HG.org Legal Resources

Communication Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Communication.


Sex Crimes Involving Internet Interactions

  July 22, 2016     By HG.org
Sex crimes are prevalent in each state to varying degrees. Of these, many offenders are convicted of crimes involving interactions through the internet. Some use profiles to capture the attention of specific people, while others create or distribute illegal content such as child pornography.

OLG Koblenz: Misleading Advertising Concerning Pharmaceuticals in Germany

  July 18, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Advertising for pharmaceuticals is impermissible if the content of a promotional statement is not based on sound scientific evidence. That was the verdict of the Oberlandesgericht Koblenz (OLG) [Higher Regional Court of Koblenz].

European Competition Authorities Take Aim at Internet Giant

  July 15, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The European Commission has expanded its proceedings against an internet company on account of possible infringements of antitrust law. The latter is said to have potentially abused its dominant market position.

Fight Online Libel in the Philippines

  July 11, 2016     By Respicio & Co. Law Firm
Internet postings are subject to Philippine jurisdiction. Under Section 21 of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10175), jurisdiction shall lie if any of the elements of the libel was committed within the Philippines. One of the elements of libel is publication of the charge. If the posts are published and accessible in the country, Philippines has jurisdiction.

Requirements to the Name of Entities in Ukraine

  July 6, 2016     By Kydalov & Partners
The company name is a very important part of the business, because thanks to their names companies can promote their brand in the market, shape the perception of consumers, a name can become a trademark, etc.

.law Could Set Off A Domain Gold Rush

  June 30, 2016     By MileMark Media, LLC
.law is a top/level domain dedicated to lawyers.

BGH on Advertising Without Option to Order

  June 9, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
The Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Constitutional Court, has ruled that advertising for textiles need not mention their composition if the promotional brochure does not offer the opportunity to order.

EGC: Advertising Featuring Positive Properties of Dextrose Misleading in the EU

  June 6, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
In its ruling of March 16, 2016, the General Court of the European Union (EGC) confirmed that advertising for dextrose featuring health claims is not permissible (Az.: T-100/15).

Unfair Advertising: Health Claims Concerning Foods in Germany

  May 25, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Health claims pertaining to foods have to satisfy strict requirements if they are to avoid infringing competition law. That was the verdict of the Landgericht Rostock (Regional Court of Rostock) in a recent ruling.

Regulating Cyber Activity in Israel - Establishing a National Registry of Cyber Practitioners

  May 25, 2016     By Gill Nadel Law Office
Recent developments in the regulation of the cyber domain in Israel relating to defense export control of the cyber domain.

OLG Koblenz on Misleading Advertising

  May 24, 2016     By GRP Rainer LLP
Companies promoting their products need to ensure that consumers have a realistic opportunity to purchase them. That was the verdict of the OLG Koblenz (Higher Regional Court of Koblenz) in a recent ruling.

China Tightens Control Over Online Content

  May 2, 2016     By MMLC Group
China has begun enforcing its new media content regulations. This article looks at how they are being enforced and targets of recent enforcement actions.

Prohibited Advertising Directed at Children in Germany

Children are an interesting target audience in the field of advertising. That being said, it is important for businesses to be careful not to infringe Germany’s Gesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb (Unfair Competition Act).

Advertising & Marketing Law in Uganda

Uganda lacks specific laws to govern the advertising business. Regulation of advertising is provided in sections of several laws.

Do I Have a Lanham Claim Against My Competitor for False Advertising?

The elements that a party must prove to prevail on a Lanham Act Claim for False Advertising.

Remedies for Cybersquatting

Have you ever noticed that when a person or business name becomes popular or well-known, there’s often an unrelated third party prepared to park or register website domains in the name of that person or business? In many such cases, the third party’s objective involves making an easy profit by holding the domains “hostage” until the rightful owner of the name or mark is willing to pay a premium for the domains. This is called cybersquatting and it is illegal.

Financial Technology, An Exciting Upcoming Industry

FinTech is becoming one of the most influential sectors within the economy. It has simplified mundane and extensive tasks in many industries through technological innovation within the financial sector. Law firms are starting to benefit from FinTech through different tools, which could possibly lead to law firms becoming smaller entities as more work is left to computers.

LG Frankfurt Prohibits Taxi Broker’s Discount Promotion

Promotional discounts can give rise to unfair predatory competition and infringe competition law. The Landgericht Frankfurt (Regional Court of Frankfurt) prohibited a promotional discount from the provider of a taxi app for this very reason.

Legal Risks of Naming Specific Persons Online

  By HG.org
Given the proliferation of online material, the risks of misusing a person’s name or other information online have increased. Even obscure blogs have thousands or millions of readers. Using a person’s name or other information may subject publishers to very serious legal liability.

OLG Hamburg: Advertising Lowest Price Guarantee Potentially Anti-Competitive in Germany

According to a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht Hamburg (Higher Regional Court of Hamburg), advertising with a lowest price guarantee is potentially misleading and thus anti-competitive (Az.: 5 U 160/11).

IT Crimes in Saudi Arabia

Anti-Cyber Crime Law of Saudi Arabia is ny act committed related to computer or the internet violating stipulations of this law.

Sweeping Advertising Statements in Germany can be Misleading

The Landgericht Berlin (Regional Court of Berlin) ruled on April 14, 2015 that blanket advertising of savings is misleading to consumers (Az.: 103 O 124/14).

Cyber Investigation - How Prepared are the Indian Police?

India has emerged as a favorite hub for cybercriminals, mostly hackers and other malicious users who use the Internet for committing crimes. As per a study conducted by Assocham-Mahindra SSG, total number of cyber-crimes registered during 2011-14 stood from 13,301 and 1, 49,254 respectively and rising at an alarming rate. In 2015, the number of cyber-crimes in the country may double up to 3 lakhs and could pose serious economic and national security challenges.

Advertising With Distinction “Test Winner” Permissible in Germany

According to a judgment of the OLG Düsseldorf (Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf), a company is allowed to use the expression “test winner” in its advertising even if it has to share this distinction with other competitors (I-15 U 24/15).

Sharing Photographs: Excessive Copyright Demands

Technological advancements in social media sites and website development tools have allowed users to easily share and discuss articles and photographs across the globe. In parallel with these technological developments, various organizations have sprung up that claim to represent owners of these shared photographs. These organizations send a letter and make an excessive copyright demand. Users must understand their rights before deciding whether to succumb to such excessive demands.

OLG Frankfurt: Permissibility of Advertising Long Company Tradition Despite Insolvency

Advertising many years of company tradition may be permissible and not anti-competitive despite a temporary state of insolvency. That was the decision of the OLG [Oberlandesgericht] Frankfurt (Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt) (Az.: 6 U 69/15).

Legal Route to Gambling- India Perspective

"There are many harsh lessons to be learned from the gambling experience, but the harshest one of all is the difference between having Fun and being Smart." -Hunter S. Thompson

2015 Polish “Indian Summer” Changes in the Copyright Regulations

Similarly to prior years, we have a beautiful Indian summer in Poland which brings changes to our copyright law. On the 11th September 2015, the Polish Parliament passed a new legal act, which introduces some significant changes into the Polish Copyright Act. Some of them, were required by the European law; other ones were intended to meet expectations of members of the Polish domestic legal market. This article will present the most notable, newly introduced, amendments.

EU Court of Justice Invalidates US-EU Safe Harbor Arrangement

On October 6, 2015, the Court of Justice of the European Union handed down judgment in Case C-362/14, Maximillian Schrems v. Data Protection Commissioner, invalidating the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor arrangement.

Privacy Laws and Social Media Sites

  By HG.org
Social media sites and privacy are somewhat inherently at odds. After all, the point of social media is to share your life with the world; the very opposite of maintaining your privacy. Still, there is a difference between sharing parts of your life and all of it. Thus, a number of legal lines have been drawn in the sand regarding privacy on social media sites.

China's New Advertising Regulations

  By MMLC Group
China’s revised Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China, effective as of 1 September, 2015, represents the first major revision since being enacted in 1995.

Food Products Can only Be Advertised with Ingredients which They Contain in Europe

The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has strengthened consumer protection. Thus, food products cannot give the impression that they contain certain ingredients if this is not actually the case.

China’s New Advertising Law: Consumer Protection

Advertising in China follows you everywhere. The fast food menu pushed into your hand on the street and the video loop warbling at you from the taxi headrest screen; to name just two of the many. But now a new law is following all that advertising, too.

The Power of a Name as a Registered Trademark in Sports

Did you know that you can register your name as a trademark in sports? Many athletes know this and they obtain many benefit from this. Radamel Falcao, know as the ¨Tiger¨ or ¨Tigre¨ from Colombia’s soccer team, has a company named, Business Tiger S.A.S., his company manages all the sponsoring contracts and profits that the trademark FALCAO earns. Radamel Falcao had many trademark lawsuits with people that tried to use and register his name without permission.

What Is Your Liability If Someone Hacks Your PC and Uses Information for Criminal Purposes?

  By HG.org
Large-scale security breaches receive massive media attention. Whether a person can be criminally or civilly liable for another’s actions while using their equipment or connection depends on the particular circumstances involved in the case.

Is it Legal to Film Police Officers?

Police activity has been in the spotlight in St. Louis, and Nationwide since the Ferguson, Missouri riots began this past August. As riots escalated, numerous arrests were made because reporters or witnesses took out their phones to capture footage of police officers assigned to the scene. Leaving many to ask the question: Is it legal to film police officers?

Attorney Advertising

At first glance, this sounds like a ridiculous question, especially in today’s world of Internet Search Engines, smart phones and attorney/ law firm websites, anyone can research and get reviews of everything from restaurants and television sets to doctors, lawyers and plumbers.

Social Media Best Practices for Healthcare Providers

Social media continues to change how we communicate.

Changes in Advertising Law of Russia

Provisions of the Advertising Law are detailed as regards limiting the sound level for advertisements entered into effect on May 25, 2015. Illegal use of intellectual property in advertising does not violate advertising laws. Stricter liability for credit institutions for violations in advertising financial services.

Website Ripoffs: How to Get a Refund from an Uncooperative Website Owner

  By HG.org
Most of us have fallen for it at one time or another. A website offers a “free” or reduced fee trial for its services, but asks for a credit card upfront. It tells you that your membership will automatically renew if you do not cancel before the end of your free trial. You use the service, but do not want to pay for it, so you try to cancel and get charged anyway.

Can Anyone Stop Me From Putting Up a Satellite Dish?

  By HG.org
As options for television channels have increased, satellite TV has become a very popular alternative to cable. Unfortunately, to receive these broadcasts, one needs to install a satellite dish on the outside of a building, and this can lead to disputes. Thus, many ask “can anyone stop me from putting up a satellite dish?”

A Website Published Embarrassing Content About Me, What Can I Do?

  By HG.org
The Internet has brought many benefits to modern civilization. Unfortunately, just as with any technology, it also has a dark side. So, when a website publishes embarrassing content about you, what can you do?

IT-startups in Ukraine: It's Time to Start

Ukraine, as a potential country for doing business, is often discussed by foreign investors, despite the fact that the ratings of favorable legal environment of Ukraine is not too high. The main reason for the low ratings of favorable investment climate in Ukraine is corruption and overly regulated legal regulation of business.

How Do Movies, TV Shows, Music, and Video Games Get Rated for Content?

  By HG.org
Most parents are concerned with the things their children see and hear in the media. It is an ugly world out there, and while it may be inevitable that they will eventually learn about all of those things, most parents do not want their kids to see graphic violence or mature content or hear offensive language at too your an age.

Someone Hacked My Phone or Computer, What Can I Do?

  By HG.org
There are few things that feel more violating than finding that someone has hacked into your phone or computer. When this happens, the first reaction may be to call the authorities and report the breach. But, many are surprised to find that police are not always terribly interested to hear about the event. So, what can you do if someone hacks your computer or phone?

What Protections Does The Americans with Disabilities Act Provide?

  By HG.org
The Americans with Disabilities Act was passed to help the United States benefit from the skills and talents of individuals who happen to have disabilities. It strives to break down barriers individuals with disabilities experienced regarding employment, public accommodations, public services, transportation and telecommunications.

I'm Being Harassed on Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter; What Are My Legal Options?

  By HG.org
Cyber-bullying has become a very big problem in America, and it is not just limited to children. Every day, thousands of people have to contend with negative, abusive, insulting, and threatening comments posted on, or linked to, their social media accounts. This has left many to wonder if there is anything they can do – from a legal standpoint – to protect themselves.

When Is It Legal to Download Music, Movies, or Software Via Torrents on the Internet?

  By HG.org
Since the rise of the Internet, the illegal sharing of music, movies, and software have been an ongoing concern. Still, not every peer-to-peer network for sharing various forms of media is illegal, and some companies have even found it desirable to begin distributing materials in this fashion. So, when is it legal to download music, movies, or software via torrents on the Internet?

What Are Common American Censorship Laws?

  By HG.org
How often have we heard someone say “It's a free country, I can say what I want to?” In most cases, that person is correct. But, America does not always allow free speech without constraint.

Cyberspace posing challenges to legal framework

The legal profession has been changing over time, adopting new fields and challenges. Globalization, development of internet and technologies all led to the change in lives, change in the way businesses are conducted, in the way people spend their leisure time and, also, the way people commit crimes.

The Legal Truth of E-contracts in Egypt

No doubt that the technological evolution and its wide range usage in various fields became a part of our daily lives, accompanied by this evolution,it’s usage between people in civil and commercial transactions grew significantly.,

What is Net Neutrality and Why Should You Care?

  By HG.org
Much has been made over the last few years about net neutrality. Still, most people are confused by what this term refers to and why it matters. This confusion is understandable given the misleading nature of the name, and the way it is often misapplied in the media. But, net neutrality is actually a very important concept to understand and one that could directly impact the way the Internet works and how we all use it.

Subject to Contract? Emailed Negotiations

Businesses should be aware of the risks of informal communications such as emails and conversations whilst negotiating commercial agreements.

Law Firms Must Step Up Cybersecurity

A recent article in the New York Times underscores the demand clients are requiring of their law firms to step up their cybersecurity. Financial institutions, including some Wall Street banks, are asking their outside counselors to answer questionnaires of up to 60 pages, which probe the firm’s cyber security measures. Other types of corporations are also asking their legal firms to allow for internal and/or external Information Technology (IT) firms to do an audit.

Northern Border Security: Impact of Canada's Anti-Spam Law on American Businesses

When you think of countries leading the cyber-security charge, chances are that Canada is not the first name on your list. That has changed. On July 1, 2014, Canada implemented the new Canada Anti-Spam Legislation (“CASL”), which arguably is the strictest anti-spam legislation in the world.

Quality in Consulting : How Hard is it in Application

TQM is commonly known for the principles of continuous improvement, awareness of total cost of quality, recognition that everyone holds responsibility for quality, customer orientation/focus, process orientation, commitment of senior management etc. However, quality has been commonly associated with industries where it originated and not with services which are difficult to measure, evaluate and apply a zero-defect concept to.

What Does the Law Say About Using Someone's Webcam or Computer Microphone to Spy on Them?

  By HG.org
In our modern, connected age, it seems everyone has a tablet or laptop computer that they use on a daily basis. These computers usually have built in webcams and microphones which, while very useful for legitimate purposes like video calls, can also be a vehicle for embarrassment, identity theft, and spying on your most intimate moments. So, what does the law have to say about using someone's webcam or computer microphone to spy on them?

Is it Legal for Someone to Post my Private Photos Then Demand Money for Their Removal?

  By HG.org
Over the last few years, a number of unscrupulous websites have developed around Americans' increasing comfort with sharing private, intimate photos with one another. While the photos are usually not intended for public consumption, often after a rough breakup or other event in which the recipient is left unhappy, that person will post those photos for the world to see. But is this legal? More importantly, can the site where the photos are posted legally charge you to take them down?

Do Real World Laws Apply to Virtual World Problems?

  By HG.org
Everyday, millions of people login from all over the world to experience various virtual worlds. Some are part of a video game, others are intended to allow for social interactions, and still others include elements for commercial dealings. Whatever the purpose, any environment in which people interact can lead to friction and disagreements of various sorts. This has led many to ask whether the laws of the real world can or should apply to virtual world problems.

Is There a Law Against Cyberstalking or Cyberharassment?

  By HG.org
With the rise of social networking, many have lost some of their concerns about personal privacy. Indeed, millions of Americans share the intimate details of their lives with an audience of dozens to thousands to sometimes even millions of people everyday, and think nothing of it. But what happens when someone begins to use this information against you? Are they violating any laws by following you online or bothering you on the Internet?

How Do The Law and Social Media Intersect?

  By HG.org
Finding someone who does not have a Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn, or other social media profile is getting harder to do. Granted, there are still a few stalwart holdouts, but the vast majority of Americans use social media everyday (in fact, you may have come across this article in your social media feed). With social networking such a huge part of our lives, are there any social media laws? How are common legal issues resolved when they occur in a social network?

On Requirements Set by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA)

Starting in 2015, the pharmaceutical companies - EFPIA members shall comply with the requirements regarding the disclosure of information on the transfer of value to Healthcare Professionals and Healthcare Organizations.

Can Dating Sites Post Fake Profiles to Lure In Members?

  By HG.org
It is the end of a long week, and you find yourself at home wishing you had something to do. But, tired of being a fifth wheel to all of your friends in relationships, you decide it is time to join the millions of other people who are online looking for a date. Unfortunately, some of those millions may not be real people after all. Is it legal for dating sites to use fake content to lure in new members?

Is It Legal For Someone to Share Your Revealing Photos or Videos for Revenge on the Internet

  By HG.org
In this modern digital age, it is often common for romantic partners, particularly those in long distance relationships, to exchange revealing photos of one another. These photos are often intended for the eyes of the receiver only. But, how can you be sure? What happens if you break up or the other person turns out to be less discrete than you had hoped? Is it illegal for someone to share those photos with others?

Social Review Sites Fight Back Against Law Firms Posting Fake Reviews

  By HG.org
Attorney advertising is a fairly new phenomenon in many jurisdictions. Rules of various state bar associations have eased over the last two decades to allow more and more freedom for attorneys wishing to advertise their services just like any other profession. However, the rise of new technology has presented a new twist and new source of liability for attorneys wishing to advertise online.

Truth in Advertising and Marketing and Other FTC Regulations

  By HG.org
When consumers see or hear an advertisement on the Internet, radio, in print, on a billboard, on television, or anywhere else, federal law says that the ad must be truthful, not misleading, and, when appropriate, backed by scientific evidence.

What are the Laws Regarding Paparazzi

  By HG.org
Many will long remember the death of Princess Diana in 1997. She passed away as a result of a fatal car crash during a high-speed paparazzi chase. This led to a number of laws in both England and America relating to the paparazzi.

Why is Pornography Legal and Prostitution is Not

  By HG.org
It seems like the headlines are constantly filled with new stories of politicians quite literally caught with their pants down in scandals with prostitutes. This often raises the question of why we do not treat prostitution in the same was as pornography. Why is sex for money okay in one setting and not another?

Driving Regional Traffic with Google+ Local for Lawyers

  By HG.org
Google search now makes up nearly 95% of all consumer searches for local businesses. As a lawyer that relies on a steady stream of local clients, you can’t afford to leave search engine marketing out of your lead-generation repertoire.

IT Law Gaining in Importance on Many Issues

There is scarcely another field of law that has grown so much in importance over recent years as IT law. People come into contact with this field both from professional and private perspectives on an almost daily basis.

When is it False Advertising or Just Puffing?

  By HG.org
We have all seen commercials making claims that our common sense told us simply cannot be true. For example, miracle weight loss supplements or exercise equipment. And yet, somehow these commercials make it to television and are not immediately removed as part of a lawsuit. How is that? What is the difference between false advertising and simply inflating the truth about your product (a practice called “puffing”)?

What Are Our First Amendment Rights?

  By HG.org
Considered by many to be the most important rights established by the United States Constitution, the First Amendment rights cover some of the most fundamental freedoms Americans enjoy. They include free speech, press, religion, petition, and assembly. These rights are fiercely protected but also not without limitation.

Defamation: What it is and How to Deal with It

  By HG.org
Defamation is when someone tells one or more persons an untruth about you, and that untruth harms your reputation. Defamation is the general term, while slander and libel refer to particular types of defamation. Libel is a written defamation, and slander is verbal. There are three key factors to consider when deciding whether a defamatory statement should be taken to court.

When Should Blog or Forum Posts Create Liability for Defamation?

Writers often express their views on blogs or forums. With the advancement of laws, anyone who writes articles, must be cautious of consequences of doing so. This is a Malaysian perspective.

Technology & Communications Law - Malaysia

A basic insight into the laws of technology and communications in Malaysia.

Google Receives Influx of Take-Down Requests

Google has certainly had some experience dealing with take-down requests in the past – primarily dealing with copyright infringing content – but nothing was to prepare it for the overwhelming influx of requests it reportedly received following the ECJ ruling on the subject last week.

US Authorities Granted Power to Search Foreign Servers

Last week a district judge in New York ruled that US authorities can access and search through electronic data stored by US companies on servers based outside the US.

Azerbaijan Is on Its Way to Creating Ambitious Electronic Court System

Azerbaijan is creating its electronic court system. The President of the country issued the respective order (the “Order”) back few months ago . The Order lists the elements of the system. It should include electronic filing, case tracking, notifications, electronic cabinet etc.

Combined Offers in Advertising - Germany

Combined offers are when merchandise, often of high quality, is offered at an extremely low price and only in connection with the purchase of a main product. This sales method is increasingly used by some companies as a marketing strategy.

Advertising and Promotion in the State of Kuwait

Freedom of expression is guaranteed for all in the State of Kuwait under many laws that may be some of its most important articles are included in the articles of the Constitution of The State of Kuwait and the other laws organising this matter.

Telecommunication In Nigeria

Broadcasting and telecommunication has come a long way in Nigeria. Formally these services were considered social services in nature hence private companies were foreclosed from participation of any kind. This article will explore these procedures, conditions for grant, refusal, renewal and withdrawals of these licenses.

Two RI Supreme Court Cases Examining Television And Negligence Claims

While watching television recently, I came across a commercial involving dangerous stunts. The stunts were so dangerous and over the top that the producer included legal disclaimers to the effect that “You should not try this at home!” What would happen, I thought, if somebody injured themselves after watching such a stunt? Could a legal claim for negligence survive against the broadcaster or producer?

The Importance of Writing Good Legal Content

What is Good Legal Content? Good Legal Content is content that serves two purposes, one it gains the attention of the reader, hopefully one who is a potential client. The content gives them enough information and intrigues them enough to make them want to contact your office for more information, or better yet a consultation.

White Collar Crime in Malaysia

A Malaysian perspective on White-Collar Crime. A daunting task it has failed to curb, yet.

Advertising Law in Lebanon

Advertising is part of daily life, from street posters, print ads, and online campaigns to indirect advertising such as promotional events. A variety of laws dictate what may or may not be advertised or marketed and in which ways.

A Dentist’s Advertising Measures Can Be Considered Unfair Competition – Germany

If a dentist offers his services via a coupon portal, this conduct can be viewed as promotional advertising and thus as unfair competition.

The E-Mail Address Is a Mandatory Element of an Internet “Site Notice” (Impressum) – Germany

The Telemedia Act (TMG) requires that an e-mail address is provided as part of the “site notice” (Impressum) of an Internet website. An online contact form alone is not sufficient.

Advertising Law in Serbia

The State of Serbia regulates advertising on several levels, from the Constitution to statutory rulebooks, showing adequately its interests in ensuring that the law on advertising maintains a fair environment for commerce. The various regulations grant rights as well as impose obligations, providing for liberties as well as restrictions.

Marketing with Misleading Regional Information Is Prohibited – Germany

The marketing of dairy products whose name contains misleading information about places and regions of origin is not allowed, since it conjures up wrong connotations among consumers.

Advertising with Customer Reviews and Ratings May Be Potentially Misleading - Germany

Advertisements with customer reviews and ratings must not lead to a distorted, positive image of a company.

Payment Services New Rules for the Benefit of Consumers and Retailers - EU

In order to adapt the EU payments market to the opportunities of the single market and to support the growth of the EU economy, the European Commission adopted a package on 24th July 2013.

A Comparison of the Legal Use of Electronic Signatures in the U.S.A. and in Turkey

The United States Congress enacted ESIGN in 2000 (Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 7001 – 7006, (2012)) and Turkish Parliament enacted the 'Elektronik İmza Kanunu' (Electronic Signatures Law - EIK) in 2004. This article targets to summarize a comparison of approach between these statutes.

Further Update on Use of Personal Data for Direct Marketing in Hong Kong

The New Guidance on Direct Marketing issued by the Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data provides practical guidance on data users’ compliance with the new regulatory requirements for direct marketing under the new Part VIA of Hong Kong’s Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance which came into effect on 1 April 2013.

Cologne Higher Regional Court (OLG): Liability of Spouses in the Event of Copyright Breaches

A proprietor of an internet connection generally should not be liable for copyright breaches of their spouse.

Bipartisan Bill Looks to Crack Down on Rogue Websites

A bipartisan group in the U.S. House of Representatives recently introduced legislation intended to combat the illegal distribution of counterfeit goods via rogue websites hosted overseas. The proposed bill greatly expands protections for intellectual property (IP) and, if passed, would bring sweeping changes to copyright law.

Nationwide Advertising of Companies with the Same Name Can Be Possible - Germany

In several recent judgements, the German Federal Court of Justice (BGH) provided a few clarifications with respect to the advertising of companies with the same name.

Film Companies Demand Google Perform Takedowns in Secret

Google has long provided the service of blocking search results in pursuance to website takedown requests.

Ban on Retransmitting Television Programs by Broadcasting Companies - Germany

The retransmission of television programs of broadcasting companies over the internet by other companies can be prohibited by a broadcasting company.

Icann Listing Trademarks to Stifle Cybersquatting

The internationally recognised regulator of web addresses Icann (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is constantly seeking new ways to avoid abusive use of domain names. One of the more common abuses is that of cybersquatting, the act of registering domain names consisting in somebody else’s trademark in order to make gains of that trademark’s reputation. There are several types of cybersquatting, however this is the most common.

Cyber Security Directive May Prove Difficult - Malta

The EU has long been considering the implementation of frameworks and legal solutions to address mounting concerns in regard to cyber security. In addition to the introduction of a new strategy in this regard, the Commission made a proposal in February 2013 to introduce a directive to facilitate the creation of a harmonized network and to standardize information security throughout the EU.


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