HG.org Legal Resources

Civil Rights Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Civil Rights.


Federal Law and Consumer Credit Scores

  June 27, 2017     By Sierra Litigation
With the exception of your Social Security number, no other number has more of an impact on your life than the impact made by your credit score....

Dismissal with the Option of Altered Conditions of Employment Needs to Be Sufficiently Precise in Germany

  June 21, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
In the case of dismissal with the option of altered conditions of employment, the offer to continue the employment relationship needs to clearly...

China Solicits Opinions Concerning Exportation of Personal Information and Important Data

  June 12, 2017     By MMLC Group
As China's new Cyber Law kicks off, multinationals are turning their attention to compliance issues, including data transfer issues. This...

Found Out at the Airport that I Am Blacklisted. Now What?

  June 6, 2017     By HG.org
Getting blacklisted at an airport is often confusing. There are certain specifics that are provided to United States citizens in how this occurs...

Fair Housing Complications and What to Look For

  June 6, 2017     By HG.org
State and federal regulations comply with the Fair Housing Act as implemented throughout the United States so that buyers or renters of a...

Expert Witness on Illegal Debt Collection Practices

  June 5, 2017     By HG.org
When someone owes money to a debtor, this account is often referred to a debt collector. Debt collectors must follow federal law and state law...

Privacy and Data Protection in China - Latest Developments

  June 5, 2017     By MMLC Group
[With] the new Chinese Cyberlaw, as well as recent proclamations by the Supreme People's Court and other Chinese government agencies working in...

Stop and Frisk

  June 1, 2017     By Williams Cuker Berezofsky
In 2011, the City of Philadelphia entered into a Consent Decree to settle a class-action lawsuit alleging the Philadelphia Police Department was...

Avoiding DUI Checkpoints and Roadblocks

  May 30, 2017     By William C. Head, PC
With over 75% of states permitting DUI checkpoints, knowing how to avoid passing through a roadblock is highly important. Also, knowing that you...

How to Stop Your Driver's License from Being Suspended in Georgia

  May 30, 2017     By William C. Head, PC
Virtually 100% of all DUI arrests triggers an immediate confiscation of the driver license, under Georgia implied consent law. Whether the...

Exceptional Notice of Dismissal Effective if There Is Video Evidence in Germany

  May 30, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Even covert video footage can potentially justify exceptional notice of dismissal. That was the verdict of the Bundesarbeitsgericht (BAG),...

Purchase of Further Tax CDs Possible – Voluntary Disclosure for Tax Evasion in Germany

  May 19, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Since 2010, the German exchequer has reeled in a nationwide total of around six billion euros by way of voluntary declarations for tax evasion....

Reform of Law Governing Challenges to Debtor’s Transactions in Insolvency Proceedings in Germany

  May 16, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The reform of insolvency law is meant to bolster the rights of creditors in the event that a business partner becomes insolvent as well as...

Public Officials and Privacy

  May 15, 2017     By Patrick G. Geckle, LLC
In recent years, basic Constitutional rights have been under attack. Police misconduct and brutality have been trending upward since 2010....

Peculiarities of Using Elements "BIO", "ECO" and "ORGANIC" While Trademark Registration in Kazakhstan

  May 10, 2017     By Legalmax Law firm
Important information for brand owners about amendments to a law-enforcement practice of the RK Law No. 423-V "On Manufacture of Organic...

When and How to Use a Power of Attorney in UAE

  May 1, 2017     By Hassan Elhais
What is a power of attorney? A power of attorney is a legal, notarised letter that confers authority from one person or company unto another...

Introduction to Elder Abuse and Negligence in Florida

  April 21, 2017     By The Spivey Law Firm
In Florida, elder abuse and neglect is quite common, so it’s important to recognize the common signs.

Expert Witness Testimony: When Police Brutality Occurs

  April 20, 2017     By HG.org
Police brutality is being increasingly noticed throughout the country through the use of electronic surveillance equipment and the rise of the...

New Rights, Equality and Citizenship Work Programme and Financial Services User Group to Be Renewed in EU

  April 18, 2017     By KCG Partners Law Firm
The European Commission adopted the ’2017 Rights, Equality and Citizenship Work Programme’ on 1 March 2017.

Hotel Security Cameras Found in Room, Is that Legal?

  April 14, 2017     By HG.org
Placing security cameras in various places in a hotel may be a touchy subject when it comes to privacy and where these may be. As the...

Private Investigators Uncover Invisible Resumes Online and Related Documents

  April 11, 2017     By HG.org
A private investigator is often tasked with the responsibility of finding information that is hidden from view of the public. One such source of...

Before You Post THAT Picture . . . How Private Is Your Facebook Account?

  April 10, 2017     By The Law Offices of Lori Keeton
If you are going to attempt to collect disability, you may want to hold off on posting pictures of yourself boating, fishing and the...

Private Investigation and E-Discovery: Voice and Audio Files

  April 5, 2017     By HG.org
E-discovery may be necessary in certain legal cases. This means that records may be made through electronic devices for use by the consumer and...

Dismissal Without Notice for Breaching Duties to Cooperate Effective in Germany

  March 31, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Employees have duties to cooperate. These can also cover examinations by company doctors. If these duties are breached, there is then the...

Debt Collection in Bosnia-Herzegovina

The legal success is crowned by the winning verdict. However, the economic success is only brought about by the implementation of this judgment....

Can My Employer Fire Me if I Fail a Company-ordered Polygraph?

  By HG.org
In many cases, employers are not permitted to use polygraphs to test employees or job applicants. However, depending on the state and the type...

Discrimination under Germany’s General Equal Treatment Act

  March 30, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Not every instance of disabled employees being treated differently constitutes illegal discrimination, as demonstrated by a ruling of the...

Voter Bribery: The Treatment of this Pervasive Electoral Offence in Kenya

Voter bribery, if committed by a person vying for elective office adversely affects the consideration of elections as free and fair.

Bullying Laws in New Jersey

New Jersey constituted an anti bullying law in 2002 that was one of the first to be initiated, in 2003 New Jersey and 14 other states passed the...

Sexual Harassment Laws in New Jersey

Much like at the federal level, sexual harassment is prohibited by the state of New Jersey. It is quite important for you to know your rights in...

How Can I Protect My Trade Secrets When I Enter into a Business Contract with Another Company?

  By HG.org
When the creator of a trade secret must do business with another business, it is important that the secrets that are often disclosed to other...

Is Social Media Protected by the First Amendment?

On February 27, 2017, for the first time, the U.S. Supreme Court discussed social media in the context of the First Amendment, recognizing...

Can a Business Ask about My Disability and My Need for a Service Dog?

  By HG.org
The Americans with Disabilities Act protects a person that has a disability for employment, when in public establishments and from various forms...

Representation or Accompaniment at General Meeting of Shareholders in Germany

GmbH shareholders can be represented by a proxy at the general meeting of the shareholders. In addition, it may be permissible according to a...

Weapons at Work: Texas Law and Business Policy

With both constitutional and statutory protections for citizens to carry arms, businesses are faced with walking a fine line between providing a...

What Is an Invasion of Privacy Claim?

  By HG.org
There are many versions of sharing someone’s private details by accident that are not considered an invasion of privacy. However, when the...

Illegal Search and Seizures in Illinois Police Misconduct Cases

The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution grants every citizen the right to protection from unlawful searches and seizures at the...

Private Investigators on Teen Cyber Bullying

  By HG.org
Private investigators are often able to held identify the culprit of crimes or wrongful acts even when this individual is someone who is...

How to Create a Valid Power of Attorney in Ghana

In Ghana, Powers of Attorney are governed by the Power of Attorney Act 1998, Act 549.

Unwanted Facebook Pictures: Has My Privacy Been Invaded?

  By HG.org
The digital world of the electronic age is rife with invasions of privacy, identity theft and various instances of crime. There are many...

The Legal Way for a Non-resident to Pay in Currency Buying Property in Ukraine

More and more foreigners are considering a possibility to buy property in Ukraine, particularly in large and popular among foreigners cities...

Is Denying Medical Treatment to Minors Legal in New Jersey?

Legally, minors are incompetent and lack the necessary experience on matters such as their education and medical care. It is, therefore, the...

Private Investigators Find Scams on Valentine’s Day

  By HG.org
Private investigators can help look into possible scams to help prevent a person from losing time, money and frustration. Many scams occur...

When Do Police Have To Read You Your Rights?

Incriminating statements collected during a "conversation" be used against you if you haven't been read your Miranda rights? The United States...

Criminal Background Checks from a Private Investigator

  By HG.org
Today, there are many ways that a person can infiltrate the life of another and cause him or her harm. Romantic partners may lie about their...

Competition Law: Mandatory Information in Real Estate Advertising

Anyone who publishes real estate adverts without the requisite information relating to the energy performance certificate is in breach of...

CJEU to Rule on Holiday Entitlement Following Employee’s Death - Germany

Whether an employee’s holiday entitlement continues to exist after his death is still disputed. The Bundesarbeitsgericht (BAG), Germany’s...

Video Recording on Private Property in California

Over the years, clients have inquired about the legality of installing video cameras on their privately owned commercial real estate or business...

Exceptional Notice of Dismissal for Working Hours Fraud in Germany

Fraud relating to one’s working hours may constitute good cause justifying exceptional notice of dismissal. Having said that, a ruling of the...

Understanding the Laws on Underage Drinking in California

Consumption of alcohol below the age of 21 is a criminal offense. Ensure that you are not breaking any of these other laws regarding underage...

European Commission Proposal Strengthens Privacy Rules for Electronic Communications

Following a leak in early December, the European Commission has officially published the finalised proposed new legislation which aims to...

Litigating Georgia Implied Consent Law Motions to Obtain Exclusion of Breath Test Evidence

Georgia implied consent law is outdated, flawed and incomplete. A Georgia DUI Lawyer must know how to challenge the admissibility of implied...

Labour Leasing: Changes to Temporary Employment in Germany

The legal provisions pertaining to labour leasing, also referred to as temporary employment or subcontracted work, are being shaken up.

Acquring Ghanaian Citizenship

Citizenship in Ghana is a question of law and is governed by the Citizenship Act, 2000.

Bogus Applicants Cannot Invoke Anti-discrimination Legislation in the EU

Bogus applicants who do not actually intend to take up a post cannot subsequently invoke anti-discrimination legislation. This comes from a...

Oath before the Saudi Courts

Two types of oaths include the Strict Oath and the Completing Oath.

Leaked E-Privacy Draft: What to Expect in Malta & the EU

Following the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation, the European Commission has been working on reforming the E-Privacy...

You Don’t Have the Right to Run a Background Check without My Permission

  By HG.org
It is not uncommon for employers to request to run a background check on a person before extending an employment offer. However, complications...

Is Double Jeopardy Implicated when a Court Increases a Sentence Multiple Times?

  By HG.org
When a person has been convicted for one crime, he or she cannot be convicted of the same crime again. This means he or she is not subject to...

Divorce in Jordan

Filing divorce case in Jordan need a legal procedure, and at the end the woman will have a divorce and shall get her financial rights.

Changes in the Registration Procedure Concerning Notarization in Ukraine

In the course of the reform in the state registration system at 6 October 2016 was adopted the Law of Ukraine «On the Amendments to Certain...

Resisting Arrest during a Protest

  By HG.org
While the rights to assemble and to have free speech are provided under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, a person can...

Prisoners’ Rights

  By HG.org
Many people recognize that when they are incarcerated that they lose many rights, including the right to privacy, the right to assemble and the...

Ten Steps to Take if You’ve Been the Victim of Identity Theft

Identity theft is running rampant in our country. If you are the victim of identity theft, there are some important steps to take to ensure that...

What Can I Do If My Criminal Defense Lawyer Is Not Satisfying Me?

  By HG.org
Many instances arise where a criminal defense lawyer is not a good fit with the defendant. While this may not be a common occurrence, it is an...

Station House Detention Laws

  By HG.org
Station house detention places are those that hold specific suspects in police stations so that they may be questioned and interviewed through...

Getting Money Back After Police Seizure

  By HG.org
In many instances of an arrest, law enforcement officers seize property, money and possessions. It is often difficult and time-consuming to...

When Using a Taser Is Excessive Force

  By HG.org
Excessive force is a violation of the United States Constitution. Some states may label the use of a taser stun gun when injuring a person as...

Act of Production Doctrine

  By HG.org
Documents are the foundation of tax cases where crimes are suspected. Subpoenas are often issued that demand extensive documentation to back up...

Manufacturers of Self-Driving May Be Protected from Lawsuits

Self-driving cars will undoubtedly become a widely-acceptable new technology in the near future. But, as with any new technology, mistakes can...

“Unverzüglich” Is an Acceptable Deadline for Taking Remedial Action for Defective Products in Germany

If a purchased item is defective, the buyer can demand that subsequent remedial action be taken. According to a recent ruling of the...

Inheritance Tax Reform in Germany: Bundesrat Blocks Bill

The inheritance tax reforms have still yet to be finalized. With the Bundesrat, the upper house of the German parliament, having blocked the...

13 Mistakes that Can Hurt Your Car Accident Case and the Compensation You're Entitled To

Car accident cases involving personal injury can be stressful, tedious, and confusing. They are not to be handled alone. A highly-experienced...

What the Confrontation Clause Means Today

  By HG.org
The Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution gives a defendant the right to confront his or her accuser....

Evidentiary Privileges in Criminal Cases

  By HG.org
Evidentiary privileges concern confidential communications, such as those between spouses or between a lawyer and his or her client. The United...

Duty to Disclose

  By HG.org
A prosecutor has the duty to disclose certain information to the defense. This helps aid the defendant in being able to lodge a proper defense.

Constitutional Rights and Carrying a Dirk or Dagger

  By HG.org
When most people think of the right to bear arms, they think about guns. However, there are other weapons that may be used for self-defense,...

Background Checks for Firearm Purchases

  By HG.org
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, gun control laws and the prevalence of mass shootings made up an ongoing debate during...

Loan Withdrawal in Germany: BGH Pulls Rug Out from Under Banks and Savings Banks

According to a ruling of the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice, from July 12, it is possible to effectively withdraw...

Boost for Consumers Withdrawing from Loans in Germany

Guidance on the right of withdrawal featuring the footnote “Nicht für Fernabsatzgeschäfte” (not for long-distance transactions) is ineffective....

The History of Police Brutality, and What it Means for You

Police brutality in the United States has always been a huge problem, though it is more visible now that widespread ownership of handheld...

All About the Attorney Client Privilege

  By HG.org
There are a number of privileges that criminal defendants have that protect certain communications. These privileges include clergy privilege,...

Religious Freedom Bill and LGBT Community

Congressional leaders are in heated arguments over a proposed bill that would protect religious freedom, but could also allow members of the...

When Is a Person Legally Insane?

  By HG.org
The insanity defense is one of th emost controversial defenses. Additionally, it has one of the lowest success rates among all criminal...

Police Interrogation and Confessions

  By HG.org
When someone is suspected of committing a crime, one of the most effective ways to convict the individual is to present a confession from him or...

Criminal Appeal Based on Unfair Trial

  By HG.org
In the United States, all criminal defendants have the right to receive a fair trial. There are numerous constitutional safeguards in place to...

Police Confessionals

  By HG.org
One of the most common pieces of advice that a lawyer gives to his or her client is not to say anything. This is especially true when dealing...

Right to a Speedy Trial

  By HG.org
Every US citizen has the right to a speedy trial as provided by the United States Constitution. Many state constitutions also contain similar...

Can a Spouse Testify Against His or Her Spouse?

  By HG.org
When one or both spouses are in legal trouble, the question of privileges and testimonial exceptions may arise. This is an important concept as...

History of Plea Bargains

  By HG.org
A plea bargain is a negotiated agreement for a criminal defendant whereby he or she agrees to plead guilty in exchange for a more favorable...

Plea Bargaining Basics

  By HG.org
A criminal defense lawyer may be able to negotiate an agreement between a criminal defendant and a prosecutor. This agreement is referred to as...

Constitutional Rights of Criminal Defendants

  By HG.org
Individuals who are facing criminal charges have a number of key rights that must be honored throughout the process. By being aware of this...

Steps to Take If You Cannot Afford to Make Bail in Your Case

  By HG.org
The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the issuance of excessive bail. However, courts have found that excessive bail...

Common Questions about Plea Bargains

  By HG.org
Rather than trying every criminal case, the prosecutor and criminal defense lawyer may resolve a case by agreeing to a plea agreement. Many...

Analyzing False Confessions and Exonerations

  By HG.org
Given the significant number of exonerations that have been issued in recent years, it is important to consider what events led to these...

How Bail Is Set

  By HG.org
In many cases, a criminal defendant can leave police custody by posting bail. The amount that bail is ordered at is different in each case...

Constitutional Right to a Fair Trial

  By HG.org
When a person is accused of a crime, the consequences at stake are significant. A conviction can mean the loss of freedom with years behind...

Constitutional Right to Legal Counsel

  By HG.org
Any citizen in the United States who is facing criminal charges is guaranteed the right to legal counsel. If he or she cannot afford his or her...

What Are My Rights If Stopped on the Street?

  By HG.org
It is not uncommon for a person to happen upon a law enforcement officer. He or she may be stopped by the law enforcement officer and asked...

Resisting Arrest without the Presence of Violence

  By HG.org
When someone imagines someone else resisting arrest, they often have a mental image of a person violently thrashing around and physically...


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