HG.org Legal Resources

Intellectual Property Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Intellectual Property.


What Is a Utility Patent and What Does it Protect?

  April 26, 2017     By HG.org
Patents are legal ways of protecting an idea that is used to create and invention. It is the produced work that is guarded through the patent...

Is My Great Idea Original? Conducting an Effective Patent Search

  April 25, 2017     By HG.org
In today’s world, everyone is always looking for the next big thing or the newest technology that will revolutionize an industry. However, with...

Protecting Your Entrepreneurial Vision: Legal Steps

  April 24, 2017     By HG.org
Protecting the idea behind a possible revenue stream is often difficult in the electronic age with so much video recording, data capturing and...

Software Patents and Alice in the Looking Glass

  April 24, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
The public tends to believe the purpose of the Patent Office is to issue patents. The facts paint a different conclusion.

Essential Clauses in a Founder’s Agreement

  April 21, 2017     By HG.org
When a new enterprise is launched, it is critical for the future success of the business for the founders to have a clear agreement in place....

Ways to Minimize Risk When Bringing a New Product to Market

  April 21, 2017     By HG.org
It is essential when creating a concept for a new product that will be placed on the market to minimize risks that may affect acquiring a...

Difference in Domain Names, Trademarks and Business Entity Names

  April 19, 2017     By HG.org
When dealing with a company, creating a business or starting a venture that may accrue revenue, it is important to know what a domain name,...

Legal Ways to Sustain Your Brand’s Value

  April 19, 2017     By HG.org
In the business world, a brand is often one of the most important aspects a company has when being viewed and spoken about by consumers. The...

Trademark Registration and Protection in Cambodia

  April 19, 2017     By ACLF
Cambodia become a party to the Madrid Protocol in 2015, which makes it possible to protect a mark in a large number of countries by obtaining an...

How to Legally Protect Your Inventions and Ideas

  April 19, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
An idea can be worth a million dollars – to you or to your competitor – which is why it is important to take steps to protect your inventions...

Singapore Patent Protection Examined in Car Crash Camera Case (17/04/2017)

  April 18, 2017     By Mirandah Asia
The judgment in Lee Tat Cheng v Maka GPS Technologies Pte Ltd [2017] SGHC 48 concerned an infringement action and an application for a...

Collecting Evidence for an IP lawsuit in China

  April 13, 2017     By Zhejiang Xinmu Law Firm
[When preparing] a litigation action in China against opponent for intellectual property disputes, the key and vital issue of the action is...

How to Protect Your Intellectual Property in China

  April 13, 2017     By Zhejiang Xinmu Law Firm
Intellectual Property (hereafter referred to as "IP") is a generic term of legal rights enjoyed by creators of intellectual productions and...

I was an Institutional Author – Can I Claim the Copyright if the Institution Decides not to Publish?

  April 12, 2017     By HG.org
Many publications are protected through copyright laws once they have been published through either private means or with a company. However,...

Trade Mark Registration in Romania

  April 12, 2017     By Hammond, Minciu and Associates
The registration of a trademark in Romania involves several steps and procedures which must be closely observed. The Trade Mark registration can...

Is it Possible to Plagiarize Marketing?

  April 11, 2017     By HG.org
Plagiarism is rampant for those that are unable to create original thought or put an idea into their own words. This means that the intellectual...

Renewal of European Union Trademark Registration

  April 4, 2017     By Krasimira Kadieva
European Union trademark registration is administered by the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO).

Considerations in Choosing a Trademark

  April 3, 2017     By Gehres Law Group, P.C.
The process of developing a successful brand for your business can be difficult and overwhelming. One must consider a variety of factors,...

Can You Copyright a Culinary Work/Dish/Recipe According to Polish Law?

  March 28, 2017     By Lewandowski Gradek Lewandowska IPLaw Office
According to the Polish copyright law “the copyright work” means “any manifestation of the creative activity of individual nature, established...

What To Do Before You Disclose an Idea for an Invention

  March 28, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
A question high on the list of first asked questions to a Patent Attorney, is “what do I need to protect my idea before I talk to an investor,...

Singapore Announces New Patent Rules and Fees to Promote Innovation (20/03/2017)

  March 20, 2017     By Mirandah Asia
Singapore has recently announced a range of major changes to its patent system that will affect those seeking protection in a variety of ways.

Business Disputes That Require a Business Attorney

  March 16, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Even though Americans pride themselves on their rugged individualism and independence, there are some things that simply should not be attempted...

China to Amend Its Law Against Unfair Competition

  March 10, 2017     By MMLC Group
The PRC Law Against Unfair Competition has been a valuable tool in fighting unfair business practices, including acting against passing off and...

Trademark Coexistence Agreements

  March 7, 2017     By Krasimira Kadieva
Trademarks are graphically represented signs, which are used to distinguish and identify the goods of one manufacturer or seller from those of...

Is That a Patent, Trademark or Copyright?

  February 27, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
If you wouldn’t know a patent if one bit you [1], you are not alone. Most of the public doesn’t know the difference, and there are lawyers who...

Copyright Protection for Architectural Works & Other Designs

  February 24, 2017     By Fasthoff Law Firm
What Does Copyright Protect? Copyright law protects original works that are fixed in a “tangible medium of expression.”

Trademark Protection for Architectural Works & Other Designs

  February 24, 2017     By Fasthoff Law Firm
Trademarks can play a vital role in protecting architectural features in buildings, including the design of nonfunctional exterior and interior...

Elements of a Copyright Infringement Claim

  February 23, 2017     By Fasthoff Law Firm
A copyright infringement action requires a plaintiff to prove (1) ownership of a valid copyright, and (2) actionable copying by the defendant of...

Defenses to Allegations of Copyright Infringement

  February 23, 2017     By Fasthoff Law Firm
There are numerous defenses available to a copyright infringement defendant.

Law 20, 243 Extends IP Benefits for Performing Artists, Directors and Scriptwriters in Chile

  February 23, 2017     By B&R Latin America IP LLC
Sometimes artists are not aware of their Intellectual Property rights, and this means that they do not protect their creations, performances or...

Infringement: Choose Your Words Carefully in the UK

  February 23, 2017     By Giambrone Law
Competitor pay per click campaigns where a company bids for the name of a rival in the hope that a customer or client who searches for a...

Arbitration of Disputes over Intellectual Property Rights in Hong Kong

  February 15, 2017     By Angela Wang & Co.
The present Hong Kong Arbitration Ordinance does not contain any specific provision dealing with the question of arbitrability of disputes over...

Misclassifying Employees Can Be Costly

  February 13, 2017     By Nicoll Davis & Spinella, LLP
An employee is entitled to protection under federal and state laws, eligible for overtime pay, reduced taxes, and benefits such as healthcare,...

How to Register and Protect Your Trademarks

  February 9, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Registration is essential to protecting your good name and reputation.

Five Common Cases Private Investigators Handle

  February 9, 2017     By HG.org
Private investigators serve an important role. They often handle cases that are not taken care of by other professionals but that serve an...

Small Business Considerations for Crowdfunding Startups

  February 6, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
There are several important legal considerations for small business startups planning to use crowdfunding as a way to raise capital. The JOBS...

Singapore: No Snap Judgment on Similarity of Marks (02/02/2017)

  February 3, 2017     By Mirandah Asia
The recent opposition matter between two mobile software application manufacturers before the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS)...

Intellectual Property Rights for Small Business

  February 1, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Protecting intellectual property is a critical early step in establishing a new business. The process can be complex, but the ability of a...

What is Required in a California Non-Disclosure Agreement?

  February 1, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
When your business hires a new employee, the last thing you as a business owner want is for your new employee to learn your company’s trade...

What is Copyright Infringement?

Copyright infringement can cost a business owner or the creator of a copyrighted work dearly. Not only does the owner or creator of the work now...

China Plans Introduction of Oral Hearings for Trademark Review Cases

  By MMLC Group
On January 22, 2017, the State Administration of Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”) released a draft of Measures for Oral Hearing of Trademark...

Amendments to the China Trademark Examination and Trial Standards

  By MMLC Group
On 4 January 2017, the China Trademark Office (CTO) and Trademark Review and Adjudication Board (TRAB) issued the amended Trademark Examination...

Patent Ownership is Not Based on The Date of Postmark

The Postmark Is Dead. [This] refers to the notion that a person could prove inventorship and a date of invention by documenting the idea and...

New General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) in The Netherlands and EU

Since 14 April 2016 the General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) has been adopted in the Netherlands. This means that starting from 25 May 2018...

Intellectual Property Protection for New Product Inventions

New Product Inventions Require the Right Protection. Without the right intellectual property protections, your new product ideas and inventions...

Band Agreements, Band Entities, Band Trademarks and Copyrights

In order to avoid disputes later, a band needs a band agreement which states how the band will divide their profits and which provides how...

The Intellectual Property Protection of Fonts in China

  By MMLC Group
In China, fonts are protected under the Copyright Law, Patent Law, and Regulations on Computers Software Protection. Unauthorized use of fonts...

Trademark Fair Use

Generally, when people hear the term “fair use” they tend to think of usage that allows someone to legally use copyrighted materials without the...

China's Supreme Court Considers Michael Jordan's Chinese Branding Issues

  By MMLC Group
Earlier this month, China's Supreme Court looked at whether NBA star Michael Jordan had the right to invalidate a trademark registration for his...

Incorporate Your Idea. How to Develop Your Intellectual Property in the Cayman Islands.

  By Loeb Smith
The Cayman Islands have taken significant steps in recent years to update and modernize the legal framework with respect to protection of...

Brand Protection in Kenya as Relates to Trademarks

The competitive business environment in which many businesses operate requires them to constantly explore new ways to enhance their competitive...

Pre-Sale Due Diligence as a Part of Normal Business Operations

Owners of small and mid-sized businesses can spend nearly all of their time running their business, and leave little time to plan the strategy...

Trademark Registration in Jamaica-Guide for International Clients

Trade Marks are registered in Jamaica under the Trade Marks Act (“the Act”). In the Act, a trade mark is defined as any sign that is capable of...

Trademark Selection and Response to Trademark Office Actions

Trademarks help consumers to make informed decisions about goods and services that they purchase. Selection of branding for a business should...

Literary Agency and Publishing Contracts: What Attorneys and Writers Need to Know

A writer who signs a literary agency agreement or a book publishing contract without having it reviewed and negotiated by a literary rights or...

The Copyright Paradigm: Marrakesh Treaty

Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled. Marrakesh...

Elements of a Legally Effective Compliance Program

Compliance programs, comprised of internal policies and procedures created in order to meet standards set by laws and regulations and to assure...

Guide to Doing Business in California and Protecting a Business Owner

By taking the right steps by having the right contracts prepared, documenting business dealings, limiting one’s exposure to jurisdiction in...

California Talent Agency and Artist Management Contracts - What You Need To Know

Artists breaking into the entertainment industry often don’t know whether they need a talent agency, a personal manager or an entertainment...

Trademarking a Name or a Logo or Both?

In establishing a new business, owners often seek legal advice in connection with branding their business by developing and securing their...

Chile: The first Latin American Country that Has the WIPO CASE System

In 2011 the World Intellectual Property Organization – WIPO developed an initial system called WIPO CASE, and in 2012 they enhanced the platform...

Cambodia Accedes to PCT and Fosters IP Development (06/11/2016)

Following accession to the World Trade Organization (“WTO”) in September 2014 and the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding with the...

Marketplace Operators Liable for Counterfeiting and Plagiarism in the EU

Product counterfeiting is responsible for enormous economic damage. According to a ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU),...

The Opposition System for Trademark Registration in Mexico Comes into Force

The Senate unanimously approved the Industrial Property Law reform proposal (Ley de la Propiedad Industrial) in which the trademark opposition...

Piracy and Trademark Violations on the Rise in the EU

Piracy and copyright infringements are on the increase. As such, it is all the more important to take appropriate measures to protect one’s...

Australian Trade Marks Attorney Not Always Required

  By Wadeson
With a recent drop in trade mark official filing fees, Australia just became up to 50% less expensive for foreign trade mark applicants to...

Questions and Answers about the New Federal Trade Secrets Act

Does your work involve trade secrets? If it does—or even if you’re not sure—there’s some new legislation that you should know about: the Defend...

New EU Copyright Rules Aimed at Supporting Online Content Creators

During the State of the Union 2016, the European Commission proposed the introduction of new and up to date EU copyright rules.

Trademark Law in the EU: No Distinction Made Between “Mac” And “Mc”

No distinction is made between “Mac” and “Mc” for the purposes of trademark law. The General Court of the European Union (EGC) ruled that...

New Amended Trademark Law of Saudi Arabia

Trademark Authority of Saudi Arabia enacts the GCC Trademark Law:

How to Protect Your IP with a Non-Disclosure Agreement

The employment landscape has changed over the last few years and many small and mid-size companies today operate with outside help – contractors...

What You Need to Know About Franchise Agreements in Italy

Franchise can be a wonderful approach to achieving success in life, as for many people owning a franchise can be a less risky alternative to a...

The Importance of Intellectual Property Protection in Fashion

More than many other industries, fashion thrives on the ideas, concepts, designs, and other creative contributions of its personnel.

Contractor Infringes an Architect’s Copyright in The Netherlands

It is not unusual that a contractor is declared bankrupt during a construction project. Most of the time, the project is continued by another...

"Failure to Use" as a Legal Ground to Cancel the Registration of the Trademark ‘’McDonald’’ in Armenia

In 2014 WEST LLC company registered in the Federation of Russia, has submitted a number of applications to the Administrative Court of RA,...

Corporations in Panama

Panama has a Corporations Act, which facilitates business and investment, so it is recommended to entrepreneurs take advantage offered by this...

Post-Grant Amendments from Methods of Treatment to Swiss-Style Claims in Singapore (05/10/2016)

This is a landmark patent case heard in the Singapore High Court by Justice George Wei. The plaintiff’s patent contained method of treatment...

Thailand Trademark Act Amendments (19/09/2016)

Thailand is gearing up to become a member of the Madrid Protocol concerning the International Registration of Trademarks (the “Madrid...

Trademark Protection: Registration and Enforcement in Israel

Part of how any company moves from start-up to growing and thriving is to create a recognizable brand under which it operates. The brand...

You Can Stop Trademark Infringement

You have gone through the painstaking process of starting a business, developing a brand for your business, namely, your business’ trademark,...

Music May Be Less Widely Available in the Future. Here's Why.

The government just denied a request from the music industry to change the royalty collection system. Here, we examine what's at stake and...

New Directive in EU Law on Trade Secrets and Know-how

Whilst the protection of Know-how and Trade Secrets is usually covered in local law there is often confusion as to how this will translate...

Kazakhstan: Overcoming Provisional Refusals of International Trademark Registration

With the accession to the Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks by the Republic of Kazakhstan, foreign applicants and mark...

What Is Fashion Law?

While the worlds of law and fashion may seem as far apart as one can imagine, legal matters are inseparable from any career or aspirations in...

Protecting Pharmaceutical Brands in China

  By MMLC Group
In China, pharmaceutical trademarks are regulated by both the pharmaceutical law and trademark law. Pharmaceutical generic names are prohibited...

New Domain Extensions: Benefits and Opportunities for Businesses in Latin America

The Internet has become an important business tool for brand promotion. Any company that wants to successfully put its products or services...

New General Data Protection Regulation in Romania

In Romania, and perhaps in the rest of Europe, little attention seems to be paid to Data Protection and the implication of the regulations which...

The "Blurred Lines" of Copyright Law

When a jury found that Robin Thicke and Pharrell Williams' hit song "Blurred Lines" infringed Marvin Gaye's "Got to Give it Up," the world was...

Social Media with a Side of Litigation

As social media continues to become further ingrained in our daily lives, businesses and individuals should consider its potential role in...

Alcohol, Language, and the Law

Legal disputes have become increasingly common among breweries and distilleries. Companies are litigating not only over trademark confusion, but...

Google Books Is Legal, Making Information Free

After years of litigation, the Supreme Court let stand a ruling that Google Books makes fair use of others' copyrights. What does that mean for...

The Paperwork of Building Permit in Ukraine: Recent Developments

In the course of the business activity deregulation at compliance with the requirements of the Law of Ukraine No. 222-VIII «On Licensing of...

Final Decision over the “TWG” Trade Mark Dispute in Hong Kong

In January 2016, the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal (“CFA”) dismissed the appeal from TWG Tea group of companies (owner of the TWG tea salon in...

Is the Selling of Pictures of Sculptures or Other Art Prohibited?

  By HG.org
The art world is full of fascinating pictures, sculptures, paintings and other works that capture various emotions or states of being. All too...

Important Facts of Franchise and Licensing Agreements in Latin America

Franchise agreements: In general terms, a franchise agreement is a contract in which one part known as franchiser, allows the use of its...

Methods of Intellectual Property Protection for Software Products in Ukraine

In present conditions the area of information technologies, particularly software development, is rapidly evolving. By the number of certified...

Trademarks in Turkey

The procedures and principles regarding trademarks have been regulated in the Decree Law Regarding the Protection of the Trademarks (No. 556)...

Copyright Registration – A Prerequisite for Infringement Litigation

Registering copyrights is important in order to provide business owners and authors significant benefits, including statutory damages and...

Green Light on the New Veterinary Medicinal Products Legislation in the EU

Last June, the EU Parliament started discussions and issued amendments on the European Commission’s Proposals for two new Regulations....

Red Biotechnology: Legal Compatibility Is Color-Blind in the EU

“No other sector holds the promise to enhance quality of life, productivity and environmental sustainability through innovation like...


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