Family Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Family Law.




Can I Sue My Spouse?

  July 2, 2015     By HG.org
In some circumstances, one spouse may consider suing his or her spouse for particularly egregious conduct. However, whether the spouse can bring a viable claim against his or her spouse depends on the nature of the behavior, the nature of the relationship, state law and the particular circumstances involved.

Marital Settlement Agreement- Drafting Key Provisions

  June 11, 2015     By Stange Law Firm, PC
Drafting settlement and separation agreements is an important part of any family law practice because only fifteen-percent of divorce cases eventually go to trial.

Role of Forensic Accountants in Divorce Cases

  June 10, 2015     By HG.org
While divorce is often an emotionally-trying experience, at its core, it is a matter of ending a contract between two parties. One of the most contentious aspects of a divorce involves financial matters. In some cases, attorneys or private parties hire forensic accountants to uncover assets and to provide expert testimony at their divorce hearing.

Establishing Paternity in Illinois

  June 8, 2015     By Abear Law Offices
Paternity is the legal term for the relationship between a father and his child. While maternity is always apparent, sometimes there may be questions as to who is the father of the child. When these questions arise, intervention of an experienced family law attorney is warranted.

Under What Conditions Would the Court Change Child Custody in China?

  May 27, 2015     By Yingke Law Firm
Once the right of child custody is granted to one party by court of law, it is difficult to change. If the other party wants to bring up child himself or herself, he or she has to prove stipulated situations exist.

Steps Women Should Take Before Getting a Divorce

  May 25, 2015     By HG.org
Before plunging into the waters of divorce, women can take several steps to help make the process easier. Decisions made immediately prior to divorce can have a financial impact for years to come.

How Does a Minor Get Emancipated?

  May 19, 2015     By HG.org
Some find it surprising, but it is not that uncommon for family law attorneys to hear the question “how does a minor get emancipated?” Reasons for emancipation can vary widely, from unhappy home environments to needing to grant a minor independence to govern his or her own affairs.

Steps to Take Before Getting a Divorce

  May 18, 2015     By HG.org
As much as getting a divorce is an emotional decision, it is also a financial decision. Once someone has made the decision to pursue a divorce, he or she should immediately take steps to safeguard his financial and legal interests.

Contributing to Your Grandchildren's Future

  May 12, 2015     By Giro Elder Law
When estate planning, gifting assets to your grandchildren can do more than help your descendants get a good start in life; it can also reduce the size of your estate and the tax that will be due upon your death.

Discouraging Adoption Fraud and Misrepresentation / Duty to Report Abuse and Guarding of Confidentiality

  May 12, 2015     By Stange Law Firm, PC
Especially in the case of adoption, the Code specifically requires an attorney to actively discourage adoption fraud or misrepresentation and prohibits the attorney from engaging in such conduct.

Setting and Communicating Attorney Fees

  May 12, 2015     By Stange Law Firm, PC
Both Codes require that an attorney enter into a written fee agreement with a client and requires the attorney to carefully explain and ensure that the client understands the fee agreement. The fees collected by an attorney with respect to an adoption or surrogacy cannot be illegal or unconscionable and must be commensurate with the services provided.

Appraising All Parties of Their Rights and Obligations

  May 12, 2015     By Stange Law Firm, PC
Adoptions and Surrogacy Agreements raise substantial ethical considerations. Particularly in the case of Surrogacy Agreements, the parties are essentially contracting with one another for the use of another woman’s uterus.

Can Domestic Contracts Prevent Dependant's Relief Claims?

  May 8, 2015     By Wagner Sidlofsky LLP
There is interplay between sections of the Family Law Act (“FLA”), and those of the Succession Law Reform Act (“SLRA”), in particular as it relates to the definition of “dependant”. That interplay may affect the second prong of the two prong test to determine who, in fact, is a dependant for the purposes of bringing a dependant’s support claim.

How Do I Garnish Wages for Child Support?

  April 26, 2015     By HG.org
In a typical debtor/creditor case, a creditor must go to court and get a judgment against a debtor before it can take part in collection efforts on the debt, such as garnishment or property assignments. Parents who are not receiving the support that they are entitled to receive per an existing court order do not typically have to go through the process of getting a judgment to have wages automatically withheld from the other parent’s wages.

Underage Drinking Liability: Illinois House Bill 4745

  April 23, 2015     By Cosley Law Office
Minor in possession. Open container violations. Driving under the influence. Minors are particularly susceptible to committing these alcohol-related crimes in peer-driven situations while still underage. Some parents have resigned to the fact that their children will drink regardless of their efforts, and will do everything they can to keep them safe—even if that means breaking the law themselves.

Basics of Mediation

  April 23, 2015     By Demmel Law Office, LLC
Mediation is negotiating with the assistance of a neutral third party (the mediator) who facilitates the negotiation process.

Lower Standard to Remove Restrictions on Parenting Time in Michigan

  April 22, 2015     By Byers & Goulding, PLC
To modify custody the parent seeking the modification must show that there is a change in circumstances or good cause to revisit custody before the court will even consider a potential modification. The same is true for parenting time however the courts in Michigan have held that there is a less stringent requirement regarding the change of circumstances or good cause in order to modify parenting time.

How Do Support Orders Get Enforced

  April 20, 2015     By HG.org
While the first step in getting child or spousal support is to get a court order, this is only the beginning of the process. Unfortunately, many support orders go unpaid. However, there are a variety of ways that such orders can be enforced.

How to Stop Domestic Violence

  April 19, 2015     By HG.org
Black eyes, broken bones, missed days from school or work. For some, these may seem familiar. Whether they are occurring to you or someone you know, it is important to know that we can all help stop domestic violence.

The First Divorce Conversation to Have

  April 17, 2015     By Demmel Law Office, LLC
The first and most vital decision that divorcing couples need to make is what process they’re going to use to accomplish their divorce. That’s right - it’s not about who will keep the house, what will happen with the retirement accounts or even how you’re going to share time with your children.

How to Avoid Fraud Adopting a Child from the Ukraine

  April 14, 2015     By Kydalov & Partners
The procedure of adoption of a child from Ukraine is complicated, expensive and long. Ukrainian legislation makes the process of adoption transparent as much as possible, candidates must prove their welfare and reputation (in the broadest sense of these words) to exclude the possibility of adoption by dishonest and careless parents.

Introduction to Jurisdiction of Divorce in Turkey

  April 10, 2015     By Cindemir Law Office
Divorce principles in Turkish Law related to divorce. Enforcement of a Foreign Divorce Decree in Turkey requires some standards.

Divorce under Tunisian Law

  April 7, 2015     By Dr. Brahim LATRECH Law Office
In Tunisia, the Family Law is regulated by the Code of Personal Status.The rules applicable to divorce in Tunisian law is the Articles 29 et seq of the Code of Personal Status.

Ways Divorce Attorneys Help Their Clients

  By HG.org
Divorce is often an emotionally and financially draining time. However, a qualified divorce attorney can help make the process easier. Here are some of the pivotal roles and tasks that divorce lawyers help their clients with.

When Do I Need a Lawyer?

  By HG.org
With a variety of self-help forms and resources available to individuals today, it may be tempting to attempt to do legal work yourself and avoid the often expensive endeavor of having to hire a lawyer. However, many tasks are better suited for a professional.

What Happens to a Mortgage in a Connecticut Divorce?

It is a question that gets pushed aside amid figuring out child custody, money, and other asset division during divorce proceedings, but one that can have a lasting financial effect on both parties to a divorce. A home, like other marital property, must be divided upon divorce along with the associated mortgage.

What Family Law Court is Really Like

The people who can best appreciate what spending time in the family court system is like are family law attorneys. We live in this system day in and day out, seeing the same processes repeated in case after case.

Initial Consultation with a Divorce Lawyer

  By HG.org
When a person reaches out to a divorce lawyer for the first time, there are certain things that he or she should be aware of. Here is an overview of the initial consultation and some tips to make the best of this experience.

Basics of Collaborative Law

Collaboration means to work together to achieve a common goal. The collaborative process involves the spouses, their attorneys and any other involved professionals engaging in non-confrontational sessions to discuss the issues and goals of the involved individuals. The issues may include divorce, support of a spouse and/or children, how to divide the marital assets, co-parenting plans and anything else that spouses need to decide.

What Happens When Business Partners Divorce in Illinois?

Spouses do not typically go into marriages anticipating the marriage will fail. Likewise, partners do not begin a business thinking that it will be anything but successful. When the two worlds collide, a divorce settlement may adversely affect the future of a business, particularly when the spouses were business partners.

How Can Social Media Affect my Illinois Divorce?

We live in an age where we constantly feel the need to let everyone in the world around us know exactly where we are at all times. This is made possible by social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn and other similar networking and social sharing pages.

How Long Does Child Support Last For?

  By HG.org
While individual states may vary as to how they calculate child support, one constant is that states recognize that both parents have the legal duty to provide their children with basic necessities and to provide for their needs. The duration of a child support order depends on a number of factors.

New Jersey Same Sex Marriage

The debate over same-sex marriage continues to be a political issue, but many do not feel as strongly about the issue as they did a decade ago.

How Do Subpoenas Work?

  By HG.org
While a summons may require another party in the case to appear, a subpoena can require that a particular person appear in court or for other proceedings. Additionally, this legal tool can be used to acquire information that one of the party desires.

The Formidable Challenges Victims of Domestic Violence Face

In American culture, domestic violence and sexual assault have traditionally been treated as embarrassing secrets that must be hidden at all costs. However, our society’s views on such subjects are evolving, and victims no longer have to suffer in silence.

How Do I File Contempt in My Family Law Case?

  By HG.org
If there is an order that was entered in your family law case and the other party is not following the order, you may decide to pursue a contempt hearing. This is one method that individuals use to help enforce their order.

Home Issues Come to the Forefront in Florida’s Divorce Mediation Process

One of the main issues a Florida couple will have to deal with during a divorce is what to do with their home.

What Happens to the Mortgage in a New York Divorce?

Just like all other forms of marital property, a couple's mortgage on their home must be divided during their divorce. A mortgage is considered to be a piece of marital debt.

How a Divorce Attorney Can Help You with Property Division

Equitable Distribution rules work in New Jersey during martial property settlement. Read on to find out how a divorce attorney can help.

Tax Tips for Couples Going Through a Connecticut Divorce

While most divorced couples are immediately concerned about their children and their financial status, there are other, less obvious, impacts that divorce will inevitably have. Understanding the changes to your taxation status, for example, is something to consider when filing for divorce.

If You Have Not Divorced in Mexico, Can You Remarry in the United States?

If you have not divorced in Mexico, but you remarried in the United States, could this affect you? In short, yes. If you are married to another person anywhere in the world, you may not marry again until your first marriage is formally ended.

The Importance of Illinois Prenuptial Agreements

The prenuptial agreement. We hear about it in movies, on television, and may have signed one or know someone that signed one before entering into marriage.

Restricting Alcohol May Reduce Domestic Violence

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that one in every four women will experience domestic violence in her lifetime. In a recent correlating study, the CDC linked excessive alcohol use with domestic violence.

Divorce Can Derail A California Family Business

How a dissolution matter can effect a functioning family business in California.

Indirect & Direct Illinois Child Support Payments

One of the greatest and most obvious concerns newly divorced parents have is in regards to their children. Divorce proceedings can be time-consuming, expensive, emotional, and very difficult on a family.

New Illinois Domestic Violence Law

The Illinois legislature has recently taken critical, necessary steps to ensure the safety of women suffering from domestic violence.

I Need a Divorce, Where Do I Start?

  By HG.org
When love turns sour, the effects of a relationship ending can be devastating. When the only solution left is to seek a divorce, knowing where to begin is often confusing and may seem overwhelming.

Where is Same-Sex Marriage Legal?

  By HG.org
For the thousands of people involved in same-sex relationships in the United States, times have really begun to change. After decades of fighting for equal rights, many states have slowly begun to allow gay and lesbian couples to experience the same rights, benefits, and privileges associated with marriage as straight couples have always been allowed.

When a Marriage Breaks in the United Arab Emirates

Shedding light on the application of the UAE Personal Affairs (‘Sharia’) versus foreign laws. The case of a Hindu divorce granted by the Sharia Court in the UAE to the wife with full custody of the kids as well as alimony.

New Technology, New Definition of “Family” May Change Florida’s Child Custody Law

Many Florida families look at the new technologies by which children can be conceived and wonder how best to interpret the meaning of the word “family.”

How Does Divorce Affect My Illinois Social Security Benefits?

While the ideal situation is being able to amicably divide your assets upon divorce, that might not always be the case. Even if you are willing to work with your ex-spouse in dividing property and other assets, things can get complicated quickly.

Am I Liable for My Spouse’s Credit Card Debt?

  By HG.org
While in many cases one spouse is not liable for the other’s credit card debt, this depends on a number of factors. Of these, the nature of the debt and where the debt was incurred are two primary considerations.

Attorney Tips for Handling Stress and Quelling the Fires of Conflict

Part of handling stress deals with the selection of the cases a lawyer takes. Lawyers should be cautious of taking cases from extremely difficult and unreasonable clients. These kinds of clients can raise stress and make the practice of law unenjoyable. Where it can be done ethically, in some cases, an attorney may wish to disengage or withdraw from cases where the client is completely unreasonable. These clients can also tend to seek conflict versus trying to quell the fires.

Do Grandparents Get Holiday Visitation Rights in Connecticut?

With the holiday season in full force, we all have a lot of things on our mind: hosting parties, cooking, gift shopping, work stress, and planning family gatherings. Most of us probably take for granted the simplicity of the holidays—we may have a schedule we have followed for years that determines which holidays we spend with whom.

Liability for Spouse's Debt in Connecticut Divorce

Everyone knows that divorce results not just in a severing of the marital bond between two individuals, but also in a division of property.

Legal Aspects of Marrying Ukrainian Citizens

Nowadays, many people move to Ukraine to marry with Ukrainian citizens. A foreigner who married a person who lives in Ukraine will face a number of challenges before and after the registration of a marriage. This is not about difference between mindsets and some special culture features: in this article we will consider Ukrainian law features and different law problems related to marriage.

Does Joint Custody Mean that Neither Parent has to Pay Child Support?

  By HG.org
While it seems sensible that parents who have “joint custody” would not need to pay child support because they both have the child, there are many situations in which one of the parents must provide child support. Read over the following information and then discuss what rules apply to your case with a family lawyer in your jurisdiction.

Seeking Youthful Offender Status in Alabama

The criminal justice system can be harsh, but some states allow juveniles to face relaxed penalties. In Alabama, a person younger than 21 years old facing criminal charges can seek a youthful offender status. This could mean fewer penalties and the possibility of having a clean criminal record.

Common California Family Law Questions Answered

Twelve common family law questions.

Divorce and the Child with Special Needs

When the parents of a child with special needs are divorcing, or are considering divorce, it is important to accurately access the emotional and financial requirements that will need to be met for the good of the child.

Different Issues Handled by a Family Attorney

You are proposed to contemplate a number of distinct things, with regards to selecting quality family attorneys.

New Product Designed to Prevent Elderly Abuse

The Home Security Outlet, an online store that offers DIY home security systems, has released a new product designed to protect the elderly from abusive caregivers. The device, called The Air Freshener Hidden Camera with DVR, can be easily installed in any home and will record video that is stored on an SD card whenever motion is detected in the room.

Can I Sue a Spouse for a Personal Injury?

  By HG.org
While the classic rule was that spouses could not sue each other, the abolition of laws throughout much of the 20th century has all but eliminated this rule.

Florida Couples Should Keep Debts in Mind During Divorce Mediation

So many issues come up during divorce mediation that couples often become overwhelmed with all of them. Child custody, alimony, and child support are only a small part of the items that should be covered.

For a Friendly Divorce, Florida Couples Find Help in Divorce Mediation

If couples can put their differences aside to create an atmosphere of teamwork, they can work with a divorce mediator to help them achieve a friendly divorce.

Private Investigation – Frequently Asked Questions

  By HG.org
If you are considering retaining the services of a private investigator, you may want to know some background information regarding these individuals. Here are a few frequently asked questions about private investigators and their answers.

What Is a Digital Private Investigator?

  By HG.org
While many private investigators complete work in the field by conducting surveillance on a subject and photographing them in certain acts, digital private investigators focus more on gathering digital evidence. This information may be used in family law cases, employment disputes, personal injury cases or myriad other cases.

When Do I Need a Private Investigator?

  By HG.org
In certain cases, a lawyer may recommend hiring a private investigator. He or she may have existing contacts or may recommend that you find your own investigator. Here are some situations in which you may need a private investigator to assist you in your case.

Where Can I Go for Legal Advice if I Am Pro Se?

  By HG.org
Presenting a case in front of a judge or jury usually requires specialized knowledge about procedural issues and evidence, which is why hiring an attorney is usually recommended. However, in some instances, clients simply cannot afford a lawyer and choose to represent themselves, called “pro se.” There are a few places that you may look to find more information on your legal topic.

How Long Does a Divorce Take?

As with most questions in the legal realm, the answer to this seemingly simple question is “It depends.” A simple, no-fault divorce with both parties consenting and promptly filing all the necessary paperwork can be done in about 120 days from filing the divorce complaint to the date of the divorce decree. On the other end of the spectrum, some divorce cases can drag out for 4, 5 or even 10 years. The timeframe for most divorces falls between those two extremes.

Will my Designated Beneficiary Receive the Proceeds from my Life Insurance Policy?

The answer should be yes, but if you have had major life events in your family, such as births, adoptions, divorce, marriage, or deaths, your loved ones may be in for a surprise. If you fail timely to update your beneficiaries, or fail to provide a paper trail showing your intent to keep them the same, you may unwittingly be disinheriting a child or benefiting an ex-spouse.

Elder Abuse: Underreported and On the Rise

Two million and counting elders suffer from elder abuse every year in the United States. However, with elder abuse on the rise, and the fact that elder abuse are often not reported, the actual number can exceed 2 million.

Michigan Court Rules that Biological Relationship Not Necessary to Inherit as a Child

When is a child a child? The Michigan Court of Appeals has ruled that it is not necessary to establish a biological relationship in order to be treated as a child for intestate succession purposes. The laws of intestate succession provide a distribution plan for the assets of people who do not have a Last Will & Testament.

What Are the Requirements for Service of Process?

  By HG.org
Service of process is the legal notification to one party, usually a defendant, of the receipt of certain information. While each state can establish its own rules regarding the requirements for service of process, the federal rules are required in federal states. Additionally, some states have adopted the federal rules verbatim.

Should I Hire a Private Service of Process Business Instead of Using a Sheriff’s Department?

  By HG.org
Although federal courts and many state courts only require that a process server be 18 years of age or older and a non-party, most process servers are representatives of private service of process businesses or certain law enforcement officers. For federal cases, a marshal may be used. In state cases, a sheriff’s department officer may be used.

The Importance of a Prenuptial Agreement

Planning to get married? Be practical and get a Prenuptial Agreement done for the following reasons.

What Benefits Is My Same-Sex Spouse or Domestic Partner Entitled to?

  By HG.org
Due to a number of important Supreme Court decisions in the 21st century, married same-sex spouses are entitled to a number of benefits that were previously outside their reach. While domestic partners may be entitled to some benefits, married spouses are typically eligible for more benefits. Marriage is a factor in many federal benefits.

Domestic Violence: A Heavy Accusation

Domestic violence is a serious accusation and can have devastating effects on the life of those accused.

New Illinois Law Will Require Pregnancy Accommodations

Illinois has seen many positive changes in support of women’s equality recently. In addition to signing an amendment to the Equal Pay Act that will centralize workplace discrimination investigations, Governor Quinn also signed into law a bill that will expand accommodations for expecting and new mothers.

The Christmas Tort, For Christmas Dishes You’ve Had to Eat and Lies You Were Told

It’s time to give personal injury lawyers a tort that can improve the lives of people at Christmas. How long are family members going to suffer at Christmas after being served dishes that should have stayed in the 50's, for lies told to them by their parents, and for Christmas traditions they never agreed to take part in, without being able to obtain some type of relief for the distress, the stomach pain and heartburn they’ve endured? Well no more. It’s time for the Christmas Tort.

Bangladesh Child Adoption and Immigration

Bangladesh is not party to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Inter-country Adoption (Hague Adoption Convention). Therefore, when the Hague Adoption Convention entered into force for the United States on April 1, 2008, inter-country adoption processing for Bangladesh did not change. Bangladeshi law does not allow for full adoptions of Bangladeshi children.

Adoption of Ukrainian Children by Foreigners

There are more than 25,000 of children living in orphanages in Ukraine. Of course, all of them want to find a carrying family and loving parents. Not only Ukrainians can give them such an opportunity to find home, but also residents of other countries can do. Fortunately, Ukraine is loyal to adoption of children by foreigners.

Paternity Suit in Turkey Under Turkish Family Law

Paternity Suits in Turkey under Turkish Family Law. Results of Paternity suits will enable the mother to request financial support from the father.

Seniors Should be Cautious When Purchasing Deferred Annuities

Financial Conduct Authority says the deferred annuities market is messy, so seniors and elders need to be more careful when buying.

Who Owns the Nursing Homes in California?

When moving your loved one into a nursing home, you want the best. Except, that info isn't readily available to the public.

The Divorce Process: Decide or Have the Decision Made for You

Decide or have the decision made for you. This phrase applies to pretty much everything in the area of family law. You can’t make any decisions for anyone else, but you can decide how you’re going to approach these challenges. If you don’t decide how you’re going to approach these difficulties, the decision will be made for you.

Surviving During the Holidays in a Divorce or Legal Separation

In Illinois, there are parents with physical custody of the children, often referred to as residential custody, and there are non-residential custodial parents with visitation rights. In any divorce in which the parties are parents, often, divorce lawyers will tell you that the primary issue is often the division of visitation time with the kids. The most sought after parenting time is during the holidays when families are expected to be together and the kids are not in school.

What Are My Rights Under Community Property Distribution?

  By HG.org
While the majority of states require that assets be distributed in an equitable division upon divorce, community property states view all property that was accumulated during the marriage to be the equal property of both spouses.

Business Valuation in Connecticut Divorce

When a previously married couple files for divorce, their property must be equitably distributed between the former spouses. Usually, the courts will follow what is known as an equitable distribution model to ensure fairness to both parties.

New Illinois Maintenance Law

In every Illinois divorce, the family law court decides whether one spouse must pay maintenance, commonly referred to as spousal support, to the other side.

Understanding the Routes to Different Child Custody Situations in California

The Child Custody and Visitation Process in California. Divorcing parents in California control their own future when deciding child custody arrangements. That is if they are amicable and can come to an agreement.

What Property am I Entitled to in an Equitable Distribution State?

  By HG.org
Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin use a community property distribution scheme to divide marital property. Alaska recognizes the community property scheme if the spouses agree to the arrangement. All other states use equitable distribution.

A Look on Domestic Violence

Domestic Violence in relation to RA 9262. Domestic Violence is an act of aggressive behaviour within the home and towards a member or members of the family such as but not limited to physically inflicting bodily harm to a spouse or children, verbally assaulting a member of the family, sexually abusing the wife, partner or even the children.

How to Tell if You Are Ready for a Divorce

Issues to review when contemplating a dissolution of marriage.

Important Differences Between Enforcement of Spousal Support Orders and Enforcement of Civil Judgments in California

Spousal support refers to an ongoing series of payments payable to one spouse over a specified duration of time after a divorce. For spousal support to be enforceable under California law, a judgment must first be entered by the court.

What Does “Best Interests of the Child” Mean?

  By HG.org
In the objective sense, the term “best interests of the child” pertains to the principles that are used to determine what will be best for a child in a particular circumstance. In general terms, the best interests of the child assessment is used to determine which services and orders will best serve the child.

Unlawful Provisions in Premarital Agreements

it is vital that any attorney drafting a prenuptial agreement know about unlawful provisions. Otherwise, a client may later be unhappy if provisions of a premarital agreement, or an entire premarital agreement, is later deemed to be invalid because of the inclusion of unlawful provisions. In addition to the information provided in this article regarding unlawful provisions, any attorney should be careful that they are complying with the laws in their specific jurisdiction.

Performance of California Nursing Home Chains

Many nursing home chains in California have been shown to underperform when it comes to quality-of-care, staffing, and inspection measures.

Battery Domestic Violence with Strangulation in Las Vegas, Nevada

Battery domestic violence is a misdemeanor case in Las Vegas Nevada. But a domestic battery by strangulation is taken more seriously and can result in a felony charge.

Evidence Needed for a Family Violence Protective Order

Seeking a protective order after an instance of family violence can be complex. A protective order can be used to help a victim of family violence feel safer by restricting his or her interactions with the alleged abuser. However, there are several elements that must be proven to ensure a court would approve a protective order.


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