

  June 21, 2016     By Kaass Law
Whether you are a foreign citizen willing to work in the US or an US employer that wants to hire a foreign employee, below are a number of questions Business Startup Attorneys encounter regarding H-1B visa.

Vegan Cheese Cannot be Marketed as Cheese in Germany

  June 21, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
“Vegan” on the outside means it’s not cheese on the inside. That was the verdict of the Landgericht Trier (Regional Court of Trier) in its ruling of March 24, 2016 (7 HK O 41/15).

Joint Stock Companies and Limited Liability Companies in Turkey

  June 21, 2016     By DAB Law Firm
Provided here is general information regarding two primary types of limited liability entities that may be incorporated in Turkey.

Do You Really Need an Operating Agreement for Your Florida LLC?

  June 21, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Since Florida law does not require limited liability companies (LLCs) to have an operating agreement, owners may wonder if they really need one. As experienced Florida business attorneys, our answer is an unequivocal yes.

When a Business Relationship Goes Sour

  June 19, 2016     By HG.org
In the advancing technological age, many business relationships end before their allotted time due to complications or violations in policy. Some employees or partners are unable to complete the demands of the business, violate regulations or breach a contract.

What happens at a Deposition in a Civil Case?

  June 17, 2016     By HG.org
A civil case is a claim that typically deals with contracts or business matters. Torts are usually negligent acts that end in damage or harm. Civil cases may occur through the intentional or negligent actions of others. For most civil cases, the remedy is money damages.

Hiring Tips Every Startup Will Want to Know

  June 17, 2016     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Startups can be an exciting but perilous time for any business owner. Make sure your startup is protected by seeking counsel.

How to Create a Business that Will Endure Through Succession Planning

  June 16, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Business owners are usually so focused on running their business that they neglect to plan for the day when the business will need to run without them.

The Basics of Contract Negotiations for Small Businesses

  June 16, 2016     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Negotiating a contract is something that many small business owners don’t have a lot of experience or background in doing. Jake Posey and the attorneys at The Posey Law Firm, PC are capable and experienced at negotiating contracts on behalf of small businesses. Here’s what every small business owner should know about negotiating a contract:

Plan Bay Area: An Evaluation by California Land Use Lawyers

  June 16, 2016     By Kassouni Law
California land use lawyers have filed suit against the Association of Bay Area Governments in an effort to preserve Californians' constitutionally protected property rights

Draft Your Florida LLC’s Operating Agreement

  June 14, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
An operating agreement is your LLC’s contract describing the method of operation of the LLC. It sets out rules that govern issues such as partnership arrangements, voting powers, profit sharing, management structure, and company dissolution.

EGC: Winnetou to Retain Trademark Protection for Time Being in the EU

  June 13, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
On March 18, 2016, the General Court of the European Union ruled that the well-known novel character Winnetou shall continue to enjoy trademark protection (Az.: T-501/13).

Blow the Whistle without Fear: The Importance of Whistleblowers’ Protection in the EU

  June 14, 2016     By Michalopoulou & Associates
Whistleblowing as corruption-fighter, is also known as a practice that deals with one of the most serious social issues of our time. A whistleblower reports any illicit incidents or corrupt practices. The following questions then emerge:

The New MedTech Code of Ethical Business Practice – Ethics at its Best in the EU

  June 14, 2016     By Michalopoulou & Associates
Medtech Europe represents the medical technology industry in Europe. It is the alliance of the two leading medical technology industry associations, EUCOMED (which represents the European medical devices industry) and EDMA (which represents respectively the European in vitro diagnostic industry).

Pesticide Residues in Food and GM Foods in the EU - Latest Developments and Questions

  June 15, 2016     By Michalopoulou & Associates
The use of pesticides in food, especially when growing fruit and vegetables, is now commonplace; farmers use pesticides in order to preserve or even increase their yields. Nevertheless, there are several risks regarding consumer safety and questions arise on the allowed pesticide residue quantities in food meant for consumption.

Medical Devices & In-Vitro Diagnostics in the EU: What’s Next?

  June 13, 2016     By Michalopoulou & Associates
On October the 5th, 2015, the EU Council of Ministers agreed on its baselines on the looming two Regulations on medical devices and in-vitro medical devices. Closely related to the Commission’s relevant proposal and the adjacent EU Parliament and EU Council reports, both Regulations will aim to modernize the existing legislation, taking into account the latest advancements in medical technology and the need for high protection of patient safety.

Breach of Contract Litigation: The Guaranty

  June 11, 2016     By HG.org
Many consumers are influenced to purchase a product because a guaranty is offered on the product. This guaranty instills confidence in the consumer. However, when a manufacturer does not comply with the terms of the guaranty, legal issues may arise.

Legal Requirements for a Food Truck in Miami

  June 9, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Food trucks are becoming increasingly popular in major metropolitan areas around the country and local governments are responding by adopting regulations that govern how food trucks operate in their communities.

BGH on Advertising Without Option to Order

  June 9, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Constitutional Court, has ruled that advertising for textiles need not mention their composition if the promotional brochure does not offer the opportunity to order.

Making Breach of Contract Actions Worthwhile: Liquidated Damage and Attorneys’ Fees Provisions

  June 8, 2016     By Gehres Law Group, P.C.
As business litigation attorneys, we sometimes have the unpleasant task of informing clients that their “breach of contract” case is not worth pursuing because the legal fees and costs to pursue legal action are likely to exceed the recoverable amount in their case.

Double Tax Treaty between Cyprus and Latvia signed

  June 9, 2016     By Patrikios Pavlou & Associates LLC
The Republic of Cyprus and the Government of the Republic of Latvia signed in Brussels, on 24 May 2016, a Treaty for the Avoidance of Double Taxation on Income (‘DTT’).

Panama Papers – Voluntary Disclosure in Response to Tax Evasion in Germany

  June 8, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The so-called “Panama Papers” have the potential to reveal tax evasion on a massive scale. German tax evaders can return to a state of tax compliance by way of voluntary disclosure.

4 Common Legal Mistakes Business Owners Need to Avoid

  June 7, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Many small business owners start with the intention of building a business that both thrives and survives for years to come.

EGC: “Spa” Not A Community Trademark For Cosmetics in the EU

  June 7, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The term “Spa” is not a generic name for cosmetics and cannot be registered as a Community trademark. That was the verdict of the General Court of the European Union in its ruling of March 16 (T-201/14).

English Companies: Memorandum and Articles of Association

  June 6, 2016     By Dixcart Legal Limited
SPEEDREAD: A quick guide to the purpose and effect of a private limited company’s Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association, and how the Companies Act 2006 affects those of companies registered prior to October 2009 and since (i.e. companies in England and Wales).

The Truth behind EU Offshore Companies, Legal or Illegal?

  June 6, 2016     By Mariscal Abogados
Businesses are relocating and setting up in foreign countries to avoid paying taxes in their home countries. This is having a negative impact on the EU. The EU Commission is currently trying to crack down on multinationals using tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax fraud.

EGC: Advertising Featuring Positive Properties of Dextrose Misleading in the EU

  June 6, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
In its ruling of March 16, 2016, the General Court of the European Union (EGC) confirmed that advertising for dextrose featuring health claims is not permissible (Az.: T-100/15).

The 5 Biggest Myths About Business Incorporation

  June 2, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
If you are in the process of starting a new business, deciding on whether or not to incorporate that business can have long-term consequences when it comes to taxation and personal liability protection.

Can Liability Be Excluded in an Exoneration Clause in the Netherlands?

  June 2, 2016     By AMS Advocaten
Most general terms and conditions include an exoneration clause. In this clause the user of the terms and conditions limits his liability for loss due to possible failure in performance. The courts regularly have to deal with the issue how such a clause should be interpreted and whether it is in fact reasonable at all to apply this clause.

Legal Implications for Someone Who Provides a Guaranty on a Closed Business

  June 1, 2016     By HG.org
Many people purchase a product or agree to service because the purchase comes with a warranty. However, if a warranty is made when the business is in the process of closing down or it has already closed down, certain legal implications may arise.

Elements of the franchise contract in Spain

  June 2, 2016     By Mariscal Abogados
The franchise contract in Spain has no specific regulations, although there are some pre-contractual duties that the franchiser must fulfil in order to give greater protection to the franchisee, which is always considered the weaker party.

Competition Law in Germany: Deceptive Packaging is Misleading

  June 1, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Large packaging but little in the way of contents. The OLG Hamburg (Higher Regional Court of Hamburg) has ruled that this kind of misleading packaging sizes may infringe competition law (Az.: 3 U 20715).

Arrangements Need to Be Made Early on for Business Succession in Germany

  June 1, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Business succession can prove to be a crucial issue, especially in the case of family businesses. That is why the matter ought to be dealt with as early as possible.

Sino-Foreign Joint Venture Company’s Deadlock in China

  May 27, 2016     By Zhejiang Xinmu Law Firm
Company’s Deadlock is, sadly speaking, a sort of very-often-seen disputes between Chinese and foreign shareholders and/or directors in a Sino-foreign Joint Venture company in China, so this article is about how it comes into being and how to avoid it.

New Tax on Dividends Starting in January 2016 in Romania

  May 26, 2016     By Pavel, Margarit & Associates
For individuals receiving dividends from a Romanian legal entity, starting in January 2016 it is maintained the 5% percentage of the gross dividend paid. Also, since January 2016, the persons who obtain income from dividends do not owe social health insurance contribution for that income in case they obtain income from wages, pensions, independent activities, association with a legal person, etc., except the earnings from intellectual property rights.

New Customs Code of the European Union

  May 26, 2016     By Pavel, Margarit & Associates
The Customs Code establishes the general rules and procedures applicable to goods brought into or out on the customs territory of the Union and is applied uniformly throughout the Union. Starting in June 2016 will enter into force the provisions regarding the use of electronic data processing techniques for all exchanges of information (statements, requests, decisions) between customs authorities and economic operators, as well as the methods of their storage;

Unfair Advertising: Health Claims Concerning Foods in Germany

  May 25, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Health claims pertaining to foods have to satisfy strict requirements if they are to avoid infringing competition law. That was the verdict of the Landgericht Rostock (Regional Court of Rostock) in a recent ruling.

Regulating Cyber Activity in Israel - Establishing a National Registry of Cyber Practitioners

  May 25, 2016     By Gill Nadel Law Office
Recent developments in the regulation of the cyber domain in Israel relating to defense export control of the cyber domain.

Not Every Delay in Customs Warrants Compensation

  May 25, 2016     By Gill Nadel Law Office
The Customs Authority is authorized to delay the release of imported and exported goods if it suspects a related offense has been committed, including false or fraudulent statements, failure to submit required documents, and others.

Increased Enforcement of Defense Export Control in Israel - First Criminal Trial Ruling

  May 24, 2016     By Gill Nadel Law Office
The intent behind the Defense Export Control law, 2007 ("the law"), and the various regulations and orders enacted thereunder, is to regulate defense export on the grounds of national security, foreign policy, international commitments, and other crucial interests of the State of Israel.

Five Tips to Avoid Jeopardizing Your Next Business Deal

  May 24, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Whether you’re an experienced business owner or an entrepreneur just embarking on your first business venture, there are certain missteps that you need to be aware of in order to avoid jeopardizing your corporate transactions.

Comparative Advertising Featuring Third-Party Trademark May Be Permissible in Germany

  May 24, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The use of a third-party trademark in comparative advertising does not automatically constitute an infringement of trademark law. That was the decision of the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice (Az.: I ZR 167/13).

OLG Koblenz on Misleading Advertising

  May 24, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Companies promoting their products need to ensure that consumers have a realistic opportunity to purchase them. That was the verdict of the OLG Koblenz (Higher Regional Court of Koblenz) in a recent ruling.

Misleading Advertising Featuring Corporate History in Germany

  May 23, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
If over the course of its history a company was split up, advertising featuring the company’s history may be misleading. That was the verdict of the OLG Frankfurt (Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt) in a recent ruling (6 U 167/14).

The Defend Trade Secrets Act: A Powerful New Tool For Business Owners

  May 19, 2016     By Shustak Reynolds & Partners, PC
President Obama recently signed into law the Defend Trade Secrets Act (“DTSA”) of 2016, which gives holders of trade secrets a new and powerful option to bring trade secret lawsuits under federal law.

The Art of Constructon Contract Drafting

  May 18, 2016     By Cobb Law Group
A well-written contract is more than a fill-in-the-blank form. It's unique, it reflects your business principles, and it reflects your values. Make sure your contracts reflect the personality and the tone you desire.

Selling a Business: How to Find the Right Buyer and Secure the Best Price for Your Company

  May 16, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Selling a business that you have started from scratch or spent a good part of your life to build can be stressful. You want to find the right buyer who will keep things going while still getting the best possible price when you’re ready to cash out all that sweat equity.

GmbH Shareholder’s Estate: Passing on Company Shares in Germany

  May 22, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The shares in a GmbH form part of a GmbH shareholder’s estate. Accordingly, it is important to settle early on who the company shares will go to in the event of succession.

Right to Fly with Points

  May 13, 2016     By HG.org
Flying with miles is an advantage for those that fly regularly and is often an option with credit cards, travel programs and other incentive programs. Travelers who fly with points have the potential to realize substantial savings. However, sometimes there are problems when the person wishing to redeem the points is unable to do so or if a flight is cancelled after using points.

Inheritance of Company Shares in Bulgaria

  May 14, 2016     By Valova & Angelova Law Firm
Aiming to clarify the main points of the procedure for inheritance of company shares under the Bulgarian Commercial law

Promissory Notes

  May 12, 2016     By Gehres Law Group, P.C.
Put simply, a promissory note is a written promise to pay a definite amount of money on specified date(s) or on demand. The primary purpose of a promissory note is to evidence a loan amount, interest rate, if any, and other terms on which a loan is to be repaid. Depending on the type of transaction involved, a promissory note may or may not accompany a security agreement, a deed of trust, or other contractual documents.

FINRA Submits Proposed Rule Changes to Clarify Offsetting Awards

  May 11, 2016     By Shustak Reynolds & Partners, PC
FINRA has recently filed proposed rule changes that provide much-needed clarification to how arbitration awards resulting in both sides paying money should be handled.

Commercial Contracts: When A Clause Means What It Says

  May 10, 2016     By Parris Whittaker, Attorney at Law
Limitation and exclusion clauses in commercial contracts regularly lead to disputes between the parties. Any guidance from the court on how these are to be interpreted is always welcome by commercial lawyers, who can then better advise their clients.

How to Save the Family Business for the Next Generations

  May 10, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
The Family Business Institute has reported that just 30 percent of family-owned businesses survive past the next generation, with only 12 percent making it to a third generation.

Starting a Business in California? Read This First

  May 10, 2016     By Gehres Law Group, P.C.
It is no secret that nine out of ten start-ups fail—that’s a full 90% of businesses that do not become profitable or are derailed for one reason or another. So what can you, as a prospective business owner, do to ensure you are one of the success stories?

Hungary - The Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) Is Alive Again

  May 9, 2016     By KCG Partners Law Firm
An Innovative and Cost-Efficient Tool for the Motivation of Employees.

Legal Remedies for Sick Pet Purchases

  May 8, 2016     By HG.org
When a pet gets sick, it can often feel like a family member is sick. While many people view pets in this light, the law has traditionally taken the view that pets are personal property. As such, if a pet becomes sick shortly after a purchase, traditional contract laws typically apply.

Construction Contracts in Iran’s Body of Law: Post-Sanctions Strategy

  May 12, 2016     By ESK Law Firm
Although there are several similarities between construction law in Iran and other countries, it has its own rules and regulations which are different from the construction industry of the West. foreign contractors who enter the market for the first time must be prepared for a different environment. This article explains important aspects of construction law in Iran.

Legal Aspects and Procedure of Setting up a Company in Iran

  May 9, 2016     By ESK Law Firm
Considering the fact that majority of investments in Iran starts with setting up a company, many foreign investors look for reliable information about its process and requirements. At the same time, its procedure and related rules have been mentioned in the different resources which require to be collected and explained. This article is written to meet all these needs and provide all necessary information regarding establishing a company in Iran.

What are the Different Classes of Shares in a UK Commercial Business

  May 7, 2016     By Summerfield Browne Solicitors
Are you considering offering shares to someone else such as an employee? If so you might want to consider offering them different classes of share which have different rights. This might be important to protect your voting and decision making power.

Managing Director May Be Liable For Tax Debts in Germany

  May 8, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The managing director of a GmbH (limited liability company) may be personally liable for payment of the company’s tax debts if he fails to discharge his obligation to ensure the provision of funds.

Germany: BGH on Restraints on Competition Between GmbH and Shareholders

  May 9, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
According to a ruling of the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) [Federal Court of Justice], client protection clauses between a GmbH and a withdrawing shareholder are null and void if their term goes beyond what is necessary (Az.: II ZR 369/13).

6 Key Topics You Should Discuss With Your Business Lawyer Today

  May 2, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Here are the 6 Key Topics You Should Discuss With Your Business Lawyer Today.

Shareholder Disputes in the Cayman Islands

  May 2, 2016     By Loeb Smith
Shareholders of a Cayman Islands company may petition the Grand Court for an order that a company is wound up pursuant to section 92(e) of the Companies Law (As Revised) on the basis that it is "just and equitable" for it to do so.

How to Do Your Due Diligence on a Franchise Opportunity

  May 1, 2016     By Jurado & Farshchian, P.L.
Franchisors are required by law to provide potential franchisees with a Franchise Disclosure Document but there are also things you should be doing on your own as part of a good due diligence process, including the following.


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