Government Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Government.

Use of E-mails as Evidence in Ukrainian Courts

  November 23, 2015     By Kydalov & Partners
Ukrainian legislation does not establish a clear field of application and the use of electronic documents and e-mails in the business and common activities. Even professional lawyers do not have a clear answer for this question, because of that judges in court consider use of electronic communications (e-mail) as evidence arbitrarily. What do Laws of Ukraine say about electronic documents and e-mails?

Proposed Changes to Trucking Industry Standards

  November 8, 2015     By Eichen, Crutchlow, Zaslow & McElroy, LLP
Despite concerns from the Department of Transportation, police and a large number of respondents in a recent poll on truck safety, Congress is considering a bill that would allow trucks to increase in size and allow drivers to work longer hours without a mandated break.

Polygamous Marriage and Family Visa in Italy

  November 6, 2015     By CTM Avvocati
In the last decade Italy has increased by more than 35% the number of spouses or children arrived in our Country that use the institution of family reunification Visa. About 1% of it concerns people that have multiple wives. Can these people get an Italian Visa for family reasons?

Police Investigations

  November 2, 2015     By Hebets & McCallin, PC
Exercise Your Right To Remain Silent. Generally when the police contact an individual who is suspected of a crime, whether or not the subject of that investigation has committed a crime or not, the best advice for that subject is to remain silent.

Obama Commutes Demaryius Thomas’ Mom’s Sentence

  October 27, 2015     By Hebets & McCallin, PC
“I believe at its heart, America is a nation of second chances, and I believe these folks deserve their second chance.” - President Obama

Jury Nullification

  October 27, 2015     By Hebets & McCallin, PC
Jury nullification is making headlines in Denver and in particular in front of the Lindsey-Flanigan Courthouse, where activists have been distributing fliers about nullification and fighting charges against other activists who have done the same, since July of this summer.

Are We Able to Smoke Pot in Public in Colorado Yet?

  October 22, 2015     By Hebets & McCallin, PC
The short answer at this point is no. While an initiative was introduced earlier this year to permit public smoking in certain areas, activists just announced they are pulling the initiative from the ballot and seeking a more collaborative effort between themselves and local businesses in Denver.

Laws for Large Breed Dogs in New Jersey

  October 13, 2015     By The Law Offices of Eric A. Shore, P.C.
On May 11, 2015 the Responsible Dog Ownership Act was introduced in New Jersey by Democrat assembly members.

Issues with the Amber Alert System

  October 13, 2015     By Law Office of Jill R. Cohen
The Amber Alert System was created in 1996 after the abduction of nine-year-old Amber Hagerman in Texas.

Railroad Industry Safety Under Scrutiny

  October 12, 2015     By Richard DiTomaso, ESQ., PC
The Association of American Railroads claim stating 2014 was “the safest year on record for the railroad industry” is under scrutiny by train safety advocates. Five train accidents, including the catastrophic Amtrak train derailment in Philadelphia, have occurred this year.

New Jersey Health Care Lawyers Discuss Proposed Changes to Stark Law

  October 11, 2015     By Michelman & Bricker
In July of 2015, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) published proposed modifications to the Stark Law regulations [Section 1877 of the Social Security Act (the Act) (42 U.S.C. 1395nn)].

How The Government Can Take Your Property

  September 28, 2015     By Hebets & McCallin, PC
A new bill has been introduced to end forfeiture funding of the DEA’s Marijuana Suppression programs. The bill is a bipartisan effort to modify was has become a widely abused system of asset forfeiture from innocent citizens, who in many cases have not even been charged with any crimes.

New Law on Professional Fees in the City of Buenos Aires

  September 23, 2015     By Canosa Abogados
On November 27, 2014 Law No. 5,134, which regulates lawyers’ and solicitors’ fees who work in the City of Buenos Aires (hereafter the “Law”), was published in the Official Gazette.

Federal Minor Role is Major

  September 8, 2015     By The Law Office of Russell S. Babcock
Much of my practice deals with defending individuals who import methamphetamine into the United States. Anyone who has practiced federal criminal law knows that the penalties are daunting. In many case a defendant would receive less time for attempting to escape and running over and seriously injuring a custom’s agent than for the charge of importation of methamphetamine.

Texas Veterans Court Eligibility Gets Much-Needed Expansion from Texas Legislature

  September 6, 2015     By Barnett Howard & Williams PLLC
That past legislative session, the Texas legislature made change to the eligibility requirements for Texas' Veterans Courts, introducing more discretion into the process. These courts are an important part of taking care of the veterans support our freedom by providing a diversion and treatment program.

Public Procurement Disputes in Romania

For both local Romanian investors and also foreign investors interested in obtaining public contracts in Romania it is very important to be familiar with the local public procurement legislation, out of which the most delicate part is the one pertaining to the public procurement disputes.

Settlement for Baby's Death at Military Hospital

When a four-month-old’s parents brought her to the Emergency Room at Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawaii on October 18, 2012, their infant had been suffering from an upper respiratory infection accompanied by labored breathing.

Changes in Advertising Law of Russia

Provisions of the Advertising Law are detailed as regards limiting the sound level for advertisements entered into effect on May 25, 2015. Illegal use of intellectual property in advertising does not violate advertising laws. Stricter liability for credit institutions for violations in advertising financial services.

The Obligation of the use of Indonesian Rupiah in the Territory of the Republic of Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
Bank Indonesia Regulation No. 17/3 /PBI/2015 on the Obligation of the Use of Indonesian Rupiah in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia (“PBI 17/3/PBI/2015“) is a new legislation enacted by Bank Indonesia which is based on the law that has been previously promulgated, namely Law No. 7 of 2011 on the Currency (“Law No. 7/2011“).

Federal Tort Claims Act Practice Alert: U.S. v. Wong

According to the United States Supreme Court, the two- year and six- month time limits in 28 U.S.C.§ 2401(b) of the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) "are just time limits, nothing more. Even though they govern litigation against the Government, a court can toll them on equitable grounds."

Standard of Proof in Impeachment Kenya

The new constitutional dispensation has given rise to the new faze that is impeachment of county governors.

Legal Basis for Property Rates in Kenya

Property rates are a key revenue source for the Kenyan National Government.

The Unified Judiciary Law of GCC

In 34th Session of the Supreme Council of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) the council agreed that The Unified Judiciary law of GCC.

Efficacy and Validity in International Law

Compliance and its relation to validity is one of the central points in the discussions related to the international law. H Kelsen stated that ‘the efficacy of law constitutes a condition of the validity of law’[1], where efficacy refers to ‘whether law is actually observed’[2] and ‘validity whether law must be observed’[3].

Rectification of Canadian Tax Problems

Over the last fifteen years Canadian tax law has undergone a remarkable evolution in the legal remedies available to assist in fixing tax mistakes. Over this period, tax rectification has developed from being virtually unknown, to being a potent addition to tax lawyers' arsenal of tools available to fix tax problems.

Can Anyone Stop Me From Putting Up a Satellite Dish?

As options for television channels have increased, satellite TV has become a very popular alternative to cable. Unfortunately, to receive these broadcasts, one needs to install a satellite dish on the outside of a building, and this can lead to disputes. Thus, many ask “can anyone stop me from putting up a satellite dish?”

How Do I Run for Office?

Every year, thousands of citizens in the United States decide that they would like to make a change in the way the country runs. To do this, they opt to run for office. Whether a local position or a national office, running for election can be complicated. What do you need to know in order to get your campaign started?

Are There Any Ways to Fight Big Businesses Moving Into the Neighborhood?

The American economy has changed quite a bit over the last few decades. One of the biggest changes over the last 100 years has been a shift away from small, family owned stores to the “big box” megastore.

Documents Mistakenly Disclosed: Litigation Privilege

When will the courts disallow the use of documents that have been fraudulently or mistakenly obtained? A recent case in the UK has given useful guidance on when ‘privileged’ documents could be used in the course of litigation.

The Federal Sentencing Battle

The overhaul of federal sentencing law with the enactment of the United States Sentencing Guidelines, (U.S.S.G.) , had a noble but flawed goal The basic idea was that sentencing uniformity and therefore fairness could be achieved by reducing the myriad acts of criminal behavior and offender characteristics to a number.

Private Party Submission Form for a Proposal to Conclude a Concession Agreement Approved in Russia

Starting from May 1, 2015 a private party can submit a proposal to conclude a concession agreement in the established form.

What Does the FDA Do

If you have ever looked at a warning label on food or medicine, you may have noticed something that said “FDA Warning,” or “The FDA requires.” But what is the FDA, what does it do, and how does it enforce its rules?

Common Defenses for a Breach of Contract Claim

Breach of contract claims — when one party sues another for failing to deliver on the terms of a written or oral agreement — are one of the most common business disputes in Florida courts today. Consequently, it is useful for Florida business owners to be aware of some of the common defenses for a breach of contract claim:

International Payment Systems to Transfer Processing Inside Russia

Transactions inside Russia with the use of international payment cards will be processed within the Russian National System of Payment Cards (NSPC)

Administrative Liability for Unauthorized Use of Land in Russia has Increased

Federal Law No.46-FZ “On amending the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation,” increasing the administrative liability for unlawful use of land parcels (the “Federal Law”) was adopted on March 08, 2015, namely:

Three Giant Steps Forward for Federal Criminal Law

While the country has been focused on ISIS and issues with domestic espionage, the current administration under United States Attorney General Eric Holder has made three major changes in federal sentencing law.

Warratless Blood Draw in DUI Investigation

In Missouri v. McNeely, the United States Supreme Court decided that a blood draw is a search which is protected under the Fourth Amendment.

Florida Military Ex-Spouses Should Review Benefits after Divorce

Many Florida residents who are ex-spouses of military personnel may be unaware that they may be eligible for benefits after they have been divorced.

Federal Sentencing: Follow the Yellow Brick Road

When I think of a judge imposing a federal sentence, my mind often drifts to the Wizard Of Oz and that little masked man standing behind the curtain.

How Does the Foreigner Validate Documents Issued in Ukraine?

The largest part of all documents confirming one or another status of the foreign person by some country will require a further legalization according to current regulations of any other country, where a foreign national plans to work and/or reside in the future.

Military Sexual Assault Issues

The U.S. Defense Department released its findings about the incidence of sexual assault and rape in our nation’s military. The report includes statistics from an anonymous survey and from reported incidents on file. According to the department’s results, the number of sexual assaults decreased over the past two years. In 2012, the survey found 26,000 victims of sexual assault in the military which decreased to 19,000 in 2014. These incidents are for unwanted sexual conduct including rape.

Legally Insane: The Insanity Defense

The insanity defense is one of the least successful defenses in a criminal case. The determination of the suspect’s mental state at the time of the criminal offense, as well as at the time of trial can be a challenging task; the defense actually has the burden of proof in Federal cases, as well as most State charges, in showing the defendant to be insane.

Outline of the Law on Defence Industrial Security and Classified Military Information in Turkey

Law No 5201, Defence Industrial Security Law, dated 29.06.2004 is the principle document regulates the Turkish defence industry and set forth the legal framework of all classified military agreement, information, documentation, project, purchase, sell, manufacturing, research and development, storage of material or services, facilities to conduct those activities related to defence industry excluding the staff of and the facilities belong to Turkish Armed Forces.

Supervision of Industrial Organizations Manufacturing Military Equipment in Turkey

The arms industry with over 600 modernization projects is booming in Turkey. The government policies in manufacturing and new offset regulations towards to domestic procurement ensure continuous transformation and development. The 2023 vision of the government is to be ranked in first ten countries in defense industry and to manufacture all ground vehicles, marine vessels and unmanned aerial vehicles domestically.

Doing Business in Cuba

In January 2015 the Treasury Department issued regulations to establish banking relations and allow U.S. companies to export items for sale in Cuba without the trade barriers that have existed for decades. While some Republican leaders have criticized Obama’s actions, normal relations with Cuba are only a matter of time and the opportunities for attorneys representing American and European companies wishing to pursue commercial opportunities in Cuba have never been greater.

Victims of Mesothelioma Cancer Due to Asbestos Exposure Have Legal Rights

Individuals who have developed mesothelioma cancer, asbestosis, lung cancer, or other diseases linked to asbestos exposure may be eligible to file a lawsuit and receive compensation for the injuries and the cost of medical care.

The Spanish Government Grants a ‘’Second Chance’’ to Non-Resident Pensioners

Included in the Draft Tax Reform of Income Tax Law for Non-residents is a significant modifying rule that could be described as a "second chance" to allow those non-residents who have not declared foreign pensions received to rectify the situation.

Five Ways Not to Become a Blind Mule

Yes, it does happen. While the majority of those who are arrested at the international border with cars laden with narcotics know that of their illicit cargo, there are the occasional blind mules –those who were duped by strangers, business associates or even loved ones to carry the contraband.

California's Loss of Tesla's $6 Billion Battery Factory

A question of free market vs. government over-regulation to address the issue of environmental sustainability.

Collecting on a Supreme Court Judgment in California

It is often said that obtaining a judgment in a California Supreme Court civil case is only half of the process. Once you obtain judgment, you have official proof you won the case and that the defendant owes you money or property. Now you have to collect.

Intellectual Property Rights in the Turkish Defense Industry

The intellectual property rights (IP) are conceptually is linked to both intellectual and industrial rights in Turkish legislation.

Collecting from an Out of Business Company or Employer

Collecting on a judgment even in ideal circumstances can often be a time-consuming and complex process, and that presumes the debtor is solvent, and doing business and/or making money. When the judgment enforcement against a debtor who is a company or legal entity, which appears to be (or is) out of business, the process can be considerably more troublesome and taxing.

If Your Spouse Files for Divorce While on Deployment

Even under the best of circumstances a marriage can be difficult and often times will not work out. Being a service member whose duty at times requires overseas deployment for long periods of time can lend even more strain.

Georgia's Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity Does Not Prevent Surety from Suing State

In a very recent case, the Georgia Supreme Court upheld the lower courts' decisions to allow a performance bond company (who had to complete a public works project) to sue the State of Georgia for its default.

Some Changes of the Revised Regulation of the Supervision on Medical Instruments of China

Regulation of the Supervision on Medical Instruments was revised and published by the State Council of People’s Republic of China on Mar. 7, 2014.

The Procurement Principles in Turkish Defense Industry

In Turkey, many of the governmental authorities shall apply to procurement of goods, services or works under Public Procurement Law #4734 (PPL). In the same manner, the contracts in public purchase of goods, services and works refer to this law’s “contract principles” indicated in the Public Procurement Contract Law (#4735) (PPCL). But it had better to lay emphasis on an exception for defense issues under law#4734.

New Directive on Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks in Turkey

Directorate General of Civil Aviation the regulatory body of civil aviation in Turkey, has promulgated a new Directive on aircraft nationality and registration marks on 12 September 2014 aiming to meet the requirements of Annex-7 of ICAO that will be applied to all existing registered or future registered aircrafts on DGCA registry.

Turkish Defense Industry: A Step Towards a Nation-Oriented Production

A nation has six major elements of its nation-oriented power that are based on politics, economy, psycho-social issues, military capability, manpower and the geostrategic location. These bring more flexibility in countries’ regional strategy and add value for superiority in its region.

Dust Up Between Surfers and Kholsa Could Spell the End of Private Beach Access in California

Should a property owner have to get a coastal development permit before he can close the gate to his private property? The Surfrider Foundation thinks so, and if it wins its current lawsuit against Vinod Khosla that could soon be the law of the land in California.

Reverse Mortgages and HECMs—What You Need To Know

Reverse mortgages can be a good option for homeowners at or near retirement age in need of additional income. But there are strings attached. Read on to learn what you need to know before starting the process.

8 Simple Changes To Improve Your Construction Contracts

In today's cut-and-paste world, even leading contract attorneys make mistakes. If you want to make your contracts easier to read and promote a problem-free project, then consider implementing some of the changes which we have suggested here.

Wisconsin Voter ID Law Struck Down-What Could That Mean For Virginia?

A strict Voter ID law was struck down in Wisconsin, just as Virginia prepares to implement its own similar law.

Don't Make a Mistake--Read Your Contract

Last week, the Georgia Court of Appeals rendered a decision which is detrimental to subcontractor who do not thoroughly read and understand their construction contracts. The contract included a provision which made the individual signing the contract on behalf of the subcontract company personally liable for the contract's performance. The court permitted this provision to be enforced against the signatory.

Legal Implications of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

European Union and the United States are currently negotiating the biggest free trade agreement in history. If concluded the new agreement will create a free trade zone that will include more than 800 million inhabitants as consumers and together with the United States will consist of 29 substantial economies that can muster the 37 % of the total world economic out put.

The Supreme Court’s Decision in Susan B Anthony List v Driehaus -a Victory for Civil Rights Plaintiffs

Say that you need a permit to pursue your chosen occupation, but you believe that the costly administrative procedure to acquire said permit is unconstitutional. You have been ticketed for operating without a permit, and have every reason to believe that you will be ticketed again, but you have yet to be arrested and thrown in jail. Can you bring a suit alleging the law to be unconstitutional, or do you first have to be arrested or submit to the costly permit procedure before you can sue?

U.S Defense Industry: The Issue of Re-Export to the Third Countries

One of the most intricate aspects of the United States' export regime that regulates the export of defense related items is the issue of re-export of the U.S defense items to the third countries. Since the issue has beyond commercial ramifications related with national security, it has been one of the most strictly regulated areas of the U.S export regime.

IRS Changing Terms for Offshore Account Holders

  By Brown, PC
U.S. taxpayers hiding assets abroad should take note of the Internal Revenue Service’s plan to sharply increase penalties for such acts, while those who unintentionally fail to disclose offshore accounts will experience much more leniency.

US Defense Industry: The Impact of ITAR for the Business

International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is one of the key components of the United States‘ export regime regulating the defense related items and the items that have dual use features.

U.S Defense Industry: The Overwhelming Importance of the Export Regime

Since its inception in 1919 the American Defense industry has been one of the key industries of the United States where stringent regulations have been in place given the critical nature of the industry for the national security.

TTIP: Who Will Benefit from Better Compliance and Trade Dispute Resolution?

The economic relations between European Union and the United States have been far from smooth. Even during the Cold War, when the two economic powers were supposed to be on the same side of the Cold War divide, rows occurred that led to a serious political tensions.

New Rules in Albania for Combating Late Payment in Commercial Transactions

Invoices released to business and public entities are now an executive title in Albania.

Navy Again Requires Self-Reporting of Arrests and Prosecutions

As part of its personnel management directed by Congress, the Navy is using civilian misconduct as a indicator for discharging persons.

Adjustment to the Standards of Certain Livelihood-related Security and Treatment

Shanghai has raised a series of livelihood-related security and treatment standards since April 1st, 2014, including the standards of minimum salary, unemployment insurance benefits, employment subsidies and employment injury insurance as well as disbursement ceiling of the overall fund of basic medical insurance for urban employees.

Fraud Technical Advisors: An End-Run Around Tweel?

United States v. Tweel is the most famous example of a motion to suppress in a tax case. In Tweel, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held that it constitutes trickery, fraud, and deceit for the IRS to conduct a criminal investigation under the guise of a civil examination. Because of how fact-sensitive the holding of this case is, a recitation of the facts is necessary.

Healthcare Fraud Whistleblower Lawsuits Plentiful

A large portion of the whistleblower lawsuits that are filed are related to the healthcare industry. The government funding of Medicare and Medicaid has lead to the large number of complaints related to healthcare fraud.

The Situation with Clive Bundy in Nevada Shows the True Cost of Government Regulations

To say that the situation in Nevada between federal officials and cattle rancher Clive Bundy has gotten out of hand would be an understatement.

Can I Get Disability For PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)?

I often hear the same questions over and over again related to specific injuries or aliments and whether or not they qualify a person to receive Social Security Disability benefits. This article deals with the question "Can I Get Disability For PTSD?"

Whistleblowers Helping the Public By Exposing Fraud

The 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was enacted to assist the government with discovering financial fraud. A recent SEC whistleblower received a $14 million dollar reward for reporting a real estate scam.

The Coastal Commission’s support for AB 976 Shows Due Process Apathy

Every monthly meeting the California Coastal Commission releases a list of bills in the current legislative session that it is supporting. It can be a time consuming effort to review all these bills, but sometimes you find a gem that sheds light on the nature of the Commission’s long-term goals, and the read becomes worth it. Last week, the Commission’s monthly report was well worth the read.

Telecommunication In Nigeria

Broadcasting and telecommunication has come a long way in Nigeria. Formally these services were considered social services in nature hence private companies were foreclosed from participation of any kind. This article will explore these procedures, conditions for grant, refusal, renewal and withdrawals of these licenses.

Whistleblower Reward Is $63.9 Million In JP Morgan Mortgage Fraud Case

A whistleblower will receive $63.9 million for providing information to the government that lead to a recovery.

Obtaining a Residence Permit in Greece

Greek government instated a procedure to obtain permanent residence permits, which can be renewed every five years, for third-country citizens who own real estate in Greece of minimum value €250.000, adopting a friendlier stance towards those who wish to own real estate property in Greece.

The Greek Real Estate Market for Foreign Investors

Our practical guide to real estate in Greece covers the entire spectrum of legal and tax issues which arise in practice when purchasing, managing, utilizing, developing and reselling property in Greece. It is addressed to both Greek nationals and foreign citizens of other European and non-EU countries who have a practical interest in legal and tax matters in Greece, with the aim of facilitating entrepreneurship and more generally the access of foreigners to the Greek market.

How Does Malaysian Law Deal With Acts of Piracy at Sea?

Piracy is a prevailing problem with no reasonable solution in sight. How safe is your ship or consignment passing through the seas surrounding Malaysia and what laws apply to this region?

Federal Whistleblower Complaints Can Be Filed Online

Whistleblowers are now able to file certain complaints online. Whistleblower complaints that are overseen by OSHA can be filed online.

The California Coastal Commission Reviews Fracking Along the California Coast

Whether the California Coastal Commission Eventually Regulates Fracking On the Outer Continental Shelf Will Have More to Do with Federalism than Science

Whistleblower False Claims Case Settles for $6.5 Million

A $6.5 million dollar settlement has been reached in a federal whistleblower lawsuit. There were allegations that a military contractor had submitted inflated bills to the government.

Taxpayer Standing Can Provide a Bulwark Against Government Overreach in California

In California any taxpayer can bring a lawsuit to stop the implementation of a law that she believes is unconstitutional provided that she is a resident taxpayer of the area affected and public funds will be spent to implement the challenged law.

Disagreement About Handling of California Caregiver Abuse Cases

Long -term care advocates and officials disagreed at a recent Assembly hearing.

Social Security Disability Applicants And Headache Claims - 5 Keys Pieces of Evidence

Seeking social security disability because you can not work because of a headache is unique and very difficult. But there are certain things you can do to help your chances of winning.

Los Angeles Assisted Living Facility Held Responsible for Injuries of Resident

A Los Angeles County assisted living facility has been ordered by a judge to pay a woman who was injured by a fall.

Shelby County v. Holder and the Constitutionality of Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act

Appeals Lawyers Analyze Shelby County v. Holder and the Constitutionality of Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act.

Health Care Industry the Target in Whistleblower Lawsuits

The United States Department of Justice has provided the public with some information regarding recent whistleblower cases. In one of the cases there have been allegations made against Health Management Associates.

California Cities Can’t Avoid Constitutional Liability for A Taking by Dissolving their Redevelopment Agencies

For years local redevelopment agencies were the bane of private property rights in California. Until recently these agencies were clothed with the power to seize private homes through eminent domain and then give that property to private developers like Costco or Wal-Mart, all in the name of community development.

$48 Million Settlement in Medicare Fraud Case

A California based nursing home operator has agreed to pay $48 million dollars in a settlement related to two whistleblower lawsuits.

Argentina: Tax Havens - Publication of the List of Cooperative Jurisdictions for Tax Transparency Purposes

The National Tax Authority (“AFIP”) published today in its “web” site the list of countries, jurisdictions, territories, states and special tax regimes which qualify as cooperative for tax transparency purposes (the “Cooperative Jurisdiction List”).

HK New Companies Law : Key Changes relating to Private Companies

With a view to enhance corporate governance, facilitate business operations and modernise the legal infrastructure for incorporation and operations of companies in Hong Kong, a complex new Companies Ordinance (CO) was enacted and 12 pieces of subsidiary legislations on technical and procedural matters were introduced.

Italian Parliament Approves ‘Google Tax’ in 2014 Budget but the European Union Thinks It Is Illegal

Italy’s Parliament approved a controversial law on Friday forcing tech giants like Google to sell advertising online only through Italian intermediaries, provoking anger from digital economy experts.

How Does the Federal Reserve System (the “Fed”) Work?

We have all heard about how interest rates might be going up when the economy is improving or how interest rates fall as the economy suffers. But how are these rates set? Who determines what the rates should be? What keeps interest rates from continuing to climb while the economy declines?

PRC Data Privacy Laws in a Nutshell

Notwithstanding the reasoning, companies in China have yet another amorphous compliance bugbear to obey. Given the inconsistent state of existing data privacy rules and recent dicta that position personal data at the epicenter of the data protection maelstrom, one might think it counter-intuitive, if not disingenuous, that there is no legally authoritative definition of “personal data” under Chinese law.

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