Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Environmental and Natural Resources.




General Principles of Licensing in Turkish Natural Gas Market

  April 26, 2015     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The general principles setting out the legal requirements for licensing are defined under Law No 4646 of Turkey. Accordingly, the entities to engage in market activities shall obtain a license for each activity and for each facility respectively, if the said activities are to be conducted in more than one facility, before starting operation.

Turkey's Connection to ENTSO-E and T-CAT Auction Systems

  April 10, 2015     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
ENTSO-E is a very essential step for uniting the EU Member States’ transmission grids. To define it briefly, it is the biggest Transmission System Operator throughout Europe. The ENTSO-E association has been established with the 3rd liberalization package in the light of the EU legislations.

Remediation of PCE Contaminated Dry Cleaning Sites

  April 1, 2015     By Michelman & Bricker
Dry cleaners have been using a chlorinated solvent called perchloroethylene (PCE), also known as tetrachloroethylene, since 1934.

The EPA's Coal Ash Regulation and Proposed Litigation

  April 1, 2015     By Michelman & Bricker
New coal ash regulations issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December, 2014 classify coal ash as solid waste, rather than hazardous waste. [“Docket No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2009-0640”].

A New Era for Turkish Energy Market

  March 29, 2015     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
In last 10 years, energy experts have been working keenly on the establishment of a new private and competitive electricity market in Turkey.

Selection of Project Site for Solar Energy in Turkey

  March 27, 2015     By Dogerlioglu Law Firm
In the "project development" stage, initial step for the investors, who wish to install a solar energy based generation facility, is the "site selection". Special attention should be expended on site location and grid connection point.

Oil Contracts, What Is it all About?

  March 24, 2015     By Dandashli & Associates
Perhaps fuel could be the quickest product to come in to mind when thinking about petroleum, but the list of petroleum products is long and includes numerous materials such as propane, liquid fuels blending such as kerosene, benzene, etc…lubricants, sulfar, asphalt and many more….Petroleum contracts through the history were designed with crude oil in mind, and this ethos still dominate the structure of the contracts up to this date.

Ratification to the Treaty Relating to Grand Inga Hydroelectric Project in the Congo

  March 16, 2015     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associates
In accordance with articles 213 paragraph 1 and 214 paragraph 1 of the Constitution of February 18, 2006 as amended to date, the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo ("DRC”) promulgated on the 21st November 2014 the Law No. 14/026 authorizing the ratification by the DRC of the Treaty relating to the Grand Inga hydroelectric project between the Republic of South Africa ("RSA") and itself.

Deforestation Tax in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Problematic of Tax Liability of Mining Titleholders

  March 16, 2015     By Emery Mukendi Wafwana & Associates
For some time, mining companies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are facing the National Forest Fund, (“Fonds Forestier National”), a technical and financial public establishment set up by the law N° 011/2002 of 29 August 2002 relating to the Forestry Code (“Forestry Code”) for the payment of the “deforestation tax” as a result of the deforestation made by them concerning the mining areas covered by their mining titles.

If You See Your Company Polluting, Who Do You Call?

  March 16, 2015     By HG.org
It is a sad fact, but every day thousands of companies around the world violate laws designed to protect the environment in order to cut costs and increase profits. If you suspect your company is doing so, or if you have witnessed the pollution yourself, you may be wondering what you can do to prevent it and whether there are any laws in place to protect you from the company's wrath after you do so.

Turkish Energy Market 2015

  March 16, 2015     By Tiryakioglu Cakmakci Kesmer
Turkey’s importance in the energy market grows as a regional transit hub given its location between the oil rich Middle East, Caspian region, and Europe. Turkey is the home of the Bosporus and Dardanelles connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.

A Way to Avoid Unstable Electricity Market Prices in Turkey: Risk Sharing Contracts

  March 16, 2015     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Following the privatization of energy market in Turkey, in last 10 years, many big investors have lined up to obtain energy generation, distribution, wholesale and retail-sale licenses in order to make investments in energy sector due to its high profit potential.

The Environmental Protection Agency's Focus on Compliance Results

  March 9, 2015     By Michelman & Bricker
Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been bringing fewer criminal prosecutions against U.S. corporations, and their officers, for their failure to comply with environmental laws and regulations, the penalties imposed in these cases have become more severe.

Turkey’s Unlicensed Solar Energy, Investment Opportunities and the Application Procedures

  February 28, 2015     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
By means of its geographical location, Turkey appears to be one of the sunniest countries in Europe, with the calculated solar radiation level quite similar to Portugal and Spain.

Nuclear Power Plants and Turkey

  February 23, 2015     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
In terms of the power generation, using the natural gas takes first and the coal takes second place in Turkey.

Overview of the Egypt Mineral Resources Law No. 198

Egypt has enormous mineral wealth, but it does not yet exploit it properly. This is because the participation rate of the wealth in the gross national product, according to the Ministry of Planning for the fiscal year 2013/2014 is estimated 4% only. This production percentage is nothing in relation to the wealth that Egypt possesses.

Singapore Plant Varieties Protection Act Expands Reach

Singapore has recently expanded the scope of its Plant Varieties Protection Act ("Act") to extend the scope of plant varieties protection to all plant genera and species. The primary aim of this amendment is to encourage investments on research and development of new plant varieties, which have economic potential.

Environmental Claims Law

Environmental claims law is highly specialized and if a person is seeking to build a case and potentially seek damages for issues, a qualified and experienced attorney in the field of environmental claims law is a must.

Polish Concessions for Coal, or the Final Nail in the Coffin?

Polish Parliament intends to introduce concession for coal trade. Experts indicate: concession would be a poorly chosen medication for healing the situation. It will not solve the issue with the Russian coal and it will deadly threaten the Polish mining.

Contracting the Petroleum Operations Under Turkish Petroleum Law

As exception to liberty of contracting and unlike a number of other industries, Turkey's petroleum industry imposes certain obligations to petroleum right owners in contracting the conduct of the petroleum operations. At the first glance this seems that it aims to strengthen the management of hazards by enhancing the safety however the liability imposed to petroleum right owners in case of contracting the operations still remains unclear in terms of limitation.

Transfer and Granting of Rights under Turkish Petroleum Law

Especially after the drop in oil prices the companies that are in early stage of their investments have begun to get position aiming to turn into an advantageous investment and started to look to what extent the regulations allow them to transfer and grant their rights under Turkish Petroleum Law. This may be deemed also as an exit strategy for some from operational perspective as it parallels with the tendency around the world and has direct relation with oil prices.

China's New Environment Law

  By MMLC Group
Within less than a month, the latest amended “Environment Protection Law” in China will become effective. The said Law was passed by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress this April after three years’ amending process.

China - Live Animal Import and Export Regulations

  By MMLC Group
A look at the web of Chinese laws that potentially apply to the import of live animals into China.

Work Permits Under Wet Lease Agreements for Oil Exploration Operations in Turkey

As part of exploration operations of multinational companies, wet lease agreements are gaining more importance especially in oil and gas industry and foreign carriers who takes part in such operations are still not clear about either their employees require work permit or not, in cases where they entered into a subcontractor and wet lease agreement with Turkish air carriers for air transport works to be conducted under exploration operations.

Taxation, Import, Export and Transfers under Turkish Petroleum Law

The Turkish Petroleum Law, a touchstone for goals of attracting foreign investors to Turkish petroleum industry entered into force on 11 June 2013 and has been introduced as a revolution in oil and gas industry as it was leveling the playing field for foreign investors and removing the privileged rights of the state company.

Present and Future of Renewable Energy Resources Support Mechanism in Turkey: “YEKDEM”

Turkish Energy Market Regulatory Authority ("EMRA”) has announced on 1st October 2014 that the electricity manufacturing license holders producing electricity from renewable resources are required to submit their applications for Renewable Energy Resources Support Mechanism ("YEKDEM") for the year 2015 until 31th October 2014, in order to benefit from the facilities regulated by the related legislation.

Delivery of Leviathan Gas through Turkey

Israel’s offshore Tamar and Leviathan gas fields in Eastern Mediterranean Sea have a significant discovery in order to meet Europe’s rising gas and energy need.

EMRA Approval for Transfer of Shares in Electricity Generation Companies in Turkey

Company structuring in Turkey mainly focuses on two types; joint stock and limited liability companies. Alteration in partnership structure or share transfer of these kinds of companies shall be subject to commercial legislation.

Energy Supply Security: Is this Conceivable for Renewables?

Whether for heating or for electricity generation, energy is one of the indispensable resources in the world which plays an essential role in the politics as well as in the economy of a country.

Pitfalls in Financing the Renewable Investments in Turkey

In 2012, OECD has reported that economy-wide transformation will require cumulative investment in green infrastructure in the range of USD 36-42 trillion between 2012 and 2030, i.e. approximately USD 2 trillion or 2% of global GDP per year. Today more less is being invested annually. Therefore, a remarkable investment gaps exist that needs to be addressed.

Land Allocation for Renewable Market in Turkey

Turkey aims to utilize its energy potential, including renewable sources in a cost-effective manner. Today, Turkey targets the share of renewable resources in electricity generation to be at least 30 % by 2023.

Renewable Energy in Turkey: An Overall Analysis on Opportunities and Risks

The popularity of energy market has been maintaining its importance also this year like in the last decade. As the result of the open up of the private sector, all energy related industries has been grown up as the legal infrastructure contributed to get it.

A Touchstone in Energy Financing: Reduced Yield and Turkish Insurance Market

The effect of climate change is not only an environmental problem today as it directly relates to the resource based industries. In today’s world, the scientific assessments lead the players of energy to reflect on their project viability. In direct proportion to the growth in financing renewable projects, insurance companies and underwriters are also expected to formulate their risk assessments on resource-oriented allocation models.

Tariff and the Non-Tariff Based Renewable Energy Incentives in Turkey

Turkey is one of the fastest growing economies among the emerging markets. Its 4% average growth rate throughout the last decade catapulted her in to a class of its own among the MENA region.

Electricity Prices in Turkey and the Market Liberalization

The recent growth of the Turkish economy that had sprawled to the entire last decade gave birth to a new phenomenon of energy price hikes. The country’s growing appetite for ever more energy supplies necessitates a coordinated action on the part of the regulatory authorities to make the energy prices to stay in a stable and predictable course.

Dust Up Between Surfers and Kholsa Could Spell the End of Private Beach Access in California

Should a property owner have to get a coastal development permit before he can close the gate to his private property? The Surfrider Foundation thinks so, and if it wins its current lawsuit against Vinod Khosla that could soon be the law of the land in California.

Oil and Gas Regulation in Mozambique

An overview of the domestic oil and gas sector, rights to oil and gas, health safety and the environment, sale and trade in oil and gas, tax and enforcement of regulation. It covers transfer of rights; transportation by pipeline; environmental impact assessments; decommissioning; waste regulations and proposals for reform.

Mining in Mozambique: An Overview

An overview of the domestic mining sector in Mozambique, its regulatory structure and ownership, the environment and health and safety. It covers, foreign ownership and tax issues and proposals for reform.

New Statutory Framework for Energy Produced By Wind-power Generation Centres In Portugal.

New Legal framework applicable to the additional power and repowering energy produced by wind-power generation centres whose electricity is paid by the guaranteed remuneration scheme.

Amendment to the Ownership of Water Resources Law in Portugal

This article summarises the new law on ownership of water resources in Portugal which has recently come into force in Portugal.

Bright Future of Solar Power Market in Turkey

In recent years, renewable energy market development became primary energy strategy of Turkish government with the intention of improving energy efficiency and decreasing energy import dependency. Particularly, solar power seems as fundamental resource of electricity generation in the near future. In terms of insolation Turkey possesses high potential among European countries.

Integration of US and Europe Energy Markets: TTIP and Global Energy Trading Projection

Shale gas revolution has been driving US energy market by increasing economic and industrial competitiveness. Today, shale gas has gained acceptance as “bonanza” which triggered slump in gas prices and sparked off widening the energy gap between US and Europe.

Is Nuclear Power Safe Enough? : Operational Risk Mitigation Procedures

Electric power is the most significant power source for industry, modern and prosperous life, and science and technological progress. Over the years energy experts have been working to produce electricity in harmony with both environment and human health.

Protection of Energy Investments in Turkey: Two Significant Cases

There are several multilateral investment treaties and conventions which aim to protect foreign investment such as International Centre of Settlement of Disputes (ICSID) , the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) , Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) , and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) .

Georgia Water Law

Water rights in Georgia vary according to the amount of water withdrawn from the water source, whether it is a surface water source (river, stream, reservoir) or a groundwater source (aquifer).

Developing Photovoltaic Power Plant in Turkey

According to the decision of Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK) on 24 May 2012, EPDK is planning to accept photovoltaic power plant licence for total installed capacity of 600MW for production capacity by June 2013.

Regulations of Azerbaijan's Oil and Gas Market

General information on Azerbaijani laws and regulations, including production sharing agreements, that apply to development of Azerbaijan's oil and gas reserves.

Turkish Energy Market Compliance: Lacunae In Turkish Natural Gas Law

In recent years, several natural gas pipeline projects and natural gas import opportunities have come to the force in Turkey. After completion of the pipeline project TANAP, which is regarded as the biggest natural gas pipeline project investment in Turkey, approximately 6 bcm of natural gas of 16 bcm will be purchased by Turkey and 10 bcm of this quantity will be exported to Europe.

Legislation on Electric Energy in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa. The Republic of the Congo straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Game Changer Discovery: Leviathan Gas Field And Turkey’s Energy Projection

Current gas field discoveries covering Leviathan and Tamar gas fields induced Israel to scrutinize applied energy strategies in Mediterranean Sea. In the light of these regional developments Israel‘s imported natural gas dependency is expected to reduce whilst energy driven industries will be ignited by upward domestic natural gas resources.

How to Establish an Energy Company in Turkey?

Company establishment in Turkey is one of the initially asked questions by an investor before start up of an investment project. Even if the establishment procedures are subject to the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Code (“TCC”), some terms and conditions may vary from these provisions depending on the investment’s sector.

How to Tackle the Problems of the Turkish Mining Industry?

Turkey's ever growing energy needs relocates the mining industry to the center stage in Turkey's energy policy. However as the mining industry still commands the center stage for the satisfaction of Turkey's energy needs, its problems still linger and beg for solutions.

An Overview of Hydroelectricity in Turkish Energy Market

As is known,the renewable energy resources have gained great importance in energy production in Turkey as well as in the world. By reason of the exhaustibility of primary energy resources such as coal, oil and natural gas and import dependence on natural gas and oil, Turkey has been working on use of the renewable resources in electricity manufacturing and it is intended to increase the rate of renewable resources in electricity manufacturing up to 30 % until 2023.

New Environmental Protection Law will lead China into a Cleaner Future

On April 24, 2014, the Standing Committee of China's National People's Congress (“NPC”) approved to adopt the amendment to the Environmental Protection Law (the new “EPL”), the first amendment since the original EPL was enacted 25 years ago. It will take into effect on January 1, 2015.

Increasing Appeal of the Turkish Energy Market:TANAP

The tender processes and construction works on TANAP Project are in progress and start of the construction of this pipeline is expected in this year. This project has gained importance before its start to operate. By reason of political issues between Ukraine and Russia, countries in the Europe may be faced with a natural gas problem in this year.

How to Penetrate the Turkish Energy Market?

The energy market is one of the most preferred markets by investors. Especially within the opening of the energy market to competition to a large extent and the support of energy investments through financial incentives, Turkish energy market attract investors’ attention in recent years. Since Turkey’s energy demand and as a conclusion of this, the energy import volume grow rapidly, investments in energy production and energy trade have gained importance.

Turkish Renewable Energy Market

Turkey's high economic growth which had reached almost double digits numbers by the middle of the last decade and stands around an annual average of 4% dictates new and innovative solutions to Turkey in order to reshuffle its energy infrastructural base.

How Arbitrary and Nasty the Power of Eminent Domain Can Be

Seizure of the Barries' Colorado dream cabin shows how arbitrary and nasty the power of eminent domain can be.

The Coastal Commission’s support for AB 976 Shows Due Process Apathy

Every monthly meeting the California Coastal Commission releases a list of bills in the current legislative session that it is supporting. It can be a time consuming effort to review all these bills, but sometimes you find a gem that sheds light on the nature of the Commission’s long-term goals, and the read becomes worth it. Last week, the Commission’s monthly report was well worth the read.

New Opportunity For the Turkish Energy Market: The Eastern Mediterranean Gas Fields

The high economic growth of Turkey which has been going on for more than a decade now intensified Turkey's need for more energy. It is estimated that Turkey is going to need a substantial volume of energy which will amount to a 7 % annual growth for the Turkish energy market until the year 2023.

Liguefied Natural Gas Market in Turkey

Currently, the importance of the Liguefied Natural Gas ("LNG") has come to the fore with the discussions concerning the probable problems in natural gas import to the Europe due to the Crimean Crisis. According to the experts' opinion, the LNG import to the Europe may increase in the near future depending on the decrease of the natural gas import. In brief, the LNG plays an essential role as an energy resource.

How Does Malaysian Law Deal With Acts of Piracy at Sea?

Piracy is a prevailing problem with no reasonable solution in sight. How safe is your ship or consignment passing through the seas surrounding Malaysia and what laws apply to this region?

Concessions in Albania / PPP in Albania

According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared to international standards, the implementation of AML being a strong pillar and institutional frameworks and policy pillars were weak.

Democratic Republic of Congo: Mining companies and the Value Added Tax (VAT)

In the following paragraphs, we do not have the pretention to review the legal meaning of the Ordinance-Act No 10/001 dated August 20, 2010 related to the institution of VAT which has replaced the Revenue Tax (ICA). We shall rather focus on analysing whether the Ordinance-Act mentioned above is applicable to eligible mining companies under the Mining Code enacted by the Act No 007/2002 dated July 11, 2002 related to the Mining Code.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Ownership of a Mine After Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for Permanent Quarry Exploitation, collectively referred to (« mining and quarry rights ») is principally to grant to their titleholders the right to mine natural or artificial deposits located above or below the concerned mining perimeter.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22

“The DRC New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22 of December 24, 2011″ in Africa Law Today, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo: New Agricultural Law n° 11/022 Being Amended and Supplemented

The Democratic Republic of the Congo new agricultural law n° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 is currently being amended and supplemented.

Significant Changes Currently Taking Place in Electrical Power Law in the Democratic Republic of Congo

In article 48 of DRC Constitution of 18 February 2006 as amended to date, the right of access to electricity is enshrined and guaranteed to the entire Congolese population. However, in actual fact, the situation is quite different because of the huge deficit in the supply of electricity to the population i.e. there is a weak coverage rate. Only a small number of the population have access to electricity and even then only infrequently.

Characteristics of Hydrocarbon in the Republic of Congo

The Republic of Congo is one of the hydrocarbon-producing countries in Africa. This production accounts for a larger contribution of around 75% to the State budget.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly Has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries.

Gabon: Council of Ministers Adopts Draft Law on Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

Guinea: Enactment of Law Amending the Mining Code of 2011

New perspectives for the mining sector in Guinea: enactment of the law amending the Mining Code of 2011.

New Exploitation Environmental License: New Requirement for Mining Operators in the DRC

The emergence of various environmental issues and their negative impacts on the quality of life, including the reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements engaging countries to develop ancillary national laws, policies, plans and programs to regulate and supervise human activities and to mitigate their impact on the environment, constitutes the common heritage for all human beings.

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health and safety of employees and other persons affected by the South African mining industry has been amended. The current amendment is related to Chapter 11 of the Regulations in terms of act. The exit certificate in section 17 must include details regarding a least the following: particulars of mine, particulars of employees and exit medical summary.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Ratification of the Cooperation Agreement of September 9, 2010 Between Congo-Brazzaville and Angola

The Republic of Congo (“Congo-Brazzaville”) has authorized the ratification of the cooperation agreement of September 9, 2010, with the Republic of Angola in the area of mining and geology, by Law No. 17-2013 of August 13th, 2013.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Mining Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

The California Coastal Commission Reviews Fracking Along the California Coast

Whether the California Coastal Commission Eventually Regulates Fracking On the Outer Continental Shelf Will Have More to Do with Federalism than Science

2013 Turkey Energy Report

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health and safety of employees and other persons affected by the South African mining industry has been amended. The current amendment is related to Chapter 11 of the Regulations in terms of act. The exit certificate in section 17 must include details regarding a least the following: particulars of mine, particulars of employees and exit medical summary.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Burkina Faso: The Council of Ministers Adopts the Draft of New Mining Code

On October 2, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Burkina Faso adopted a draft of new mining code. This draft which was in discussion since 2012, aims to amend and replace the Law No. 031-2003/AN of May 8, 2003 on the Mining Code in Burkina Faso.

Agricultural Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Forest Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Inga Falls - Hydro Power - Congo

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga power project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Electricity Market Liberalization in Turkey: EU Directives and Harmonization

As is known, the Turkish energy sector has been in a liberalization process for a long time and compared to other energy markets, the electricity market is in the fore especially regarding the legislation. Recently, the eligible customer limit in electricity market has been decreased to 4500 kWh from 5000 kWh per year within the Resolution of the Energy Market Regulatory Board in January 2014.

Legal Outlook of Turkish Gas Market

With rapidly growing economy, Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world. Turkey has been experiencing rapid demand growth in all segments of the energy sector for decades.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Implications of the Carbon Tax on South Africa’s transition into a greener economy

As developing countries, such as South Africa, transition into more industrialized countries, they face numerous problems relating to their social, economic and political development. Despite South Africa’s incorporation of ideas such as state equality, principles of non-aggression and non-intervention, in which it aims to earn its seat in the framework of International Law; there is no doubt that South Africa is still searching for its respective place in the global economy.

Hydro Power Harnesses the Power Potential of the Congo River - Inga Falls

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga Power Project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Energy Sector in Turkey and the Central Importance of EPİAŞ

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

Energy regulation (electricity and gas) in Albania

Albania performs reasonably well overall with respect to the quality of its energy (electricity and natural gas) sector. The recent EBRD energy law reform dimensions assessment has shown with regards to the country’s electricity legislation that private sector participation and market framework are the key weaknesses, with regulatory independence being the key strength.

Hydroelectricity Power in Turkey

Turkey is rapidly becoming a very important market player in its own territory with ambitious targets in energy sector.

A Test for Turkish Electricity Market: Fraud-Based Manipulation

Turkish electricity market is rapidly transforming a competitive open market by consistent privatization and liberalization policies of Turkish government.

An Overview On Turkish Petroleum Market

As is known, the petroleum explorations have come to the fore in Turkey within the discovery of new oil wells. Even if its oil production does not meet the oil demand, Turkey has been working also on reforms in oil market like in other energy sub-sectors.

Energy Privatizations as a Part of Energy Market Liberalization - Turkey

Apart from the legal reforms and establishment of an energy exchange, privatizations are one of the energy market liberalization stages.

What Are the Laws Regarding Animal Testing?

  By HG.org
In the United States, a number of products like pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and detergents are first tested on animals to determine what their effects are likely to be on humans. This has raised a number legal and ethical concerns among consumers. So, what are the laws regarding animal testing?

Recent Legal Reforms in Energy and Market Expectations

For the purpose of meeting the energy gap of Turkey and of increasing of the energy production, adequate legal reforms have been made regularly by taking the market requirements and market situation.


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