HG.org Legal Resources

Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Environmental and Natural Resources.

Privatizing the Patriot Act: The Criminalization of Environmental and Animal Protectionists

  July 22, 2017     By HG.org
The United States Patriot Act was implemented in 2001, and it has given law enforcement and other related agencies additional power to seek out,...

Land Purchase in Romania

  June 29, 2017     By Hammond, Minciu and Associates
The return of part of land to the original owners and the acquisition and ownership of land in Romania still raises many issues twenty-seven...

The Challenges and Strides of Sustainability in Columbia, SC

  June 27, 2017     By Louthian Law Firm, PA
As global heat records have been shattered in the summer of 2016, many Americans are growing frustrated at the rate of progress being made in...

Solar Power in Turkey in Light of Recent Developments

  May 23, 2017     By Ketenci & Ketenci
With a rapidly growing economy, Turkey has become one of the fastest-growing energy markets in the world. Over the last decade, Turkey has been...

The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department's Funding Problem

  May 23, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
In theory, as well as in public support, Texas Parks and Wildlife funding is essential. The funds are garnered through a sporting good sales tax...

Financing Liabilities in Mining Company Compliance in Indonesia

  April 25, 2017     By AM Oktarina Counselors at Law
In international business transaction, it is very common for entrepreneur to conduct the financing or loan transaction. This transaction...

Sun Tax on Photovoltaic Systems in Spain

The new law regarding the taxation of photovoltaic systems in Spain requires that households operating this technology pay grid fees in addition...

How to Handle Natural Disaster Insurance Claims

Need to file a natural disaster insurance claim? Get all the information you need for a successful claim from our 15-step process.

The Ship Arrest Concept

According to the provisions of the International Convention on the Arrest of Sea-Going Ships, signed at Brussels 10 May 1952, capture means the...

Taxation in Agriculture in Ukraine

The main provisions of the Ukrainian legislation governing taxation in agriculture are embodied in the Tax Code of Ukraine, which regulates the...

Natural Gas Market in Light of the Menr’s Strategic Plan in Turkey

Ministry of Energy (“MENR”) published its Strategic Plan for 2015-2019 which has been designed as a strategic road map, by taking the global...

Important Factors of Greenfield Investments in Hungary

In a classical sense, a “greenfield investment” is the construction of a new industrial unit in a territory previously used as agricultural area.

Unsafe Asbestos Removal

  By HG.org
Many buildings were constructed with asbestos insulation in the past. After the discovery that the material is hazardous to humans, many...

Green Light on the New Veterinary Medicinal Products Legislation in the EU

Last June, the EU Parliament started discussions and issued amendments on the European Commission’s Proposals for two new Regulations....

Pesticide Residues in Food and GM Foods in the EU - Latest Developments and Questions

The use of pesticides in food, especially when growing fruit and vegetables, is now commonplace; farmers use pesticides in order to preserve or...

Medicated Feed: A New Area for Legislative Revision in the EU

On March, 15th, 2016 the European Parliament Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development adopted by a large majority the report on the...

Albanian Mining Legislation

According to the Albanian law, reconnaissance is not treated as a separate activity. Reconnaissance and exploration rights are granted by the...

Oil and Gas Industry in Iran’s Body of Law Post-Sanctions Strategy

The legal aspects of Iran’s petroleum rules and contracts, especially for post-sanctions era, have been analyzed.

Ukraine “Green” Energy Tax Benefits

Starting from April 2009 Ukraine makes efforts to financially stimulate generation of electricity from alternative sources of energy. Such...

Kazakhstan's Accession to the WTO: What Has Changed in Local Content Requirements?

The accession of Kazakhstan to the WTO led to the changes in Kazakhstan laws and regulations. In this review, we would like to focus on local...

Azerbaijan's Regulations on Agriculture: What Foreign Companies Need to Know

A summary of Azerbaijan's laws and regulations on agriculture. Useful to those foreign companies interested in investing in agriculture-related...

Feed-in Tariff Reform in Ukraine

Renewable energy has become one of the most lucrative areas for foreign investors looking to extend their business in Ukraine. However, the...

Procedure on Feed-in Tariff Premium in Ukraine Approved

On 26 February 2016, the Procedure on determining the level of use of Ukrainian-made equipment on electricity objects that produce electricity...

Legal Aspects of Marketing of Organic Products in Ukraine

The Ukrainian land is the most fertile in the European Union, the development of agro-industries are a significant and also market of organic...

ESCO Act – New Opportunities for Ukraine

Low level of energy efficiency is long and justified considered to be the number one problem of the Ukrainian economy. Therefore, the...

Massachusetts Environmental Fine Demonstrates Need to Adhere to Permit Requirements

A Salisbury, Massachusetts marina recently incurred a $14,380 penalty for its failure to adhere to the terms of an Activity and Use Limitation...

Animal Cruelty Cases

This year, the FBI has begun tracking cases of animal abuse on a national level in order to research trends and adopt prevention strategies....

Access to Genetic Resources and Sustainable Utilization in Colombia

When we think about the economic development of Colombia we have to consider the importance of the biological diversity that this country has...

Service Animals–An Overview

  By HG.org
Service animals are animals which are trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability. Under the...

The New Egyptian Electricity Law and Investment

In the past four years Egypt faced a critical issue in the electricity sector and in May 2014 the shortfall reached 58% from the total...

Mining and Quarrying in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Rights, Obligations and Protection of Investors

Ten years ago, the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] adopted a new mining code under Law n°007/2002 of 11 July 2002 (the “Mining Code”) with a...

Proposal to Add Vineland NJ to Superfund List of Hazardous Waste Sites

The Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed that the former Kil-Tone Company factory site in Vineland, New Jersey be added to the...

Crime and Punishment and Facebook

Not long ago the Internet blew up over the killing of Cecil the lion, a 13-year-old lion living in a Zimbabwean preserve, by an American dentist...

Thai Environmental Law

Thailand has a complex web of laws and regulations which protect the natural environment. In particular, Thai industrial interests and property...

Amendments to the Argentine Law that Establishes the Promotion Regime of Power Generation from Renewable Sources

On September 23, 2015, the Argentine Congress passed a draft (the “Draft”) which amends Law No. 26,190, governing the National Promotion Regime...

Florida’s New Service Animal Laws – A Nail without a Hammer

When it comes to service dogs and assistance animals, people often confuse the Federal American with Disabilities Act (ADA) with the Federal...

Wetlands Damage by Exxon

ExxonMobil Corporation and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) received court approval of a $225 million consent...

Solar Power Tenders in Turkey

Establishment of solar powers with a view to operating in electricity market is regulated in Electricity Market Code (the “Code”) law no. 6446.

Wind Power in Turkey

Due to the increasing energy gap arising from industrial and technological developments of Turkey, the demand on electric energy has been...

DELCORA Sewer Discharge Settlement Agreement with EPA

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have confirmed they have reached a settlement with a Pennsylvania...

Solar Power Plants in Turkey

Numerous countries have been in an energy transition in recent years due to the decreasing capacity of primary energy resources such as natural...

Renewable Energy in Turkey

Energy Market Preferred by Foreign Investors Also in 2015

Liability for Irrational Subsoil Use in Kazakhstan

The export of crude oil and other natural resources is one of the basic sources of income of our country. However, the active development of the...

New Vapor Intrusion Guidelines

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently released two official guideline manuals on vapor intrusion emissions.

Why Building Trust with Ejidos must be a Priority for Canadian Miners in Mexico

Ejidos have an extensive presence and influence in states with major mining activity; they are regulated by one-of-a-kind legal regime; and the...

Duke Energy Settlement for Environmental Pollution

In May 2015, one of the largest electrical utility companies in the country, Duke Energy, entered a guilty plea in response to federal criminal...

Panama Energy Industry Perspective

The actual national energy industry is diversified with all sort of energy projects, including an innovational wind plant (400Mw) and very soon...

California Indoor Air Quality and Sick Building Syndrome Litigation Attorneys

Lawsuits filed by attorneys in California over Indoor Air Quality or Sick Building Syndrome, are increasing. The WHO estimates that nearly 30...

New York Equine Boarding Laws

  By HG.org
Those who board horses in New York, or who allow others to board horses in their stables, occasionally find themselves in legal disputes. Since...

Developments in China Environmental Law

  By MMLC Group
On January 1, 2015, one of China's most notable attempts in recent years to harmonise economic and social development with environmental...

Most Polluted Cities in America

Roughly four in ten Americans are at risk of suffering health effects due to poor air quality, according to the American Lung Association’s...

The Legal Regulation of the State Geological Studies of Subsoil Use in Kazakhstan

  By Integrites
As stated by the government, geological study is one of the priorities of industrial development of Kazakhstan. Despite the rich mineral...

General Principles of Licensing in Turkish Natural Gas Market

The general principles setting out the legal requirements for licensing are defined under Law No 4646 of Turkey. Accordingly, the entities to...

Turkey's Connection to ENTSO-E and T-CAT Auction Systems

ENTSO-E is a very essential step for uniting the EU Member States’ transmission grids. To define it briefly, it is the biggest Transmission...

The EPA's Coal Ash Regulation and Proposed Litigation

New coal ash regulations issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December, 2014 classify coal ash as solid waste, rather than...

Remediation of PCE Contaminated Dry Cleaning Sites

Dry cleaners have been using a chlorinated solvent called perchloroethylene (PCE), also known as tetrachloroethylene, since 1934.

A New Era for Turkish Energy Market

In last 10 years, energy experts have been working keenly on the establishment of a new private and competitive electricity market in Turkey.

Selection of Project Site for Solar Energy in Turkey

In the "project development" stage, initial step for the investors, who wish to install a solar energy based generation facility, is the "site...

Oil Contracts, What Is it all About?

Perhaps fuel could be the quickest product to come in to mind when thinking about petroleum, but the list of petroleum products is long and...

A Way to Avoid Unstable Electricity Market Prices in Turkey: Risk Sharing Contracts

Following the privatization of energy market in Turkey, in last 10 years, many big investors have lined up to obtain energy generation,...

Turkish Energy Market 2015

Turkey’s importance in the energy market grows as a regional transit hub given its location between the oil rich Middle East, Caspian region,...

If You See Your Company Polluting, Who Do You Call?

  By HG.org
It is a sad fact, but every day thousands of companies around the world violate laws designed to protect the environment in order to cut costs...

Deforestation Tax in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Problematic of Tax Liability of Mining Titleholders

For some time, mining companies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are facing the National Forest Fund, (“Fonds Forestier National”), a...

Ratification to the Treaty Relating to Grand Inga Hydroelectric Project in the Congo

In accordance with articles 213 paragraph 1 and 214 paragraph 1 of the Constitution of February 18, 2006 as amended to date, the President of...

The Environmental Protection Agency's Focus on Compliance Results

Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been bringing fewer criminal prosecutions against U.S. corporations, and their...

Turkey’s Unlicensed Solar Energy, Investment Opportunities and the Application Procedures

By means of its geographical location, Turkey appears to be one of the sunniest countries in Europe, with the calculated solar radiation level...

Nuclear Power Plants and Turkey

In terms of the power generation, using the natural gas takes first and the coal takes second place in Turkey.

Overview of the Egypt Mineral Resources Law No. 198

Egypt has enormous mineral wealth, but it does not yet exploit it properly. This is because the participation rate of the wealth in the gross...

Singapore Plant Varieties Protection Act Expands Reach

Singapore has recently expanded the scope of its Plant Varieties Protection Act ("Act") to extend the scope of plant varieties protection to all...

Polish Concessions for Coal, or the Final Nail in the Coffin?

Polish Parliament intends to introduce concession for coal trade. Experts indicate: concession would be a poorly chosen medication for healing...

Transfer and Granting of Rights under Turkish Petroleum Law

Especially after the drop in oil prices the companies that are in early stage of their investments have begun to get position aiming to turn...

Contracting the Petroleum Operations Under Turkish Petroleum Law

As exception to liberty of contracting and unlike a number of other industries, Turkey's petroleum industry imposes certain obligations to...

China's New Environment Law

  By MMLC Group
Within less than a month, the latest amended “Environment Protection Law” in China will become effective. The said Law was passed by the...

China - Live Animal Import and Export Regulations

  By MMLC Group
A look at the web of Chinese laws that potentially apply to the import of live animals into China.

Work Permits Under Wet Lease Agreements for Oil Exploration Operations in Turkey

As part of exploration operations of multinational companies, wet lease agreements are gaining more importance especially in oil and gas...

Taxation, Import, Export and Transfers under Turkish Petroleum Law

The Turkish Petroleum Law, a touchstone for goals of attracting foreign investors to Turkish petroleum industry entered into force on 11 June...

Delivery of Leviathan Gas through Turkey

Israel’s offshore Tamar and Leviathan gas fields in Eastern Mediterranean Sea have a significant discovery in order to meet Europe’s rising gas...

Present and Future of Renewable Energy Resources Support Mechanism in Turkey: “YEKDEM”

Turkish Energy Market Regulatory Authority ("EMRA”) has announced on 1st October 2014 that the electricity manufacturing license holders...

EMRA Approval for Transfer of Shares in Electricity Generation Companies in Turkey

Company structuring in Turkey mainly focuses on two types; joint stock and limited liability companies. Alteration in partnership structure or...

Energy Supply Security: Is this Conceivable for Renewables?

Whether for heating or for electricity generation, energy is one of the indispensable resources in the world which plays an essential role in...

Pitfalls in Financing the Renewable Investments in Turkey

In 2012, OECD has reported that economy-wide transformation will require cumulative investment in green infrastructure in the range of USD 36-42...

Land Allocation for Renewable Market in Turkey

Turkey aims to utilize its energy potential, including renewable sources in a cost-effective manner. Today, Turkey targets the share of...

Renewable Energy in Turkey: An Overall Analysis on Opportunities and Risks

The popularity of energy market has been maintaining its importance also this year like in the last decade. As the result of the open up of the...

A Touchstone in Energy Financing: Reduced Yield and Turkish Insurance Market

The effect of climate change is not only an environmental problem today as it directly relates to the resource based industries. In today’s...

Tariff and the Non-Tariff Based Renewable Energy Incentives in Turkey

Turkey is one of the fastest growing economies among the emerging markets. Its 4% average growth rate throughout the last decade catapulted her...

Electricity Prices in Turkey and the Market Liberalization

The recent growth of the Turkish economy that had sprawled to the entire last decade gave birth to a new phenomenon of energy price hikes. The...

Dust Up Between Surfers and Kholsa Could Spell the End of Private Beach Access in California

Should a property owner have to get a coastal development permit before he can close the gate to his private property? The Surfrider Foundation...

Mining in Mozambique: An Overview

An overview of the domestic mining sector in Mozambique, its regulatory structure and ownership, the environment and health and safety. It...

Oil and Gas Regulation in Mozambique

An overview of the domestic oil and gas sector, rights to oil and gas, health safety and the environment, sale and trade in oil and gas, tax and...

Amendment to the Ownership of Water Resources Law in Portugal

This article summarises the new law on ownership of water resources in Portugal which has recently come into force in Portugal.

New Statutory Framework for Energy Produced By Wind-power Generation Centres In Portugal.

New Legal framework applicable to the additional power and repowering energy produced by wind-power generation centres whose electricity is paid...

Bright Future of Solar Power Market in Turkey

In recent years, renewable energy market development became primary energy strategy of Turkish government with the intention of improving energy...

Integration of US and Europe Energy Markets: TTIP and Global Energy Trading Projection

Shale gas revolution has been driving US energy market by increasing economic and industrial competitiveness. Today, shale gas has gained...

Is Nuclear Power Safe Enough? : Operational Risk Mitigation Procedures

Electric power is the most significant power source for industry, modern and prosperous life, and science and technological progress. Over the...

Protection of Energy Investments in Turkey: Two Significant Cases

There are several multilateral investment treaties and conventions which aim to protect foreign investment such as International Centre of...

Georgia Water Law

Water rights in Georgia vary according to the amount of water withdrawn from the water source, whether it is a surface water source (river,...

Regulations of Azerbaijan's Oil and Gas Market

General information on Azerbaijani laws and regulations, including production sharing agreements, that apply to development of Azerbaijan's oil...

Developing Photovoltaic Power Plant in Turkey

According to the decision of Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK) on 24 May 2012, EPDK is planning to accept photovoltaic power plant...

Turkish Energy Market Compliance: Lacunae In Turkish Natural Gas Law

In recent years, several natural gas pipeline projects and natural gas import opportunities have come to the force in Turkey. After completion...

Legislation on Electric Energy in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa. The Republic of the Congo straddles the...


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