HG.org Legal Resources

Communication Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Communication.


Enforcement of Foreign Judgements and Arbitral Awards in Saudi Arabia

  May 8, 2017     By Hazim Al Madani Law Firm
There are speculations internationally that, enforcement of foreign judgements and arbitral awards in Saudi Arabia are still in dark. Saudi...

Health Claims in Relation to Mineral Water Need to Comply with the Health Claims Regulation in Germany

  April 12, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Health claims in relation to mineral water need to be consistent with the Health Claims Regulation. This was confirmed by the Bundesgerichtshof...

Before You Post THAT Picture . . . How Private Is Your Facebook Account?

  April 10, 2017     By The Law Offices of Lori Keeton
If you are going to attempt to collect disability, you may want to hold off on posting pictures of yourself boating, fishing and the...

Private Investigation and E-Discovery: Voice and Audio Files

  April 5, 2017     By HG.org
E-discovery may be necessary in certain legal cases. This means that records may be made through electronic devices for use by the consumer and...

Penalty for Unlawful Advertising Via Email in Germany

  March 30, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Advertising is subject to restrictions, and anyone who oversteps these may be faced with severe penalties. This also applies to unlawful...

Is Social Media Protected by the First Amendment?

  March 22, 2017     By Nicoll Davis & Spinella, LLP
On February 27, 2017, for the first time, the U.S. Supreme Court discussed social media in the context of the First Amendment, recognizing...

The Right to Review Digital Database in Israel

  March 15, 2017     By Barnea & Co. Law Offices
Within the scope of a new directive published recently by the database registrar at the Israeli Law, Information and Technology Authority,...

Misleading Advertising: Exclusive Must Mean Exclusive in Germany

  March 2, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
If something is advertised as exclusive then it ought to remain exclusive. A ruling of the Landgericht (LG) Hamburg [Regional Court of Hamburg]...

“Lightly Salted” Not Permissible in Advertising in Germany

  March 1, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Advertising for packet soup for children featuring the statement “mild gezalsen” (lightly salted) is contrary to the Health Claims Regulation...

Eye-catching Advertising in Germany Featuring Misleading Guarantee Promises

Advertising featuring a guarantee can be misleading if the guarantee promise is linked to conditions that are not clearly visible to consumers....

Cybersecurity: The Italian Paradise for Hackers

The current and rising spread of cloud computing, social media, wireless connectivity, e-commerce and big data is showing every day more and...

New General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) in The Netherlands and EU

Since 14 April 2016 the General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) has been adopted in the Netherlands. This means that starting from 25 May 2018...

Leaked E-Privacy Draft: What to Expect in Malta & the EU

Following the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation, the European Commission has been working on reforming the E-Privacy...

Bundeskartellamt in Germany Imposes Fines Totaling Millions of Euros Against Television Studios

The Bundeskartellamt, Germany’s federal cartel office, has imposed a fine amounting to millions of euros against three television studios for...

Misleading Advertising in Germany Featuring Teaser Offers

Anyone who denotes goods as available for delivery despite the fact that they are sold out is violating competition law. This comes from a...

Reputational Damage in The Netherlands Due to Negativity on Facebook?

Nowadays, reputational damage due to incorrect statements on the internet is a frequent occurrence. In this case, negative messages about a...

Cybersecurity in Israel: Protecting Your Investments

Your company faces potential threats every day from hackers and online criminals. Whether they are interested in stealing money, absconding with...

OLG Köln, Germany: Advertising Risks And Side Effects of Pharmaceuticals

As demonstrated by a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Köln [Higher Regional Court of Cologne] from July 1, 2016, associated risks and side...

From a Start-Up Nation to a Cyber Security Nation: The Evolution of Israel as a Security Leader

Most people who think about leading global players in online security concerns think big: the United States, China, and Russia. Quietly, though,...

LG Hamburg: Misleading Advertising for Cigarettes in Germany

The property “mild” can only refer to the taste when it comes to tobacco advertising. According to a ruling of the Landgericht (LG) Hamburg...

Misleading Advertising Through Use of a Manufacturer’s Logo in Germany

If a car dealership advertises with a manufacturer’s logo without being an authorized dealer, this may constitute misleading advertising...

China Issues Implementing Regulations of the Law on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests

  By MMLC Group
On August 5, 2016, the State Administration of Industry & Commerce (“SAIC”), released a draft of the Regulations on the Implementation of the...

New General Data Protection Regulation in Romania

In Romania, and perhaps in the rest of Europe, little attention seems to be paid to Data Protection and the implication of the regulations which...

Alcohol, Language, and the Law

Legal disputes have become increasingly common among breweries and distilleries. Companies are litigating not only over trademark confusion, but...

LG Magdeburg: German Consumers Misled by False Indication of Origin

If certificates or marks of origin are used for promotional purposes but the products are produced elsewhere, this may constitute an...

Sex Crimes Involving Internet Interactions

  By HG.org
Sex crimes are prevalent in each state to varying degrees. Of these, many offenders are convicted of crimes involving interactions through the...

OLG Koblenz: Misleading Advertising Concerning Pharmaceuticals in Germany

Advertising for pharmaceuticals is impermissible if the content of a promotional statement is not based on sound scientific evidence. That was...

European Competition Authorities Take Aim at Internet Giant

The European Commission has expanded its proceedings against an internet company on account of possible infringements of antitrust law. The...

Fight Online Libel in the Philippines

Internet postings are subject to Philippine jurisdiction. Under Section 21 of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10175),...

Requirements to the Name of Entities in Ukraine

The company name is a very important part of the business, because thanks to their names companies can promote their brand in the market, shape...

.law Could Set Off A Domain Gold Rush

.law is a top/level domain dedicated to lawyers.

BGH on Advertising Without Option to Order

The Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Constitutional Court, has ruled that advertising for textiles need not mention their composition...

EGC: Advertising Featuring Positive Properties of Dextrose Misleading in the EU

In its ruling of March 16, 2016, the General Court of the European Union (EGC) confirmed that advertising for dextrose featuring health claims...

Regulating Cyber Activity in Israel - Establishing a National Registry of Cyber Practitioners

Recent developments in the regulation of the cyber domain in Israel relating to defense export control of the cyber domain.

Unfair Advertising: Health Claims Concerning Foods in Germany

Health claims pertaining to foods have to satisfy strict requirements if they are to avoid infringing competition law. That was the verdict of...

OLG Koblenz on Misleading Advertising

Companies promoting their products need to ensure that consumers have a realistic opportunity to purchase them. That was the verdict of the OLG...

Prohibited Advertising Directed at Children in Germany

Children are an interesting target audience in the field of advertising. That being said, it is important for businesses to be careful not to...

China Tightens Control Over Online Content

  By MMLC Group
China has begun enforcing its new media content regulations. This article looks at how they are being enforced and targets of recent enforcement...

Advertising & Marketing Law in Uganda

Uganda lacks specific laws to govern the advertising business. Regulation of advertising is provided in sections of several laws.

Do I Have a Lanham Claim Against My Competitor for False Advertising?

The elements that a party must prove to prevail on a Lanham Act Claim for False Advertising.

Remedies for Cybersquatting

Have you ever noticed that when a person or business name becomes popular or well-known, there’s often an unrelated third party prepared to park...

Financial Technology, An Exciting Upcoming Industry

FinTech is becoming one of the most influential sectors within the economy. It has simplified mundane and extensive tasks in many industries...

LG Frankfurt Prohibits Taxi Broker’s Discount Promotion

Promotional discounts can give rise to unfair predatory competition and infringe competition law. The Landgericht Frankfurt (Regional Court of...

Legal Risks of Naming Specific Persons Online

  By HG.org
Given the proliferation of online material, the risks of misusing a person’s name or other information online have increased. Even obscure blogs...

OLG Hamburg: Advertising Lowest Price Guarantee Potentially Anti-Competitive in Germany

According to a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht Hamburg (Higher Regional Court of Hamburg), advertising with a lowest price guarantee is...

IT Crimes in Saudi Arabia

Anti-Cyber Crime Law of Saudi Arabia is ny act committed related to computer or the internet violating stipulations of this law.

Sweeping Advertising Statements in Germany can be Misleading

The Landgericht Berlin (Regional Court of Berlin) ruled on April 14, 2015 that blanket advertising of savings is misleading to consumers (Az.:...

Cyber Investigation - How Prepared are the Indian Police?

India has emerged as a favorite hub for cybercriminals, mostly hackers and other malicious users who use the Internet for committing crimes. As...

Advertising With Distinction “Test Winner” Permissible in Germany

According to a judgment of the OLG Düsseldorf (Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf), a company is allowed to use the expression “test winner” in...

OLG Frankfurt: Permissibility of Advertising Long Company Tradition Despite Insolvency

Advertising many years of company tradition may be permissible and not anti-competitive despite a temporary state of insolvency. That was the...

Sharing Photographs: Excessive Copyright Demands

Technological advancements in social media sites and website development tools have allowed users to easily share and discuss articles and...

Legal Route to Gambling- India Perspective

"There are many harsh lessons to be learned from the gambling experience, but the harshest one of all is the difference between having Fun and...

2015 Polish “Indian Summer” Changes in the Copyright Regulations

Similarly to prior years, we have a beautiful Indian summer in Poland which brings changes to our copyright law. On the 11th September 2015, the...

EU Court of Justice Invalidates US-EU Safe Harbor Arrangement

On October 6, 2015, the Court of Justice of the European Union handed down judgment in Case C-362/14, Maximillian Schrems v. Data Protection...

Privacy Laws and Social Media Sites

  By HG.org
Social media sites and privacy are somewhat inherently at odds. After all, the point of social media is to share your life with the world; the...

China's New Advertising Regulations

  By MMLC Group
China’s revised Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, effective as of 1 September, 2015, represents the first major revision since...

Food Products Can only Be Advertised with Ingredients which They Contain in Europe

The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has strengthened consumer protection. Thus, food products cannot give the impression that they contain...

China’s New Advertising Law: Consumer Protection

Advertising in China follows you everywhere. The fast food menu pushed into your hand on the street and the video loop warbling at you from the...

The Power of a Name as a Registered Trademark in Sports

Did you know that you can register your name as a trademark in sports? Many athletes know this and they obtain many benefit from this. Radamel...

What Is Your Liability If Someone Hacks Your PC and Uses Information for Criminal Purposes?

  By HG.org
Large-scale security breaches receive massive media attention. Whether a person can be criminally or civilly liable for another’s actions while...

Is it Legal to Film Police Officers?

Police activity has been in the spotlight in St. Louis, and Nationwide since the Ferguson, Missouri riots began this past August. As riots...

Attorney Advertising

At first glance, this sounds like a ridiculous question, especially in today’s world of Internet Search Engines, smart phones and attorney/ law...

Social Media Best Practices for Healthcare Providers

Social media continues to change how we communicate.

Changes in Advertising Law of Russia

Provisions of the Advertising Law are detailed as regards limiting the sound level for advertisements entered into effect on May 25, 2015....

Website Ripoffs: How to Get a Refund from an Uncooperative Website Owner

  By HG.org
Most of us have fallen for it at one time or another. A website offers a “free” or reduced fee trial for its services, but asks for a credit...

Can Anyone Stop Me From Putting Up a Satellite Dish?

  By HG.org
As options for television channels have increased, satellite TV has become a very popular alternative to cable. Unfortunately, to receive these...

A Website Published Embarrassing Content About Me, What Can I Do?

  By HG.org
The Internet has brought many benefits to modern civilization. Unfortunately, just as with any technology, it also has a dark side. So, when a...

IT-startups in Ukraine: It's Time to Start

Ukraine, as a potential country for doing business, is often discussed by foreign investors, despite the fact that the ratings of favorable...

How Do Movies, TV Shows, Music, and Video Games Get Rated for Content?

  By HG.org
Most parents are concerned with the things their children see and hear in the media. It is an ugly world out there, and while it may be...

Someone Hacked My Phone or Computer, What Can I Do?

  By HG.org
There are few things that feel more violating than finding that someone has hacked into your phone or computer. When this happens, the first...

What Protections Does The Americans with Disabilities Act Provide?

  By HG.org
The Americans with Disabilities Act was passed to help the United States benefit from the skills and talents of individuals who happen to have...

When Is It Legal to Download Music, Movies, or Software Via Torrents on the Internet?

  By HG.org
Since the rise of the Internet, the illegal sharing of music, movies, and software have been an ongoing concern. Still, not every peer-to-peer...

I'm Being Harassed on Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter; What Are My Legal Options?

  By HG.org
Cyber-bullying has become a very big problem in America, and it is not just limited to children. Every day, thousands of people have to contend...

What Are Common American Censorship Laws?

  By HG.org
How often have we heard someone say “It's a free country, I can say what I want to?” In most cases, that person is correct. But, America does...

Cyberspace posing challenges to legal framework

The legal profession has been changing over time, adopting new fields and challenges. Globalization, development of internet and technologies...

The Legal Truth of E-contracts in Egypt

No doubt that the technological evolution and its wide range usage in various fields became a part of our daily lives, accompanied by this...

What is Net Neutrality and Why Should You Care?

  By HG.org
Much has been made over the last few years about net neutrality. Still, most people are confused by what this term refers to and why it matters....

Subject to Contract? Emailed Negotiations

Businesses should be aware of the risks of informal communications such as emails and conversations whilst negotiating commercial agreements.

Law Firms Must Step Up Cybersecurity

A recent article in the New York Times underscores the demand clients are requiring of their law firms to step up their cybersecurity. Financial...

Northern Border Security: Impact of Canada's Anti-Spam Law on American Businesses

When you think of countries leading the cyber-security charge, chances are that Canada is not the first name on your list. That has changed. On...

Quality in Consulting : How Hard is it in Application

TQM is commonly known for the principles of continuous improvement, awareness of total cost of quality, recognition that everyone holds...

On Requirements Set by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA)

Starting in 2015, the pharmaceutical companies - EFPIA members shall comply with the requirements regarding the disclosure of information on the...

IT Law Gaining in Importance on Many Issues

There is scarcely another field of law that has grown so much in importance over recent years as IT law. People come into contact with this...

Driving Regional Traffic with Google+ Local for Lawyers

  By HG.org
Google search now makes up nearly 95% of all consumer searches for local businesses. As a lawyer that relies on a steady stream of local...

When Should Blog or Forum Posts Create Liability for Defamation?

Writers often express their views on blogs or forums. With the advancement of laws, anyone who writes articles, must be cautious of consequences...

Technology & Communications Law - Malaysia

A basic insight into the laws of technology and communications in Malaysia.

Google Receives Influx of Take-Down Requests

Google has certainly had some experience dealing with take-down requests in the past – primarily dealing with copyright infringing content – but...

US Authorities Granted Power to Search Foreign Servers

Last week a district judge in New York ruled that US authorities can access and search through electronic data stored by US companies on servers...

Azerbaijan Is on Its Way to Creating Ambitious Electronic Court System

Azerbaijan is creating its electronic court system. The President of the country issued the respective order (the “Order”) back few months ago ....

Combined Offers in Advertising - Germany

Combined offers are when merchandise, often of high quality, is offered at an extremely low price and only in connection with the purchase of a...

Advertising and Promotion in the State of Kuwait

Freedom of expression is guaranteed for all in the State of Kuwait under many laws that may be some of its most important articles are included...

Telecommunication In Nigeria

Broadcasting and telecommunication has come a long way in Nigeria. Formally these services were considered social services in nature hence...

Two RI Supreme Court Cases Examining Television And Negligence Claims

While watching television recently, I came across a commercial involving dangerous stunts. The stunts were so dangerous and over the top that...

White Collar Crime in Malaysia

A Malaysian perspective on White-Collar Crime. A daunting task it has failed to curb, yet.

The Importance of Writing Good Legal Content

What is Good Legal Content? Good Legal Content is content that serves two purposes, one it gains the attention of the reader, hopefully one...

Advertising Law in Lebanon

Advertising is part of daily life, from street posters, print ads, and online campaigns to indirect advertising such as promotional events. A...

What Does the Law Say About Using Someone's Webcam or Computer Microphone to Spy on Them?

  By HG.org
In our modern, connected age, it seems everyone has a tablet or laptop computer that they use on a daily basis. These computers usually have...

Is it Legal for Someone to Post my Private Photos Then Demand Money for Their Removal?

  By HG.org
Over the last few years, a number of unscrupulous websites have developed around Americans' increasing comfort with sharing private, intimate...

Do Real World Laws Apply to Virtual World Problems?

  By HG.org
Everyday, millions of people login from all over the world to experience various virtual worlds. Some are part of a video game, others are...

A Dentist’s Advertising Measures Can Be Considered Unfair Competition – Germany

If a dentist offers his services via a coupon portal, this conduct can be viewed as promotional advertising and thus as unfair competition.


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