Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide discussing legal aspects related to Environmental and Natural Resources.



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Turkish Renewable Energy Market

  April 17, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey's high economic growth which had reached almost double digits numbers by the middle of the last decade and stands around an annual average of 4% dictates new and innovative solutions to Turkey in order to reshuffle its energy infrastructural base.

How Arbitrary and Nasty the Power of Eminent Domain Can Be

  April 11, 2014     By Kassouni Law
Seizure of the Barries' Colorado dream cabin shows how arbitrary and nasty the power of eminent domain can be.

The Coastal Commission’s support for AB 976 Shows Due Process Apathy

  March 28, 2014     By Kassouni Law
Every monthly meeting the California Coastal Commission releases a list of bills in the current legislative session that it is supporting. It can be a time consuming effort to review all these bills, but sometimes you find a gem that sheds light on the nature of the Commission’s long-term goals, and the read becomes worth it. Last week, the Commission’s monthly report was well worth the read.

New Opportunity For the Turkish Energy Market: The Eastern Mediterranean Gas Fields

  March 27, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The high economic growth of Turkey which has been going on for more than a decade now intensified Turkey's need for more energy. It is estimated that Turkey is going to need a substantial volume of energy which will amount to a 7 % annual growth for the Turkish energy market until the year 2023.

Liguefied Natural Gas Market in Turkey

  March 20, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Currently, the importance of the Liguefied Natural Gas ("LNG") has come to the fore with the discussions concerning the probable problems in natural gas import to the Europe due to the Crimean Crisis. According to the experts' opinion, the LNG import to the Europe may increase in the near future depending on the decrease of the natural gas import. In brief, the LNG plays an essential role as an energy resource.

How Does Malaysian Law Deal With Acts of Piracy at Sea?

  March 12, 2014     By Brijnandan Singh Bhar & Co
Piracy is a prevailing problem with no reasonable solution in sight. How safe is your ship or consignment passing through the seas surrounding Malaysia and what laws apply to this region?

Concessions in Albania / PPP in Albania

  March 11, 2014     By LPA Law Firm Albania
According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared to international standards, the implementation of AML being a strong pillar and institutional frameworks and policy pillars were weak.

Democratic Republic of Congo: Mining companies and the Value Added Tax (VAT)

  March 11, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
In the following paragraphs, we do not have the pretention to review the legal meaning of the Ordinance-Act No 10/001 dated August 20, 2010 related to the institution of VAT which has replaced the Revenue Tax (ICA). We shall rather focus on analysing whether the Ordinance-Act mentioned above is applicable to eligible mining companies under the Mining Code enacted by the Act No 007/2002 dated July 11, 2002 related to the Mining Code.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Ownership of a Mine After Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights

  March 11, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for Permanent Quarry Exploitation, collectively referred to (« mining and quarry rights ») is principally to grant to their titleholders the right to mine natural or artificial deposits located above or below the concerned mining perimeter.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22

  March 11, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
“The DRC New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22 of December 24, 2011″ in Africa Law Today, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo: New Agricultural Law n° 11/022 Being Amended and Supplemented

  March 11, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Democratic Republic of the Congo new agricultural law n° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 is currently being amended and supplemented.

Significant Changes Currently Taking Place in Electrical Power Law in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  March 10, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
In article 48 of DRC Constitution of 18 February 2006 as amended to date, the right of access to electricity is enshrined and guaranteed to the entire Congolese population. However, in actual fact, the situation is quite different because of the huge deficit in the supply of electricity to the population i.e. there is a weak coverage rate. Only a small number of the population have access to electricity and even then only infrequently.

Characteristics of Hydrocarbon in the Republic of Congo

  March 10, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of Congo is one of the hydrocarbon-producing countries in Africa. This production accounts for a larger contribution of around 75% to the State budget.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly Has Passed the New Environment Code

  March 10, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries.

Gabon: Council of Ministers Adopts Draft Law on Mining Sector

  March 10, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

Guinea: Enactment of Law Amending the Mining Code of 2011

  March 10, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
New perspectives for the mining sector in Guinea: enactment of the law amending the Mining Code of 2011.

New Exploitation Environmental License: New Requirement for Mining Operators in the DRC

  March 7, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The emergence of various environmental issues and their negative impacts on the quality of life, including the reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements engaging countries to develop ancillary national laws, policies, plans and programs to regulate and supervise human activities and to mitigate their impact on the environment, constitutes the common heritage for all human beings.

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

  March 7, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health and safety of employees and other persons affected by the South African mining industry has been amended. The current amendment is related to Chapter 11 of the Regulations in terms of act. The exit certificate in section 17 must include details regarding a least the following: particulars of mine, particulars of employees and exit medical summary.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

  March 7, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Ratification of the Cooperation Agreement of September 9, 2010 Between Congo-Brazzaville and Angola

  March 7, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of Congo (“Congo-Brazzaville”) has authorized the ratification of the cooperation agreement of September 9, 2010, with the Republic of Angola in the area of mining and geology, by Law No. 17-2013 of August 13th, 2013.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

  March 7, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Mining Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

  March 7, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

The California Coastal Commission Reviews Fracking Along the California Coast

  March 4, 2014     By Kassouni Law
Whether the California Coastal Commission Eventually Regulates Fracking On the Outer Continental Shelf Will Have More to Do with Federalism than Science

2013 Turkey Energy Report

  February 28, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

  February 27, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health and safety of employees and other persons affected by the South African mining industry has been amended. The current amendment is related to Chapter 11 of the Regulations in terms of act. The exit certificate in section 17 must include details regarding a least the following: particulars of mine, particulars of employees and exit medical summary.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

  February 27, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

  February 27, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Burkina Faso: The Council of Ministers Adopts the Draft of New Mining Code

  February 27, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
On October 2, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Burkina Faso adopted a draft of new mining code. This draft which was in discussion since 2012, aims to amend and replace the Law No. 031-2003/AN of May 8, 2003 on the Mining Code in Burkina Faso.

Agricultural Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

  February 27, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Forest Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

  February 27, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Inga Falls - Hydro Power - Congo

  February 27, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga power project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Electricity Market Liberalization in Turkey: EU Directives and Harmonization

  February 26, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
As is known, the Turkish energy sector has been in a liberalization process for a long time and compared to other energy markets, the electricity market is in the fore especially regarding the legislation. Recently, the eligible customer limit in electricity market has been decreased to 4500 kWh from 5000 kWh per year within the Resolution of the Energy Market Regulatory Board in January 2014.

Legal Outlook of Turkish Gas Market

  February 26, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
With rapidly growing economy, Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world. Turkey has been experiencing rapid demand growth in all segments of the energy sector for decades.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

  February 14, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Implications of the Carbon Tax on South Africa’s transition into a greener economy

  February 14, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
As developing countries, such as South Africa, transition into more industrialized countries, they face numerous problems relating to their social, economic and political development. Despite South Africa’s incorporation of ideas such as state equality, principles of non-aggression and non-intervention, in which it aims to earn its seat in the framework of International Law; there is no doubt that South Africa is still searching for its respective place in the global economy.

Hydro Power Harnesses the Power Potential of the Congo River - Inga Falls

  February 14, 2014     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga Power Project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Energy Sector in Turkey and the Central Importance of EPİAŞ

  January 29, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

Energy regulation (electricity and gas) in Albania

  January 25, 2014     By LPA Law Firm Albania
Albania performs reasonably well overall with respect to the quality of its energy (electricity and natural gas) sector. The recent EBRD energy law reform dimensions assessment has shown with regards to the country’s electricity legislation that private sector participation and market framework are the key weaknesses, with regulatory independence being the key strength.

Hydroelectricity Power in Turkey

  January 13, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey is rapidly becoming a very important market player in its own territory with ambitious targets in energy sector.

A Test for Turkish Electricity Market: Fraud-Based Manipulation

  January 8, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkish electricity market is rapidly transforming a competitive open market by consistent privatization and liberalization policies of Turkish government.

An Overview On Turkish Petroleum Market

  January 8, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
As is known, the petroleum explorations have come to the fore in Turkey within the discovery of new oil wells. Even if its oil production does not meet the oil demand, Turkey has been working also on reforms in oil market like in other energy sub-sectors.

Energy Privatizations as a Part of Energy Market Liberalization - Turkey

  December 30, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Apart from the legal reforms and establishment of an energy exchange, privatizations are one of the energy market liberalization stages.

What Are the Laws Regarding Animal Testing?

  December 22, 2013     By HG.org
In the United States, a number of products like pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and detergents are first tested on animals to determine what their effects are likely to be on humans. This has raised a number legal and ethical concerns among consumers. So, what are the laws regarding animal testing?

Recent Legal Reforms in Energy and Market Expectations

  December 17, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
For the purpose of meeting the energy gap of Turkey and of increasing of the energy production, adequate legal reforms have been made regularly by taking the market requirements and market situation.

Key Process-Plant Specific Clauses in Process-Plant EPC Contracts - Turkey

  December 16, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Mostly, EPC Contracts will not provide for the handover of the facility to the project company until all commissioning and reliability trialing has been successfully completed.

Electricity and Natural Gas Correlation in Turkey: Fragility in Trading and Pricing Mechanism

  December 16, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey has a very high foreign-source dependency in energy sector by 75% whereas natural gas dependency mounts to 98%.

Incentives on Renewables in Turkey

  December 15, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
As many other countries, Turkey also intends to increase the rate of renewable energy resources to 30 % in its power generation until 20231. In accordance with this, adequate legislative amendments and legal reforms in energy have been made since 2010 which provide diverse incentives to investors. Recently, the Council of Ministers passed a resolution concerning investments and domestic production in renewable energy.

Future Energy Market Opportunities for Investment Funds in Turkey

  December 13, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The most promising sector in Turkey. Government's diversified energy policies will pioneer many energy areas.

A Perspective on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Regulations in The Turkish Market

  December 11, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The Draft of New Natural Gas Market Law provides incentives not only regarding the natural gas, but also regarding the LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) import and LNG terminal establishment.

Moratorium on Ukrainian Land Not a Problem

  December 10, 2013     By Syutkin and Partners
Ukraine is the biggest country in Europe. It borders with Russia, Belorussia, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland. It has on area of 603,700 km2 which is approximately equal to 5.7%territory of Europe or 0.44%of globe.

An Alternative Financing for Renewable Energy Project in Turkey: ESCO Financial Modelling

  December 3, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Since the motivation of being energy hub between Middle East and Europe , energy resources diversification is adopted by Turkish policymakers. Herein, Turkish government commenced to regulate renewable energy sector with new legislations and incentives.

Future Projection of Turkey Gas Market: Comparison with Germany Gas Market Structure

  December 3, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The natural gas market structure in Germany as an example. The liberalization of natural gas market in Germany has begun in 2006 with new legislation, through which the German Power Supply Agency (Bundesnetzagentur) has been instructed to control the natural gas market.

Akkuyu as First Nuclear Power Plant Project of Turkey

  December 3, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Due to increase of energy demand, consumption and especially external energy dependence of Turkey, the requirement of new energy resources has come to the fore. Since the primary energy resources such as natural gas and petroleum are exhaustible, nuclear energy has been a preferred energy resource in the world.

Natural Gas Projects in Turkey: Tuz Golu Project as a Pioneer

  November 25, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey intends to increase its natural gas storage capacity through natural gas storage projects. At present, the Natural Gas Storage Project in Tuz Gölü which is operated by project partners from Turkey and China is in progress and its completion is planned until 2018.

New projection for natural gas supply of Turkey: TANAP Project

  November 19, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The part of the natural gas increases progressively in Turkish energy market due to its advantages, such that it has been subject to large projects.

Promising Market for Hedging the Risk in Energy: Turkish Electricity Derivatives Market

  November 19, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The most significant characteristic behaviour of an emerging market is displaying volatility in electricity market. As a consequence of market price risks on electricity markets, market players keen on hedging risk by applying financial derivatives.

New Draft on Natural Gas Market in Turkey: Expected Judicial Amendments and Market Dynamics

  November 18, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey's extensive energy vision brought new developments on electricity, natural gas and renewable markets. The mainstream of Turkish policy makers is regulating the natural gas market with the objective to create competitive market conditions and pricing mechanism. The new draft on Natural Gas Market Law which is occupying the agenda since last year, will precisely act a prominent role on reconfiguring the market.

Incentives for Waste-to-Energy Plants in Turkey

  November 18, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
In order to assess waste products, expand the utilization of renewable energy sources for generating electrical energy and benefit from these resources in a secure, economic and qualified manner with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Renewable Energy Law and Law on Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources for the Purpose of Generating Electrical Energy (“the Law”) has been recently amended in Turkey.

Which is Safer: Tap or Bottled Water?

  November 17, 2013     By HG.org
Each year, millions of Americans consume billions of gallons of water. The boom in the bottled water industry was fueled, in part, by beliefs that bottled water was cleaner and more heavily regulated than tap water. But then a backlash by others in the media showed that much bottle water was simply tap water in a bottle. So, is one form of water more heavily regulated and safer than the other?

Is it Legal to Raise Wild Animals or Keep Them as Pets?

  November 13, 2013     By HG.org
Anyone who has grown up near a park, nature preserve, or in a rural setting probably came across a wild animal that he or she wished to adopt. Whether it was a baby duckling, a squirrel, a raccoon, or even a bear cub, there are laws affecting raising wild animals.

Nebraska Department of Agriculture Laws and Regulations

  November 11, 2013     By Domina Law Group
Legal cases involving agriculture, cattle, dairy herds, poultry, and other herds may revolve around various issues which can range from disease, genetics, and environmental concerns to water rights, crop injuries, personal injuries to persons working in these fields, and more

Lack Of Complete Diversity Of Citizenship Of Members Of Equine LLCs Requires Dismissal Of Federal Action

  October 17, 2013     By Ira A. Finkelstein, P.C.
The issue of diversity of citizenship is of particular interest to equine ownership and contract disputes, because many equine-related entities are organized as limited liability companies (LLCs). The citizenship of LLCs is subject to a different rule than the citizenship of corporations, a distinction that may escape the attention of attorneys.

New Advantages in Energy with the New Regulation: Unlicensed Electrical Energy Production - Turkey

  October 7, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
As of 02.10.2013, everyone will be able to produce his/her own electrical energy in certain amounts. Due to the Regulation on Electrical Energy Production without License which has been entered on 02.10.2013 into force, every residence may produce a certain amount of its electricity and sell the surplus.

New Regulation in Renewable Energy: Regulation on Support and Certification of Renewable Energy Resources - Turkey

  October 3, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Renewable energy resources support mechanism is operated for support of renewable energy production in Turkey as price-purchase guarantee. Accordingly, the state provides a purchase guarantee for renewable energy producers.

Untested Nature of Carbon Capture May Present Loophole for Coal and Electric Industry

  September 25, 2013     By HG.org
The Obama administration has been cracking down on environmental regulations, particularly with regard to global warming. Faced with this increased pressure, the coal and electric industries are applying a new legal strategy they believe will allow them to take advantage of a loophole and prevent most EPA enforcement measures.

Insight into Turkey's Energy Market and New Energy Exchange EPIAS

  September 15, 2013     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey proved its aspiration with the liberalization of electricity market for being an energy hub in the heart of Europe and Middle East territory. According to Türk Eletrik İletim Anonim Şirketi (TEİAŞ) 2012 report, the electricity demand in Turkey will arise within the range of 398-434 billion kWh in the light of historical perspective in 2023.

Failing to Disclose Environmental Defects in Property Sales

  August 31, 2013     By HG.org
Have you purchased a piece of land only to discover after the sale that there was pollution on the property? Are you thinking of selling a house and wondering how much you need to disclose? Understanding the laws related to environmental disclosures can mean the difference between a costly lawsuit and a smooth transaction.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly has Passed the New Environment Code

  July 26, 2013     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries. With a population of more than 14 million of whom more than 80% live on activities directly or indirectly related to land, the country of upright people, like other Sahel countries, is confronted to emerging environmental problems.

Gabon: The Council of Ministers Adopts a Draft Law Regulating the Mining Sector

  June 30, 2013     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

Key Legislation and Regulatory Structure in the Angolan Oil and Gas Sector

  June 7, 2013     By FCB&A
This article offers an overview of the key legislation and regulatory structure governing the oil and gas sector in Angola and was written as part of a publication on the oil and gas sector for Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer.

A Q&A Guide to Electricity Regulation in Bulgaria

  June 5, 2013     By Dinova Rusev & Partners
This Q&A guide gives a high level overview of the domestic electricity market in Bulgaria, including domestic electricity companies, electricity generation and renewable energy, transmission, distribution, supply and tax issues. It covers the regulatory structure; foreign ownership; import of electricity; authorisation and operating requirements; trading between generators and suppliers; rates and conditions of sale and proposals for reform.

Update on Foreign Investment in Ukrainian Agricultural Land

  May 22, 2013     By Frishberg & Partners
The moratorium on alienation of Ukrainian farm land has long prevented meaningful foreign investment into the Ukrainian agricultural sector. To somehow obtain access to agricultural land, instead of outright ownership foreign investors had to register Ukrainian companies that entered into lease agreements with landowners, most with a “right to buy” option if and when the moratorium will be lifted.

The DR Congo New Agricultural Law N° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 Is Currently Being Amended and Supplemented

  April 5, 2013     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
On December 24, 2011, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (“DRC”) enacted a new agricultural Law, n° 11/022, (the “Law”) that sets broad guidelines for the agricultural sector. Since its entry into force on June 24, 2012, the Law has been a source of concern for foreign businesses operating in the agricultural sector because of its ownership clause which restricts foreigners’ access to farmlands.

Overview on Mining Law in Burkina Faso and Current Trends

  April 2, 2013     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West-Africa and surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the southeast; Togo and Ghana to the south and Ivory Coast to the southwest. Burkina Faso is rich in natural resources and is emerging as one of the most attractive mining destinations in Africa especially for gold exploration and exploitation.

The Ownership of a Mine after Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights - Democratic Republic of Congo

  March 24, 2013     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for Permanent Quarry Exploitation, collectively referred to («mining and quarry rights») is principally to grant to their titleholders the right to mine natural or artificial deposits located above or below the concerned mining perimeter.

Adoption of a New Legislation for a Better Industrial Environment in the DRC

  March 24, 2013     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associes
Before the social movements of plunder and anti-plunder of 1990s, wars and other civil revolts, the Republic Democratic of the Congo, (“DRC”) was among the most industrialized countries of Central Africa.

LIBYAN INVESTMENT LAW: FOREIGN OIL COMPANIES

  February 17, 2013     By Karbal & Co.
Forty-two years of the Kaddafi regime’s apathetic attitude and incoherent economic development strategies left Libya as one of the least developed of the oil producing countries.

Law "On Gas and Gas Supply" - The State Strengthens its Positions in Kazakhstan

  November 6, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
On 9 January 2012, the President of Kazakhstan signed the Law "On Gas and Gas Supply", which has no analogue in the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, since earlier this sector was governed by the subsoil laws and a range of governmental resolutions. In this Article, we would like to inform on the important legal changes, which may affect activities of companies working in the gas industry.

Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building - Indonesia

  October 16, 2012     By Leks&Co
Local Government of DKI Jakarta has issued the Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building (“Governor Regulation No.38/2012“) the regulation regulates the implementation of the concept of energy efficiency and environmentally buildings. Green building means a building that is responsible against environment and resource efficiency since the planning, construction, utilization, maintenance, until deconstruction (Article 1 number 11 of Governor Regulation No.38/2012).

Kazakhstan is Due to Adopt a New Law "On the Main Pipeline"

  September 26, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
In keeping with GRATA Law Firm’s policy of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that may affect their business, we would like to draw your attention to recent changes in Kazakh legislation in connection with the adoption of the new draft law entitled "On the Main Pipeline".

Shale Gas in Texas

  August 8, 2012     By Amaro Law Firm
Shale formations are an invaluable resource when it comes to natural gas and oil. The side effects of drilling in these shale deposits, however, can be costly. Shale is a type of rock which is made out of mud, clay, and fragments of other minerals. Shale is characterized by the thin layers make up the rock, meaning it can easily splinter and flake.

Transferring Quarry and Mining Rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]

  July 12, 2012     By Yav & Associates
The mining code of the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] provides for a possibility of leasing and assigning mining and quarry rights. Since mining and quarry rights, as expressed in mining and quarry permits, are real and exclusive property rights, it is possible to lease and assign these rights, although under the restrictions set out in the Mining Code.

Environmental Audit, One of the Conditions for Mining Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  July 9, 2012     By Yav & Associates
Mining is a key sector and continues to grow in several part of the world including in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Legislation for mining may require an environmental impact assessment to be carried out before a mine is developed, and that a mine be developed and operated in an environmentally sound manner with the least impact on the environment. This paper gives insights of the environmental audit for mining operations in the DRC.

Recent Developments in Oil-and-Gas and Energy Sectors in Ukraine

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
On the way to the European integration, and by virtue of the determined Ukrainian policy towards energy independence, the Ukrainian Government is taking significant steps to improve Ukrainian energy sector. Currently, important changes are being introduced in the oil-and-gas industry. This has already encouraged global oil-and-gas companies such as Exxon Mobil, Shell, Chevron, and Eni to commence investment activity in Ukraine.

New Incentive Scheme of Turkey

  June 19, 2012     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkish Cabinet has announced a new decree on 15th June 2012, numbered 2012/3305 and published on official gazette of 19th June 2012.

Photovoltaic Investments in Greece

  June 15, 2012     By Kosmidis & Partners
The photovoltaic market in Greece offers great opportunities for investors, as it is expected to rise significantly within the coming years. Greece has grown to be one of the major investment destinations for solar energy production in the European Union; it is the southernmost country of EU, with almost 300 days of sunshine per year, and thus a massive potential for photovoltaic investments.

Environmental Laws and How They Can Protect You and Your Property

  May 8, 2012     By Arnold & Itkin LLP
Environment laws protect our natural resources by regulating businesses that have the potential to impact them. Due to the importance of these laws, the Environmental Protection Agency was formed as a federal agency whose main task is to control and decrease pollution by researching potential hazards, monitoring companies that may cause environmental harm, setting standards of practice to minimize environmental impact and enforcing punishments for those who violate environmental regulations.

Ukraine’s Foreign Investors and the Lifting of Farmland Moratorium

  May 8, 2012     By Frishberg & Partners
Ukraine has long been called “the bread-basket of Europe,” and for one excellent reason: its fertile, black soil. The estimated value of this treasure is anywhere between 40 and 80 billion dollars. The only problem with investing in such an obviously profitable business was an artificial bureaucratic/legislative barrier commonly known as the “moratorium on alienation of farm land” (the “Moratorium”).

Kazakhstan: New Local Content Approach

  March 30, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
General overview of Kazakhstan in World Mineral Industry. - Kazakhstan ranks second only to Russia among the countries of the CIS in its quantity of mineral production. It is endowed with large reserves of a wide range of metallic ores, industrial minerals, and fuels, and its metallurgical sector is a major producer of a large number of metals from domestic and imported raw materials.

Cyprus Hydrocarbons Exploration and Exploitation in Cyprus' EEZ

  March 25, 2012     By Anastasios Antoniou LLC
Cyprus Hydrocarbons Exploration and Exploitation: the Legal Framework and Licensing for hydrocarbon reserves in Cyprus’ Exclusive Economic Zone

Texas Supreme Court Hands Down Decision On Texas Water Rights

  March 5, 2012     By Amaro Law Firm
According to legal reports, the Texas Supreme Court has recently passed down a landmark decision on water rights in the lone star state. Reportedly, the crux of the decision is that landowners own the water which is beneath their property. Sources say that after two years of litigation and speculation as to what the court might do, a decision was handed down on February 24, 2012.

Oregon Dog Bite Injury Claims

  February 21, 2012     By Shulman DuBois LLC
If you've been bitten by someone else's dog, and you are considering filing an injury claim against the dog's owner, you need to understand Oregon dog bite laws and how to prove negligence. Dog bites can be serious injuries, and cause both physical and emotional harm. But a dog bite victim will have trouble getting compensation unless he or she can prove the dog's owner had reason to believe the dog was dangerous.

Environmental Inspections

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
Environmental inspections: practical recommendations for subsoil users on supporting and appealing environmental inspections (as amended by the Law of the RoK ‘On state control and supervision in the Republic of Kazakhstan’ dated 06 January 2011).

Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Use of Renewable Energy Sources

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
In line with GRATA Law Firm’s practice of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that might influence their business, we would like to draw your attention to the recently enacted Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 'On Supporting the Use of Renewable Energy Sources' aimed at the creation of legal framework for the use of renewable energy sources in Kazakhstan.

Flaring, Disposition and Processing of Associated Gas in the Course of Oil Operations: Legal Provisions

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 'On Subsoil and Subsoil Use': a head for the processing of associated and natural gas. One of the most serious environmental and economic problems connected with oil operations in Kazakhstan is the refusal to flare associated and natural gas in fields and the transition to its processing. Even in the recent past, gas flaring has been a part of the process of oil companies in Kazakhstan and occurred in almost all fields.

Kazakhstan Introduces Legislation on Climate Change

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
In line with GRATA Law Firm’s practice of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that might influence their business, we would like to draw your attention to prospective changes in Kazakh legislation in connection with the new draft Law “On Amendments and Additions to Certain Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan Relating to Environmental Issues”, aimed at engagement of Kazakh companies to implementation of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms.

Termination of Contract by a Subsoil User

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
Reasons for termination of a contract by a subsoil user. In practice, though rather seldom, there are such cases when due to certain reasons a contractor (subsoil user) decides to terminate the subsoil use contract. Such a situation may arise, for instance, in the following cases:

The Use of Renewable Energy Sources in Kazakhstan - Basic State Support Mechanisms

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
Energy sector of Kazakhstan is currently operating under difficult conditions when there is a gradual depletion of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, production of which is an expensive business), on the one hand, and developing and growing of the world entered policy of the eco-friendly power production with the use of renewable energy sources, on the other hand.

Exploitation of Hydrocarbon Resources in Cyprus

  February 1, 2012     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Geostrategic and financial interests regarding gas exploration and exploitation

EU Labor Law in Offshore Gas Drilling Operations

  January 27, 2012     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
EU labor law in offshore gas-drilling operations has been recently challenged in the case of Salemink v. Raad van bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut werknemersverzekeringen, in the judgment of the Court’s Grand Chamber in January, 17, 2012.