Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Environmental and Natural Resources.




EMRA Approval for Transfer of Shares in Electricity Generation Companies in Turkey

  October 2, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Company structuring in Turkey mainly focuses on two types; joint stock and limited liability companies. Alteration in partnership structure or share transfer of these kinds of companies shall be subject to commercial legislation.

Energy Supply Security: Is this Conceivable for Renewables?

  October 1, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Whether for heating or for electricity generation, energy is one of the indispensable resources in the world which plays an essential role in the politics as well as in the economy of a country.

Pitfalls in Financing the Renewable Investments in Turkey

  September 30, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
In 2012, OECD has reported that economy-wide transformation will require cumulative investment in green infrastructure in the range of USD 36-42 trillion between 2012 and 2030, i.e. approximately USD 2 trillion or 2% of global GDP per year. Today more less is being invested annually. Therefore, a remarkable investment gaps exist that needs to be addressed.

Land Allocation for Renewable Market in Turkey

  September 25, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey aims to utilize its energy potential, including renewable sources in a cost-effective manner. Today, Turkey targets the share of renewable resources in electricity generation to be at least 30 % by 2023.

Renewable Energy in Turkey: An Overall Analysis on Opportunities and Risks

  September 22, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The popularity of energy market has been maintaining its importance also this year like in the last decade. As the result of the open up of the private sector, all energy related industries has been grown up as the legal infrastructure contributed to get it.

A Touchstone in Energy Financing: Reduced Yield and Turkish Insurance Market

  September 1, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The effect of climate change is not only an environmental problem today as it directly relates to the resource based industries. In today’s world, the scientific assessments lead the players of energy to reflect on their project viability. In direct proportion to the growth in financing renewable projects, insurance companies and underwriters are also expected to formulate their risk assessments on resource-oriented allocation models.

Tariff and the Non-Tariff Based Renewable Energy Incentives in Turkey

  August 21, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkey is one of the fastest growing economies among the emerging markets. Its 4% average growth rate throughout the last decade catapulted her in to a class of its own among the MENA region.

Electricity Prices in Turkey and the Market Liberalization

  August 20, 2014     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The recent growth of the Turkish economy that had sprawled to the entire last decade gave birth to a new phenomenon of energy price hikes. The country’s growing appetite for ever more energy supplies necessitates a coordinated action on the part of the regulatory authorities to make the energy prices to stay in a stable and predictable course.

Dust Up Between Surfers and Kholsa Could Spell the End of Private Beach Access in California

  August 4, 2014     By Kassouni Law
Should a property owner have to get a coastal development permit before he can close the gate to his private property? The Surfrider Foundation thinks so, and if it wins its current lawsuit against Vinod Khosla that could soon be the law of the land in California.

Oil and Gas Regulation in Mozambique

  July 29, 2014     By SAL & Caldeira
An overview of the domestic oil and gas sector, rights to oil and gas, health safety and the environment, sale and trade in oil and gas, tax and enforcement of regulation. It covers transfer of rights; transportation by pipeline; environmental impact assessments; decommissioning; waste regulations and proposals for reform.

Mining in Mozambique: An Overview

  July 29, 2014     By SAL & Caldeira
An overview of the domestic mining sector in Mozambique, its regulatory structure and ownership, the environment and health and safety. It covers, foreign ownership and tax issues and proposals for reform.

New Statutory Framework for Energy Produced By Wind-power Generation Centres In Portugal.

New Legal framework applicable to the additional power and repowering energy produced by wind-power generation centres whose electricity is paid by the guaranteed remuneration scheme.

Amendment to the Ownership of Water Resources Law in Portugal

This article summarises the new law on ownership of water resources in Portugal which has recently come into force in Portugal.

Bright Future of Solar Power Market in Turkey

In recent years, renewable energy market development became primary energy strategy of Turkish government with the intention of improving energy efficiency and decreasing energy import dependency. Particularly, solar power seems as fundamental resource of electricity generation in the near future. In terms of insolation Turkey possesses high potential among European countries.

Integration of US and Europe Energy Markets: TTIP and Global Energy Trading Projection

Shale gas revolution has been driving US energy market by increasing economic and industrial competitiveness. Today, shale gas has gained acceptance as “bonanza” which triggered slump in gas prices and sparked off widening the energy gap between US and Europe.

Is Nuclear Power Safe Enough? : Operational Risk Mitigation Procedures

Electric power is the most significant power source for industry, modern and prosperous life, and science and technological progress. Over the years energy experts have been working to produce electricity in harmony with both environment and human health.

Protection of Energy Investments in Turkey: Two Significant Cases

There are several multilateral investment treaties and conventions which aim to protect foreign investment such as International Centre of Settlement of Disputes (ICSID) , the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) , Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) , and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) .

Georgia Water Law

Water rights in Georgia vary according to the amount of water withdrawn from the water source, whether it is a surface water source (river, stream, reservoir) or a groundwater source (aquifer).

Developing Photovoltaic Power Plant in Turkey

According to the decision of Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK) on 24 May 2012, EPDK is planning to accept photovoltaic power plant licence for total installed capacity of 600MW for production capacity by June 2013.

Regulations of Azerbaijan's Oil and Gas Market

General information on Azerbaijani laws and regulations, including production sharing agreements, that apply to development of Azerbaijan's oil and gas reserves.

Turkish Energy Market Compliance: Lacunae In Turkish Natural Gas Law

In recent years, several natural gas pipeline projects and natural gas import opportunities have come to the force in Turkey. After completion of the pipeline project TANAP, which is regarded as the biggest natural gas pipeline project investment in Turkey, approximately 6 bcm of natural gas of 16 bcm will be purchased by Turkey and 10 bcm of this quantity will be exported to Europe.

Legislation on Electric Energy in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa. The Republic of the Congo straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Game Changer Discovery: Leviathan Gas Field And Turkey’s Energy Projection

Current gas field discoveries covering Leviathan and Tamar gas fields induced Israel to scrutinize applied energy strategies in Mediterranean Sea. In the light of these regional developments Israel‘s imported natural gas dependency is expected to reduce whilst energy driven industries will be ignited by upward domestic natural gas resources.

How to Establish an Energy Company in Turkey?

Company establishment in Turkey is one of the initially asked questions by an investor before start up of an investment project. Even if the establishment procedures are subject to the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Code (“TCC”), some terms and conditions may vary from these provisions depending on the investment’s sector.

How to Tackle the Problems of the Turkish Mining Industry?

Turkey's ever growing energy needs relocates the mining industry to the center stage in Turkey's energy policy. However as the mining industry still commands the center stage for the satisfaction of Turkey's energy needs, its problems still linger and beg for solutions.

An Overview of Hydroelectricity in Turkish Energy Market

As is known,the renewable energy resources have gained great importance in energy production in Turkey as well as in the world. By reason of the exhaustibility of primary energy resources such as coal, oil and natural gas and import dependence on natural gas and oil, Turkey has been working on use of the renewable resources in electricity manufacturing and it is intended to increase the rate of renewable resources in electricity manufacturing up to 30 % until 2023.

New Environmental Protection Law will lead China into a Cleaner Future

On April 24, 2014, the Standing Committee of China's National People's Congress (“NPC”) approved to adopt the amendment to the Environmental Protection Law (the new “EPL”), the first amendment since the original EPL was enacted 25 years ago. It will take into effect on January 1, 2015.

Increasing Appeal of the Turkish Energy Market:TANAP

The tender processes and construction works on TANAP Project are in progress and start of the construction of this pipeline is expected in this year. This project has gained importance before its start to operate. By reason of political issues between Ukraine and Russia, countries in the Europe may be faced with a natural gas problem in this year.

How to Penetrate the Turkish Energy Market?

The energy market is one of the most preferred markets by investors. Especially within the opening of the energy market to competition to a large extent and the support of energy investments through financial incentives, Turkish energy market attract investors’ attention in recent years. Since Turkey’s energy demand and as a conclusion of this, the energy import volume grow rapidly, investments in energy production and energy trade have gained importance.

Turkish Renewable Energy Market

Turkey's high economic growth which had reached almost double digits numbers by the middle of the last decade and stands around an annual average of 4% dictates new and innovative solutions to Turkey in order to reshuffle its energy infrastructural base.

How Arbitrary and Nasty the Power of Eminent Domain Can Be

Seizure of the Barries' Colorado dream cabin shows how arbitrary and nasty the power of eminent domain can be.

The Coastal Commission’s support for AB 976 Shows Due Process Apathy

Every monthly meeting the California Coastal Commission releases a list of bills in the current legislative session that it is supporting. It can be a time consuming effort to review all these bills, but sometimes you find a gem that sheds light on the nature of the Commission’s long-term goals, and the read becomes worth it. Last week, the Commission’s monthly report was well worth the read.

New Opportunity For the Turkish Energy Market: The Eastern Mediterranean Gas Fields

The high economic growth of Turkey which has been going on for more than a decade now intensified Turkey's need for more energy. It is estimated that Turkey is going to need a substantial volume of energy which will amount to a 7 % annual growth for the Turkish energy market until the year 2023.

Liguefied Natural Gas Market in Turkey

Currently, the importance of the Liguefied Natural Gas ("LNG") has come to the fore with the discussions concerning the probable problems in natural gas import to the Europe due to the Crimean Crisis. According to the experts' opinion, the LNG import to the Europe may increase in the near future depending on the decrease of the natural gas import. In brief, the LNG plays an essential role as an energy resource.

How Does Malaysian Law Deal With Acts of Piracy at Sea?

Piracy is a prevailing problem with no reasonable solution in sight. How safe is your ship or consignment passing through the seas surrounding Malaysia and what laws apply to this region?

Concessions in Albania / PPP in Albania

According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared to international standards, the implementation of AML being a strong pillar and institutional frameworks and policy pillars were weak.

Democratic Republic of Congo: Mining companies and the Value Added Tax (VAT)

In the following paragraphs, we do not have the pretention to review the legal meaning of the Ordinance-Act No 10/001 dated August 20, 2010 related to the institution of VAT which has replaced the Revenue Tax (ICA). We shall rather focus on analysing whether the Ordinance-Act mentioned above is applicable to eligible mining companies under the Mining Code enacted by the Act No 007/2002 dated July 11, 2002 related to the Mining Code.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Ownership of a Mine After Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for Permanent Quarry Exploitation, collectively referred to (« mining and quarry rights ») is principally to grant to their titleholders the right to mine natural or artificial deposits located above or below the concerned mining perimeter.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22

“The DRC New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22 of December 24, 2011″ in Africa Law Today, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo: New Agricultural Law n° 11/022 Being Amended and Supplemented

The Democratic Republic of the Congo new agricultural law n° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 is currently being amended and supplemented.

Significant Changes Currently Taking Place in Electrical Power Law in the Democratic Republic of Congo

In article 48 of DRC Constitution of 18 February 2006 as amended to date, the right of access to electricity is enshrined and guaranteed to the entire Congolese population. However, in actual fact, the situation is quite different because of the huge deficit in the supply of electricity to the population i.e. there is a weak coverage rate. Only a small number of the population have access to electricity and even then only infrequently.

Characteristics of Hydrocarbon in the Republic of Congo

The Republic of Congo is one of the hydrocarbon-producing countries in Africa. This production accounts for a larger contribution of around 75% to the State budget.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly Has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries.

Gabon: Council of Ministers Adopts Draft Law on Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

Guinea: Enactment of Law Amending the Mining Code of 2011

New perspectives for the mining sector in Guinea: enactment of the law amending the Mining Code of 2011.

New Exploitation Environmental License: New Requirement for Mining Operators in the DRC

The emergence of various environmental issues and their negative impacts on the quality of life, including the reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements engaging countries to develop ancillary national laws, policies, plans and programs to regulate and supervise human activities and to mitigate their impact on the environment, constitutes the common heritage for all human beings.

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health and safety of employees and other persons affected by the South African mining industry has been amended. The current amendment is related to Chapter 11 of the Regulations in terms of act. The exit certificate in section 17 must include details regarding a least the following: particulars of mine, particulars of employees and exit medical summary.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Ratification of the Cooperation Agreement of September 9, 2010 Between Congo-Brazzaville and Angola

The Republic of Congo (“Congo-Brazzaville”) has authorized the ratification of the cooperation agreement of September 9, 2010, with the Republic of Angola in the area of mining and geology, by Law No. 17-2013 of August 13th, 2013.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Mining Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

The California Coastal Commission Reviews Fracking Along the California Coast

Whether the California Coastal Commission Eventually Regulates Fracking On the Outer Continental Shelf Will Have More to Do with Federalism than Science

2013 Turkey Energy Report

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health and safety of employees and other persons affected by the South African mining industry has been amended. The current amendment is related to Chapter 11 of the Regulations in terms of act. The exit certificate in section 17 must include details regarding a least the following: particulars of mine, particulars of employees and exit medical summary.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Burkina Faso: The Council of Ministers Adopts the Draft of New Mining Code

On October 2, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Burkina Faso adopted a draft of new mining code. This draft which was in discussion since 2012, aims to amend and replace the Law No. 031-2003/AN of May 8, 2003 on the Mining Code in Burkina Faso.

Agricultural Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Forest Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Inga Falls - Hydro Power - Congo

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga power project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Electricity Market Liberalization in Turkey: EU Directives and Harmonization

As is known, the Turkish energy sector has been in a liberalization process for a long time and compared to other energy markets, the electricity market is in the fore especially regarding the legislation. Recently, the eligible customer limit in electricity market has been decreased to 4500 kWh from 5000 kWh per year within the Resolution of the Energy Market Regulatory Board in January 2014.

Legal Outlook of Turkish Gas Market

With rapidly growing economy, Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world. Turkey has been experiencing rapid demand growth in all segments of the energy sector for decades.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Implications of the Carbon Tax on South Africa’s transition into a greener economy

As developing countries, such as South Africa, transition into more industrialized countries, they face numerous problems relating to their social, economic and political development. Despite South Africa’s incorporation of ideas such as state equality, principles of non-aggression and non-intervention, in which it aims to earn its seat in the framework of International Law; there is no doubt that South Africa is still searching for its respective place in the global economy.

Hydro Power Harnesses the Power Potential of the Congo River - Inga Falls

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga Power Project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Energy Sector in Turkey and the Central Importance of EPİAŞ

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

Energy regulation (electricity and gas) in Albania

Albania performs reasonably well overall with respect to the quality of its energy (electricity and natural gas) sector. The recent EBRD energy law reform dimensions assessment has shown with regards to the country’s electricity legislation that private sector participation and market framework are the key weaknesses, with regulatory independence being the key strength.

Hydroelectricity Power in Turkey

Turkey is rapidly becoming a very important market player in its own territory with ambitious targets in energy sector.

A Test for Turkish Electricity Market: Fraud-Based Manipulation

Turkish electricity market is rapidly transforming a competitive open market by consistent privatization and liberalization policies of Turkish government.

An Overview On Turkish Petroleum Market

As is known, the petroleum explorations have come to the fore in Turkey within the discovery of new oil wells. Even if its oil production does not meet the oil demand, Turkey has been working also on reforms in oil market like in other energy sub-sectors.

Energy Privatizations as a Part of Energy Market Liberalization - Turkey

Apart from the legal reforms and establishment of an energy exchange, privatizations are one of the energy market liberalization stages.

What Are the Laws Regarding Animal Testing?

  By HG.org
In the United States, a number of products like pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and detergents are first tested on animals to determine what their effects are likely to be on humans. This has raised a number legal and ethical concerns among consumers. So, what are the laws regarding animal testing?

Recent Legal Reforms in Energy and Market Expectations

For the purpose of meeting the energy gap of Turkey and of increasing of the energy production, adequate legal reforms have been made regularly by taking the market requirements and market situation.

Key Process-Plant Specific Clauses in Process-Plant EPC Contracts - Turkey

Mostly, EPC Contracts will not provide for the handover of the facility to the project company until all commissioning and reliability trialing has been successfully completed.

Electricity and Natural Gas Correlation in Turkey: Fragility in Trading and Pricing Mechanism

Turkey has a very high foreign-source dependency in energy sector by 75% whereas natural gas dependency mounts to 98%.

Incentives on Renewables in Turkey

As many other countries, Turkey also intends to increase the rate of renewable energy resources to 30 % in its power generation until 20231. In accordance with this, adequate legislative amendments and legal reforms in energy have been made since 2010 which provide diverse incentives to investors. Recently, the Council of Ministers passed a resolution concerning investments and domestic production in renewable energy.

Future Energy Market Opportunities for Investment Funds in Turkey

The most promising sector in Turkey. Government's diversified energy policies will pioneer many energy areas.

A Perspective on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Regulations in The Turkish Market

The Draft of New Natural Gas Market Law provides incentives not only regarding the natural gas, but also regarding the LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) import and LNG terminal establishment.

Moratorium on Ukrainian Land Not a Problem

Ukraine is the biggest country in Europe. It borders with Russia, Belorussia, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland. It has on area of 603,700 km2 which is approximately equal to 5.7%territory of Europe or 0.44%of globe.

An Alternative Financing for Renewable Energy Project in Turkey: ESCO Financial Modelling

Since the motivation of being energy hub between Middle East and Europe , energy resources diversification is adopted by Turkish policymakers. Herein, Turkish government commenced to regulate renewable energy sector with new legislations and incentives.

Future Projection of Turkey Gas Market: Comparison with Germany Gas Market Structure

The natural gas market structure in Germany as an example. The liberalization of natural gas market in Germany has begun in 2006 with new legislation, through which the German Power Supply Agency (Bundesnetzagentur) has been instructed to control the natural gas market.

Akkuyu as First Nuclear Power Plant Project of Turkey

Due to increase of energy demand, consumption and especially external energy dependence of Turkey, the requirement of new energy resources has come to the fore. Since the primary energy resources such as natural gas and petroleum are exhaustible, nuclear energy has been a preferred energy resource in the world.

Natural Gas Projects in Turkey: Tuz Golu Project as a Pioneer

Turkey intends to increase its natural gas storage capacity through natural gas storage projects. At present, the Natural Gas Storage Project in Tuz Gölü which is operated by project partners from Turkey and China is in progress and its completion is planned until 2018.

New projection for natural gas supply of Turkey: TANAP Project

The part of the natural gas increases progressively in Turkish energy market due to its advantages, such that it has been subject to large projects.

Promising Market for Hedging the Risk in Energy: Turkish Electricity Derivatives Market

The most significant characteristic behaviour of an emerging market is displaying volatility in electricity market. As a consequence of market price risks on electricity markets, market players keen on hedging risk by applying financial derivatives.

New Draft on Natural Gas Market in Turkey: Expected Judicial Amendments and Market Dynamics

Turkey's extensive energy vision brought new developments on electricity, natural gas and renewable markets. The mainstream of Turkish policy makers is regulating the natural gas market with the objective to create competitive market conditions and pricing mechanism. The new draft on Natural Gas Market Law which is occupying the agenda since last year, will precisely act a prominent role on reconfiguring the market.

Incentives for Waste-to-Energy Plants in Turkey

In order to assess waste products, expand the utilization of renewable energy sources for generating electrical energy and benefit from these resources in a secure, economic and qualified manner with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Renewable Energy Law and Law on Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources for the Purpose of Generating Electrical Energy (“the Law”) has been recently amended in Turkey.

Which is Safer: Tap or Bottled Water?

  By HG.org
Each year, millions of Americans consume billions of gallons of water. The boom in the bottled water industry was fueled, in part, by beliefs that bottled water was cleaner and more heavily regulated than tap water. But then a backlash by others in the media showed that much bottle water was simply tap water in a bottle. So, is one form of water more heavily regulated and safer than the other?

Is it Legal to Raise Wild Animals or Keep Them as Pets?

  By HG.org
Anyone who has grown up near a park, nature preserve, or in a rural setting probably came across a wild animal that he or she wished to adopt. Whether it was a baby duckling, a squirrel, a raccoon, or even a bear cub, there are laws affecting raising wild animals.

Nebraska Department of Agriculture Laws and Regulations

Legal cases involving agriculture, cattle, dairy herds, poultry, and other herds may revolve around various issues which can range from disease, genetics, and environmental concerns to water rights, crop injuries, personal injuries to persons working in these fields, and more

Lack Of Complete Diversity Of Citizenship Of Members Of Equine LLCs Requires Dismissal Of Federal Action

The issue of diversity of citizenship is of particular interest to equine ownership and contract disputes, because many equine-related entities are organized as limited liability companies (LLCs). The citizenship of LLCs is subject to a different rule than the citizenship of corporations, a distinction that may escape the attention of attorneys.

New Advantages in Energy with the New Regulation: Unlicensed Electrical Energy Production - Turkey

As of 02.10.2013, everyone will be able to produce his/her own electrical energy in certain amounts. Due to the Regulation on Electrical Energy Production without License which has been entered on 02.10.2013 into force, every residence may produce a certain amount of its electricity and sell the surplus.

New Regulation in Renewable Energy: Regulation on Support and Certification of Renewable Energy Resources - Turkey

Renewable energy resources support mechanism is operated for support of renewable energy production in Turkey as price-purchase guarantee. Accordingly, the state provides a purchase guarantee for renewable energy producers.

Untested Nature of Carbon Capture May Present Loophole for Coal and Electric Industry

  By HG.org
The Obama administration has been cracking down on environmental regulations, particularly with regard to global warming. Faced with this increased pressure, the coal and electric industries are applying a new legal strategy they believe will allow them to take advantage of a loophole and prevent most EPA enforcement measures.

Insight into Turkey's Energy Market and New Energy Exchange EPIAS

Turkey proved its aspiration with the liberalization of electricity market for being an energy hub in the heart of Europe and Middle East territory. According to Türk Eletrik İletim Anonim Şirketi (TEİAŞ) 2012 report, the electricity demand in Turkey will arise within the range of 398-434 billion kWh in the light of historical perspective in 2023.

Failing to Disclose Environmental Defects in Property Sales

  By HG.org
Have you purchased a piece of land only to discover after the sale that there was pollution on the property? Are you thinking of selling a house and wondering how much you need to disclose? Understanding the laws related to environmental disclosures can mean the difference between a costly lawsuit and a smooth transaction.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries. With a population of more than 14 million of whom more than 80% live on activities directly or indirectly related to land, the country of upright people, like other Sahel countries, is confronted to emerging environmental problems.

Gabon: The Council of Ministers Adopts a Draft Law Regulating the Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

Key Legislation and Regulatory Structure in the Angolan Oil and Gas Sector

  By FCB&A
This article offers an overview of the key legislation and regulatory structure governing the oil and gas sector in Angola and was written as part of a publication on the oil and gas sector for Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer.

A Q&A Guide to Electricity Regulation in Bulgaria

This Q&A guide gives a high level overview of the domestic electricity market in Bulgaria, including domestic electricity companies, electricity generation and renewable energy, transmission, distribution, supply and tax issues. It covers the regulatory structure; foreign ownership; import of electricity; authorisation and operating requirements; trading between generators and suppliers; rates and conditions of sale and proposals for reform.


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