HG.org Legal Resources

Civil Rights Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Civil Rights.


Voter Bribery: The Treatment of this Pervasive Electoral Offence in Kenya

  March 24, 2017     By Ameli Inyangu & Partners
Voter bribery, if committed by a person vying for elective office adversely affects the consideration of elections as free and fair.

Bullying Laws in New Jersey

  March 23, 2017     By Williams Law Group, LLC
New Jersey constituted an anti bullying law in 2002 that was one of the first to be initiated, in 2003 New Jersey and 14 other states passed the anti-bullying laws with most of the states forming the laws, due to the vast number of high school shooting being conducted during the period of 1990s.

Sexual Harassment Laws in New Jersey

  March 23, 2017     By Cores & Associates, LLC
Much like at the federal level, sexual harassment is prohibited by the state of New Jersey. It is quite important for you to know your rights in case you become a victim of sexual harassment.

How Can I Protect My Trade Secrets When I Enter into a Business Contract with Another Company?

  March 22, 2017     By HG.org
When the creator of a trade secret must do business with another business, it is important that the secrets that are often disclosed to other business are protected as much as possible.

Is Social Media Protected by the First Amendment?

  March 22, 2017     By Nicoll Davis & Spinella, LLP
On February 27, 2017, for the first time, the U.S. Supreme Court discussed social media in the context of the First Amendment, recognizing social media as “a crucially important channel of political communication,” arguably deserving of First Amendment protection.

Can a Business Ask about My Disability and My Need for a Service Dog?

  March 20, 2017     By HG.org
The Americans with Disabilities Act protects a person that has a disability for employment, when in public establishments and from various forms of discrimination.

Representation or Accompaniment at General Meeting of Shareholders in Germany

  March 20, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
GmbH shareholders can be represented by a proxy at the general meeting of the shareholders. In addition, it may be permissible according to a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Dresden [Higher Regional Court of Dresden] for them to bring an adviser along to the meeting.

Weapons at Work: Texas Law and Business Policy

  March 16, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
With both constitutional and statutory protections for citizens to carry arms, businesses are faced with walking a fine line between providing a safe work environment, reducing business liability, protecting business reputation and standing, and restricting personal freedom.

What Is an Invasion of Privacy Claim?

  March 15, 2017     By HG.org
There are many versions of sharing someone’s private details by accident that are not considered an invasion of privacy. However, when the divulging of these specifics is accomplished in certain ways, a claim may be possible for the damage this act causes.

Illegal Search and Seizures in Illinois Police Misconduct Cases

  March 10, 2017     By Jackowiak Law Offices
The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution grants every citizen the right to protection from unlawful searches and seizures at the hands of the police, even if you are under investigation or facing criminal charges. Because you have the right to security in your own person and your own home, police misconduct charges can be filed if these rights are violated, or if an illegal search is performed.

Private Investigators on Teen Cyber Bullying

  March 8, 2017     By HG.org
Private investigators are often able to held identify the culprit of crimes or wrongful acts even when this individual is someone who is anonymous and hiding behind a computer screen. Discovering this information can help a concerned parent narrow in on what he or she may be able to do to protect the teen.

How to Create a Valid Power of Attorney in Ghana

  March 2, 2017     By AB LexMall & Associates
In Ghana, Powers of Attorney are governed by the Power of Attorney Act 1998, Act 549.

Unwanted Facebook Pictures: Has My Privacy Been Invaded?

  March 1, 2017     By HG.org
The digital world of the electronic age is rife with invasions of privacy, identity theft and various instances of crime. There are many situations where someone finds his or her picture online posted to Facebook.

The Legal Way for a Non-resident to Pay in Currency Buying Property in Ukraine

  February 27, 2017     By Kydalov & Partners
More and more foreigners are considering a possibility to buy property in Ukraine, particularly in large and popular among foreigners cities like Lviv and Kyiv, as capital investment or as a place of temporary residence.

Is Denying Medical Treatment to Minors Legal in New Jersey?

  February 24, 2017     By Cores & Associates, LLC
Legally, minors are incompetent and lack the necessary experience on matters such as their education and medical care. It is, therefore, the responsibility of parents to take care of their children by ensuring they are healthy.

Private Investigators Find Scams on Valentine’s Day

  February 22, 2017     By HG.org
Private investigators can help look into possible scams to help prevent a person from losing time, money and frustration. Many scams occur around holidays and prey on people’s vulnerabilities.

When Do Police Have To Read You Your Rights?

  February 10, 2017     By Rogers Garcia Patton PLLC
Incriminating statements collected during a "conversation" be used against you if you haven't been read your Miranda rights? The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit in the case of United States v. Swan late last year ruled yes, because you were not in custody when you made the statements.

Criminal Background Checks from a Private Investigator

  February 5, 2017     By HG.org
Today, there are many ways that a person can infiltrate the life of another and cause him or her harm. Romantic partners may lie about their background, neighbors may have a sordid history of sexual abuse of a minor, employees may steal and domestic workers may have a track record of fraudulent activity. To combat these realities, people may turn to a private investigator to inspect the background of someone in their lives.

Competition Law: Mandatory Information in Real Estate Advertising

  February 3, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Anyone who publishes real estate adverts without the requisite information relating to the energy performance certificate is in breach of competition law. That was the verdict of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Hamm [Higher Regional Court of Hamm].

CJEU to Rule on Holiday Entitlement Following Employee’s Death - Germany

  February 1, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Whether an employee’s holiday entitlement continues to exist after his death is still disputed. The Bundesarbeitsgericht (BAG), Germany’s Federal Labour Court, has since turned to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) for clarity on the matter.

Video Recording on Private Property in California

  February 1, 2017     By Gehres Law Group, P.C.
Over the years, clients have inquired about the legality of installing video cameras on their privately owned commercial real estate or business premises. The short answer is that such recordings are legal in California. However, a more complete answer requires that legal counsel for the client determine whether such recordings violate (or may foreseeably violate) a person’s constitutional right or reasonable expectation of privacy in the recorded area.

Exceptional Notice of Dismissal for Working Hours Fraud in Germany

  January 31, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Fraud relating to one’s working hours may constitute good cause justifying exceptional notice of dismissal. Having said that, a ruling of the Landesarbeitsgericht (LAG) Hamm [Regional Labour Court of Hamm] shows that for this to happen there needs to be admissible evidence to this end.

Understanding the Laws on Underage Drinking in California

  January 30, 2017     By Layfield & Barrett
Consumption of alcohol below the age of 21 is a criminal offense. Ensure that you are not breaking any of these other laws regarding underage drinking.

European Commission Proposal Strengthens Privacy Rules for Electronic Communications

  January 20, 2017     By GVZH Advocates
Following a leak in early December, the European Commission has officially published the finalised proposed new legislation which aims to strengthen privacy in electronic communications. The Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications (“Proposal”) aims to repeal the ePrivacy Directive. These rules will be updating existing laws and bringing them in line with the new General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), forming part of the Digital Single Market Strategy.

Litigating Georgia Implied Consent Law Motions to Obtain Exclusion of Breath Test Evidence

  January 16, 2017     By William C. Head, PC
Georgia implied consent law is outdated, flawed and incomplete. A Georgia DUI Lawyer must know how to challenge the admissibility of implied consent in pretrial motions, to help win the DUI case

Labour Leasing: Changes to Temporary Employment in Germany

  January 12, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The legal provisions pertaining to labour leasing, also referred to as temporary employment or subcontracted work, are being shaken up.

Acquring Ghanaian Citizenship

  January 12, 2017     By AB LexMall & Associates
Citizenship in Ghana is a question of law and is governed by the Citizenship Act, 2000.

Bogus Applicants Cannot Invoke Anti-discrimination Legislation in the EU

  January 9, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Bogus applicants who do not actually intend to take up a post cannot subsequently invoke anti-discrimination legislation. This comes from a ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU).

Oath before the Saudi Courts

Two types of oaths include the Strict Oath and the Completing Oath.

Leaked E-Privacy Draft: What to Expect in Malta & the EU

Following the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation, the European Commission has been working on reforming the E-Privacy Directive.

Is Double Jeopardy Implicated when a Court Increases a Sentence Multiple Times?

  By HG.org
When a person has been convicted for one crime, he or she cannot be convicted of the same crime again. This means he or she is not subject to multiple punishments for this same offense against the law. However, there are several complications that may lead to other complexities in the case.

You Don’t Have the Right to Run a Background Check without My Permission

  By HG.org
It is not uncommon for employers to request to run a background check on a person before extending an employment offer. However, complications can arise during this process.

Divorce in Jordan

Filing divorce case in Jordan need a legal procedure, and at the end the woman will have a divorce and shall get her financial rights.

Changes in the Registration Procedure Concerning Notarization in Ukraine

In the course of the reform in the state registration system at 6 October 2016 was adopted the Law of Ukraine «On the Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine regarding the improvement of the official registration of rights to immovable property and protection of property rights» and it came into force almost one month later.

Resisting Arrest during a Protest

  By HG.org
While the rights to assemble and to have free speech are provided under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, a person can sometimes be found criminally culpable for actions taken during a protest or demonstration.

Prisoners’ Rights

  By HG.org
Many people recognize that when they are incarcerated that they lose many rights, including the right to privacy, the right to assemble and the right to free speech. However, simply being incarcerated does not mean that all important constitutional rights are extinguished.

Ten Steps to Take if You’ve Been the Victim of Identity Theft

Identity theft is running rampant in our country. If you are the victim of identity theft, there are some important steps to take to ensure that you can restore your credit and won't be charged for these fraudulent charges.

What Can I Do If My Criminal Defense Lawyer Is Not Satisfying Me?

  By HG.org
Many instances arise where a criminal defense lawyer is not a good fit with the defendant. While this may not be a common occurrence, it is an important issue that should be corrected quickly.

Station House Detention Laws

  By HG.org
Station house detention places are those that hold specific suspects in police stations so that they may be questioned and interviewed through an investigation of crimes that these persons may be involved in or have participated in with others.

Getting Money Back After Police Seizure

  By HG.org
In many instances of an arrest, law enforcement officers seize property, money and possessions. It is often difficult and time-consuming to regain these items even after the arrest has been completed.

When Using a Taser Is Excessive Force

  By HG.org
Excessive force is a violation of the United States Constitution. Some states may label the use of a taser stun gun when injuring a person as this excessive force.

Act of Production Doctrine

  By HG.org
Documents are the foundation of tax cases where crimes are suspected. Subpoenas are often issued that demand extensive documentation to back up a claim of offenses for evidence against someone that may have committed tax crimes.

Manufacturers of Self-Driving May Be Protected from Lawsuits

Self-driving cars will undoubtedly become a widely-acceptable new technology in the near future. But, as with any new technology, mistakes can happen. In this case, dangerous car accidents that could ruin lives are a possibility, even though computerized cars are meant to make driving safer. And the manufacturers of these autonomous cars are pushing for protection from lawsuit through federal preemption. Here's why this could be a serious problem for drivers of autonomous cars.

“Unverzüglich” Is an Acceptable Deadline for Taking Remedial Action for Defective Products in Germany

If a purchased item is defective, the buyer can demand that subsequent remedial action be taken. According to a recent ruling of the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice, “unverzüglich” (immediately) is an acceptable deadline in relation to this remedial work.

Inheritance Tax Reform in Germany: Bundesrat Blocks Bill

The inheritance tax reforms have still yet to be finalized. With the Bundesrat, the upper house of the German parliament, having blocked the draft legislation on July 8, no further decision is expected to be taken before the autumn.

13 Mistakes that Can Hurt Your Car Accident Case and the Compensation You're Entitled To

Car accident cases involving personal injury can be stressful, tedious, and confusing. They are not to be handled alone. A highly-experienced personal injury lawyer will be able to guide you in the right direction and ensure that you don’t make any mistakes that can hurt your case. But little mistakes can put huge dents in your car accident case. Some result from traps set up by defense attorneys and insurance companies. Here’s a list of 13 mistakes that could hurt your car accident case.

What the Confrontation Clause Means Today

  By HG.org
The Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution gives a defendant the right to confront his or her accuser. This includes any witnesses who speak out against him. The interpretation of this right has changed over time.

Evidentiary Privileges in Criminal Cases

  By HG.org
Evidentiary privileges concern confidential communications, such as those between spouses or between a lawyer and his or her client. The United States Supreme Court has dealt with evidentiary privileges more than any other part of the Federal Rules of Evidence, indicating the importance that society has on these privileges.

Duty to Disclose

  By HG.org
A prosecutor has the duty to disclose certain information to the defense. This helps aid the defendant in being able to lodge a proper defense.

Constitutional Rights and Carrying a Dirk or Dagger

  By HG.org
When most people think of the right to bear arms, they think about guns. However, there are other weapons that may be used for self-defense, such as a dirk, dagger or knife. There may be laws that infringe on the general right to bear arms when it comes to these weapons as well as guns.

Background Checks for Firearm Purchases

  By HG.org
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, gun control laws and the prevalence of mass shootings made up an ongoing debate during the second decade of the 21st century. During recent years, there have been additional measurements put in place to help safeguard communities from mass murderers.

Boost for Consumers Withdrawing from Loans in Germany

Guidance on the right of withdrawal featuring the footnote “Nicht für Fernabsatzgeschäfte” (not for long-distance transactions) is ineffective. The Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Düsseldorf [Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf] ruled that it is possible to effectively withdraw from loans accompanied by this kind of guidance.

Loan Withdrawal in Germany: BGH Pulls Rug Out from Under Banks and Savings Banks

According to a ruling of the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice, from July 12, it is possible to effectively withdraw from loan agreements featuring the wording that the withdrawal period shall commence “frühestens mit dem Erhalt dieser Belehrung” [at the earliest upon receipt of this guidance] (Az.: XI ZR 564/15).

The History of Police Brutality, and What it Means for You

Police brutality in the United States has always been a huge problem, though it is more visible now that widespread ownership of handheld electronic devices gives ordinary people the unprecedented power to record instances of police using extreme force against the unarmed and the powerless.

All About the Attorney Client Privilege

  By HG.org
There are a number of privileges that criminal defendants have that protect certain communications. These privileges include clergy privilege, spousal privilege, doctor-patient privilege and the attorney-client privilege.

Religious Freedom Bill and LGBT Community

Congressional leaders are in heated arguments over a proposed bill that would protect religious freedom, but could also allow members of the LGBT community to suffer legal discrimination. The proposed bill titled, The First Amendment Defense Act, would prohibit anyone from bringing legal action against a person exercising their religious beliefs.

When Is a Person Legally Insane?

  By HG.org
The insanity defense is one of th emost controversial defenses. Additionally, it has one of the lowest success rates among all criminal defenses. Knowing about the insanity defense and when this defense may apply has the potential to help a criminal defendant who may be able to assert this defense.

Police Interrogation and Confessions

  By HG.org
When someone is suspected of committing a crime, one of the most effective ways to convict the individual is to present a confession from him or her admitting to the crime.

Criminal Appeal Based on Unfair Trial

  By HG.org
In the United States, all criminal defendants have the right to receive a fair trial. There are numerous constitutional safeguards in place to help protect these rights.

Police Confessionals

  By HG.org
One of the most common pieces of advice that a lawyer gives to his or her client is not to say anything. This is especially true when dealing with statements made to the police.

Right to a Speedy Trial

  By HG.org
Every US citizen has the right to a speedy trial as provided by the United States Constitution. Many state constitutions also contain similar provisions that guarantee that a person’s criminal case will be handled expediently. Looking at how this right can be treated in a particular state can give a criminal defendant a better sense of his or her rights and possible arguments that can be asserted to get criminal charges dismissed.

Can a Spouse Testify Against His or Her Spouse?

  By HG.org
When one or both spouses are in legal trouble, the question of privileges and testimonial exceptions may arise. This is an important concept as it may prohibit one spouse from talking out against another.

History of Plea Bargains

  By HG.org
A plea bargain is a negotiated agreement for a criminal defendant whereby he or she agrees to plead guilty in exchange for a more favorable outcome. This outcome may be the dropping of additional charges, a reduction in the sentence or being charged with a lesser crime.

Plea Bargaining Basics

  By HG.org
A criminal defense lawyer may be able to negotiate an agreement between a criminal defendant and a prosecutor. This agreement is referred to as a “plea bargain” or “plea agreement.” There are a number of benefits of plea bargaining.

Constitutional Rights of Criminal Defendants

  By HG.org
Individuals who are facing criminal charges have a number of key rights that must be honored throughout the process. By being aware of this information, criminal defendants can take necessary steps to protect these important rights.

Steps to Take If You Cannot Afford to Make Bail in Your Case

  By HG.org
The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the issuance of excessive bail. However, courts have found that excessive bail does not simply mean that the defendant cannot afford bail. When bail is too high, a defendant may not be able to pay it and may need to look into other arrangements.

Common Questions about Plea Bargains

  By HG.org
Rather than trying every criminal case, the prosecutor and criminal defense lawyer may resolve a case by agreeing to a plea agreement. Many criminal cases are disposed of through this type of agreement. Some of the common questions related to plea bargains include:

Analyzing False Confessions and Exonerations

  By HG.org
Given the significant number of exonerations that have been issued in recent years, it is important to consider what events led to these exonerations and the flaws in the American criminal justice system. Many exonerations were the result of false confessions.

How Bail Is Set

  By HG.org
In many cases, a criminal defendant can leave police custody by posting bail. The amount that bail is ordered at is different in each case depending on a number of factors.

Constitutional Right to a Fair Trial

  By HG.org
When a person is accused of a crime, the consequences at stake are significant. A conviction can mean the loss of freedom with years behind bars. Having a criminal record can impact the rest of a person’s life and limit career and educational opportunities. Due to these possibilities, many criminal defendants seek legal counsel.

Constitutional Right to Legal Counsel

  By HG.org
Any citizen in the United States who is facing criminal charges is guaranteed the right to legal counsel. If he or she cannot afford his or her own lawyer, one will be appointed to him or her. Despite this fundamental right, many individuals are not aware of this right, how far this right extends, the rights associated with the right to legal counsel and when a person qualifies to have a lawyer appointed by the court.

What Are My Rights If Stopped on the Street?

  By HG.org
It is not uncommon for a person to happen upon a law enforcement officer. He or she may be stopped by the law enforcement officer and asked questions. If a person runs into this situation, it is important that he or she understands his or her rights.

Resisting Arrest without the Presence of Violence

  By HG.org
When someone imagines someone else resisting arrest, they often have a mental image of a person violently thrashing around and physically resisting an officer who is simply attempting to handcuff him or her. Many people equate this scenario with resisting arrest and realize that this can often be a criminal act.

Laws Regarding Stop and Frisk

  By HG.org
The term “stop and frisk” refers to a law enforcement officer’s limited right to detain a person momentarily and inspect him or her for weapons. While this right seems to be at odds with constitutional protections, the United States Supreme Court has upheld this practice as constitutional.

Dangers of Stop and Frisk

  By HG.org
The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects Americans from unreasonable searches and seizures. Despite this important freedom, there are limitations to it. For example, stop and frisk allows a law enforcement officer to briefly detain a person when no probable cause exists.

Advocating for LGBT Individuals in the Workplace

Americans in the Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender Community (LGBT) have fought for and won many rights in the past few years. While individuals in the LGBT community and their allies have made progress, much remains to be accomplished.

Withdrawal in Germany: Save Several Thousand Euros at the Last Minute

Consumers could potentially save several thousand euros at the last minute by withdrawing from their loans. However, the withdrawal period is set to come to an end at exactly 12am on June 21.

Still Possible to Withdraw from Loans in Germany after June 21

It is still possible to withdraw from a large number of real estate loans. The end of the withdrawal period only concerns loans that were concluded between November 2002 and June 2010.

Loan Withdrawal to Come Before BGH Again in Germany

While the right of withdrawal for real estate loans concluded between 2002 and 2010 is set to come to an end on June 21, the courts will continue to grapple with the subject of withdrawal beyond this date.

Get-Out-of-Jail-Free Card Still an Option in Germany

The right of withdrawal for real estate loans concluded between November 2, 2002 and June 10, 2010 is set to come to an end on June 21, 2016. In the case of more recent agreements, withdrawal remains an option.

Last Chance to Use Get-Out-of-Jail-Free Card – Loan Withdrawal in Possible Until June 20 in Germany

Anyone who still wants to make timely use of their get-out-of-jail-free card before June 20, 2016 and withdraw from a loan can benefit from low interest rates or reclaim an early repayment penalty

China Issues Implementing Regulations of the Law on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests

  By MMLC Group
On August 5, 2016, the State Administration of Industry & Commerce (“SAIC”), released a draft of the Regulations on the Implementation of the Law on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests (“the Regulations”) for public opinion solicitation. This article reviews the main issues raised.

LAG Sachsen-Anhalt on Video Surveillance at the Workplace in Germany

Video surveillance at the workplace does not inevitably give rise to claims for damages. That was the verdict of the Landesarbeitsgericht (LAG) Sachsen-Anhalt [Regional Labour Court of Saxony-Anhalt] (Az.: 6 Sa 301/14).

Same-Sex Family Law Matters

Many New Jersey LGBTQ couples consider 2013 to be a landmark year. In that year, a key part of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was overturned, and New Jersey recognized the right for same-sex couples to marry.

Loan Withdrawal in Case of Linked Transaction in Germany: BGH Ruling Fails to Materialize

The Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice, was supposed to rule on May 31 on withdrawing from a loan in the case of a so-called “verbundenes Geschäft” (linked transaction). This will no longer happen because the bank has withdrawn its appeal.

Police Misconduct in New Jersey

Police misconduct is a major issue across the nation. Major cases have recently shed a nationwide light on this problem. Police brutality in New Jersey is just as much of an issue as it is elsewhere.

EEOC LGBT Cases in the News

Currently, Title VII prohibits employers from discriminating against employees on the basis of sex, but does not explicitly cover sexual orientation or transgender status. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has taken a continuously expansive view of Title VII, aggressively enforcing violations of all types of sex discrimination.

EEOC Shows Harassment Still an Issue

In today’s day and age, it is easy to assume that many of the hot button issues of days past have come and gone. The same jokes used in Hollywood films years ago are no longer regarded as funny, and each day women have more career and educational opportunities.

Final Stretch for Loan Withdrawal in Germany

Those who still want to withdraw from real estate loans concluded between 2002 and 2010 should take action now while the right of withdrawal is on its last legs. This get-out-of-jail-free card is set to lapse shortly.

"Nettopolicen" - Insurance Intermediaries in Germany Subject to Strict Documentation Requirements & Duty to Inform

“Nettopolicen” are insurance policies with respect to which the premiums do not include commission for brokering the insurance contract. When concluding these insurance policies, insurance intermediaries have to point out and document that the separate payment arrangements continue to apply even if the policies are cancelled.

Loan Withdrawal in the Case of Linked Transactions in Germany

Loans can be tied to a specific purpose when they are issued. A case involving withdrawal from a loan tied to what is termed a “verbundenes Geschäft” [linked transaction] will come before the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice, on May 31 (Az.: XI ZR 511/15).

Loan Withdrawal in Germany: OLG Frankfurt Once Again on Side of Consumers

Just before the so-called “ewiges Widerrufsrecht” [perpetual right of withdrawal] was set to lapse, a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Frankfurt [Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt] has given this get-out-of-jail-free card renewed momentum. In doing so, the OLG has once again aligned itself with consumers.

Court Ruling Strengthens Protections Against Cell Phone Tracking

A judge from the federal district of southern New York has decided to invalidate evidence obtained through the use of a cell phone tracking device. This decision may serve to clarify rules about when it is appropriate to use such technology with and without a warrant.

LG Magdeburg: German Consumers Misled by False Indication of Origin

If certificates or marks of origin are used for promotional purposes but the products are produced elsewhere, this may constitute an infringement of competition law. That was the verdict of the Landgericht (LG) Magdeburg [Regional Court of Magdeburg].

Implied Consent Blood Test Rejected by United States Supreme Court

  By HG.org
Many states require blood testing to determine blood alcohol levels for determination of impaired driving. When a person refuses to be tested, these states criminalize these actions. The United States Supreme Court has addressed this issue.

Anonymous Call and Support for Traffic Stop Regarding DUI

  By HG.org
Cell phone use has made life simpler for drivers and passengers when it involves road issues. When another driver appears to be under the influence of alcohol, it is easier than ever to make an anonymous call to report the person. However, in many instances, the caller wants to remain anonymous for fear of being part of the trial as a witness or having to make a statement to police.

Features of the Marriage Contract in Ukraine

Despite the considerable popularity of the marriage contract in Europe, the USA, and Canada, the mentality of the Ukrainian people still cannot accept this deal as normal. For Ukrainians is not acceptable to combine feeling and money, that’s why the question raises immediately: why do you marry if you are now thinking about the consequences of divorce.

How a Defendant’s Grand Jury Testimony Can Be Used at Trial

  By HG.org
Anything that a defendant says has the potential to be used against him or her in a criminal trial. This includes the testimony that he or she provides during grand jury testimony. The criminal defense lawyer representing the defendant should remain cognizant of this possibility and take proactive steps to protect the defendant’s legal rights.

Withdraw from Loans, Reduce Interest Burden in Germany

Playing the get-out-of-jail-free card and withdrawing from expensive real estate loans is still possible until June 21 without consumers having to pay an early repayment penalty.

Guidelines for Child Porn Sentences on a Federal Level

  By HG.org
The increasing crimes of owning, creating and distributing child pornography are difficult for the federal government to keep up with. Despite the harsh penalties for conviction of these crimes, the number of offenders has been increasing for years. Mandatory minimum sentences are in effect for these crimes, and the United States Congress has created sentences that keep lengthening.


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