International Law Articles
Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to International Law.
April 24, 2015 By Stelios Americanos & Co LLC
Large-scale projects, privatisations and a burgeoning oil and gas sector are firmly placing Cyprus on the map as a hotspot for investment from the US, Asia, Russia and the Middle East.
April 22, 2015 By P.N. Kourtellos & Associates LLC
A foreign judgment or an arbitral award has no immediate effect in Cyprus. A procedure must be followed in order to enforce the foreign judgment. This can be made under E.U regulations, common law and statute depending on the country issuing the judgment and/or the arbitral award.
April 21, 2015 By Daniel H. Erskine, Esq.
The United States government has declared increased exports are the path for financial recovery. In particular, the Small Business Administration declared exports are the principal method to buttress American small business. So, how do small businesses effectively negotiate in the international market?
April 20, 2015 By Sanchez & Barriga Abogados
Foreign companies wishing to open a branch in Ecuador, should be incorporated in their country of origin as a trading company, may be of limited liability or a Inc and consider the following issues.
April 14, 2015 By Beitia-Carrillo Consultores & Asociados
Firstly, is important to understand the cause of money laundry crime. Usually, is related to drugs traffic, terrorism, trafficking of humans, others international crimes. In 1989, the group of seven (G-7), composed in those days by Italy, United Kingdom, France, Canada, United States, West Germany and Japan, create Financial Action Task Force (FATF).
April 12, 2015 By Herdem Attorneys at Law
On 06 February 2014, Turkish Parliament has enacted a 6518 Omnibus Bill, gazetted February 19th 2014, which adjoins a provision to article 3 of the Law No 4734 Public Procurement Law (“Law”) stipulating that purchase of goods and services provided to ensure innovation, local production and technology transfer under offset/industrial participation programs are not subject to Law No 4734.
April 10, 2015 By Loeb Smith
What is the single most important advantage that Cayman Islands corporate structures provides to clients?
April 10, 2015 By Cindemir Law Office
Divorce principles in Turkish Law related to divorce. Enforcement of a Foreign Divorce Decree in Turkey requires some standards.
April 9, 2015 By Yingke Law Firm
Fake wine is nothing new in China. Even though the economic incentives for going after counterfeiters have never been greater, the fakes are still out there. But there are two things to keep in mind.
April 8, 2015 By Yingke Law Firm
For any start-up, there are multiple legal issues involved in building your business but risk management and prevention issues can be arranged into four major risk areas.
April 8, 2015 By Kalita, Markovich and Partners
Investing to the real estate market is very profitable in Ukraine. There are a lot of foreign companies which provide their activity in Ukraine with one purpose – to buy and rent the real estate. Ukrainian state bodies designed very good legal remedies for property and owners too. But now we still have a lot of legal gaps.
April 8, 2015 By CSB Advocates
The European Union has recently unveiled a planned reform for the 28 Member State’s digital market aimed at boosting ecommerce and overhauling Europe’s telecoms market.
March 26, 2015 By ERP Lawyers & Associates
If a private person or a legal corporation wants to purchase a property at the beaches of Costa Rica, whether it is to build a house, hotel, resort or business, first it should be informed about the requirements to obtain a concession in the maritime zone. To have a concession means that the person doesn’t acquire the property, but obtains a permit for using it, that allows the exploitation and enjoyment of the land, according to the parameters established by the local regulatory plan.
March 26, 2015 By HG.org
They are a routine part of our modern, online world: Internet scams are a daily annoyance for many. Often found in annoying emails, website popups, and other dark corners of the web, these digital scam artists seem to be everywhere today. And, with many of these scams operating overseas, it has left many to wonder what they can do if they fall victim to the tricks of someone from another country.
March 26, 2015 By ADMD Law Office
As the world seems to develop faster and faster, a new gadget has been placed to the disposal of the foreigners and non-resident persons in Estonia, namely the digital identity card also known as e-residency.
March 24, 2015 By Dandashli & Associates
Perhaps fuel could be the quickest product to come in to mind when thinking about petroleum, but the list of petroleum products is long and includes numerous materials such as propane, liquid fuels blending such as kerosene, benzene, etc…lubricants, sulfar, asphalt and many more….Petroleum contracts through the history were designed with crude oil in mind, and this ethos still dominate the structure of the contracts up to this date.
March 21, 2015 By Anastasios Antoniou LLC
We explore the general legal aspects of the conflicting positions between Cyprus and Turkey relating to Cyprus’ exclusive economic zone and the exploration for natural gas. This note does not constitute nor should be relied upon as legal advice and is for general information only. Regulated legal advice and counsel can be retained by contacting our Public International Law practice.
March 19, 2015 By Capital Legal Services, L.L.C.
Parallel import allows import of goods not only by their owner or dealer, but also by any importer.
The UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of arbitral awards signed in New York on June 10, 1958, (« The New York Convention »), has been ratified in Democratic Republic of the Congo ("DRC") through Law No 13/023 dated 26 June 2013 authorizing the accession of DRC to the Convention in accordance with article 215 of the Constitution.
In accordance with articles 213 paragraph 1 and 214 paragraph 1 of the Constitution of February 18, 2006 as amended to date, the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo ("DRC”) promulgated on the 21st November 2014 the Law No. 14/026 authorizing the ratification by the DRC of the Treaty relating to the Grand Inga hydroelectric project between the Republic of South Africa ("RSA") and itself.
The choice for the appropriate legal structure to transact business in the United States (“U.S.”) depends on a combination of factors relevant to a specific activity or sector, as well as on the needs and goals of the investor.
March 16, 2015 By Planet Depos
The Schengen Agreement is very important when travelling across Europe.
March 16, 2015 By Tiryakioglu Cakmakci Kesmer
Turkey’s importance in the energy market grows as a regional transit hub given its location between the oil rich Middle East, Caspian region, and Europe. Turkey is the home of the Bosporus and Dardanelles connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.
March 14, 2015 By Cindemir Law Office
Explaining current provision and practice of enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey. New York Convention and Turkish Private Law and Procedure Act (Called MÖHUK in Turkey International Private Law and Procedure Act) related to enforcement of foreign arbitral awards are the main provisions governing terms of subject concerned.
February 27, 2015 By Planet Depos
Taking depositions in Germany can be easy with the proper planning and scheduling.
February 21, 2015 By Ellyn Law LLP
More business cases are going to arbitration than ever before. Therefore, courts have to confront more procedural and legal issues arising out of arbitration cases. Judges often have to remind litigants of the deference given to arbitrators, when the parties have agreed on arbitration as their dispute resolution method. In this presentation, Igor Ellyn reviews nine of the latest cases and explains how they affect the law and practice of arbitration in Ontario and Canada.
The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel. Let's see the important frequently asked questions on vessel arrest in Tunisia
The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel. Let's see the applicable procedures to arrest a ship in Tunisia.
The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel.
Cyprus Courts Do Not Recognise Foreign Arbitration Awards when Neither Party Has its Domicile in Cyprus
February 20, 2015 By Soteris Flourentzos & Associates LLC
The Supreme Court of Cyprus ruled on 17 February 2015, in STX OFFSHORE & SHIPPING CO. LTD v. STX (DALIAN) SHIPBUILDING CO.LTD, Civil Application No. 152/2014, that in order for a foreign arbitration award to be recognized and enforced in Cyprus either the applicant or the respondent must have its domicile in Cyprus.
February 17, 2015 By Motei & Associates, Attorneys at Law
Shedding light on the application of the UAE Personal Affairs (‘Sharia’) versus foreign laws. The case of a Hindu divorce granted by the Sharia Court in the UAE to the wife with full custody of the kids as well as alimony.
February 16, 2015 By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
No doubt that the technological evolution and its wide range usage in various fields became a part of our daily lives, accompanied by this evolution,it’s usage between people in civil and commercial transactions grew significantly.,
February 12, 2015 By Motei & Associates, Attorneys at Law
The endless opportunities that Dubai is bringing back to its real estate sector and the influx of new people relocating to Dubai have substantially increased the Dubai property demand. The basics of buying a property in Dubai are the same as anywhere else in the world: “One needs to be very careful in closing a property deal”.
February 5, 2015 By Princivalle Apruzzi Danielli - Studio Legale
The first step a company based outside Italy has to take before starting a business in Italy is chosing the most appropriate form of incorporation. This article is a short introduction to the options available.
February 3, 2015 By Siam Legal International
The recognition of foreign judgments by Thai courts is an issue likely to be of great interest to foreigners and Thai nationals alike. Its implications have consequences over a diverse array of legal matters, ranging from the enforcement of foreign judgments against Thai-domiciled businesses operating overseas to the recognition of foreign divorce or child custody judgments against Thai spouses who have returned to live in Thailand.
February 3, 2015 By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Most probably many people would not know more about where offset/industrial participation discussions were moving toward before the article titled “The defence industry: Guns and Sugar” was published on The Economist’s on 25 May 2013.
February 2, 2015 By Kydalov & Partners
Nowadays many foreigners plan to establish their own business in other country. It can be very profitable because every country has some advantages in comparison with other countries. For example, agro-industrial and agricultural spheres in Ukraine are developed on a very high level and the profit of having business in such spheres in Ukraine can be much higher than in other countries.
February 2, 2015 By Kydalov & Partners
Nowadays, many people move to Ukraine to marry with Ukrainian citizens. A foreigner who married a person who lives in Ukraine will face a number of challenges before and after the registration of a marriage. This is not about difference between mindsets and some special culture features: in this article we will consider Ukrainian law features and different law problems related to marriage.
January 27, 2015 By Diaz Reus, LLP
While several Latin American countries have vowed to combat corrupt practices and have enacted legislation to formalise their intentions, meaningful change requires active enforcement as well as the political will and sacrifice to exact it.
January 27, 2015 By Kydalov & Partners
The largest part of all documents confirming one or another status of the foreign person by some country will require a further legalization according to current regulations of any other country, where a foreign national plans to work and/or reside in the future.
January 27, 2015 By Kydalov & Partners
It's not a secret that Ukraine is still one of the market dark horses in context of entrepreneurship. Not many of large companies venture to base their businesses here despite of the wide range of potentially profitable areas for investment. The events of winter and spring of 2014 scared even those who worked steadily for our economy for years. However, now due to the current European course, there are good prospects for the climate improvement in this area
Business clients dealing with international trade frequently asked us whether an independent bank guarantee issued under the URDG 758 (the ICC Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees 2010) is valid, binding and enforceable under the Italian law or not and, if not, whether and how it can be amended in order to ensure it is valid, binding and enforceable as an independent bank guarantee under the Italian law.
Savings of up to €48 million thanks to new rules for cross-border judgments.
Despite the fact that the German market is considered to be the third biggest economy in the world, with an annual turnover of (if you mention turnover an exact figure is expected) Billions of Euros, Israeli business presence in Germany is still relatively poor. How should business be done in Germany? Which Israeli businesses succeed in Germany and in interacting with Germans, and how can the Israeli “Chuzpa” be more helpful? These are things one ought to consider.
A new Code of Practice aims to increase safety and security in the working environment in dock and on board ship – and helps shipping, cargo and haulage companies understand their liabilities and responsibilities when it comes to packing and transporting cargo.
How to enforce UK judgments in Turkey. Uk Decrees are generally enforceable in Turkey based on high court decision.
As a civil based law country (continental European Law) in Turkey, enforcement of foreign judgments are entitled to specific provision in International Private Act (MOHUK). It is noteworthy to mention that Turkey is not part of European Union and accordingly Brussels Convention and other relevant legislation which deal with judgement enforcement does not have any effect in Turkish Law.
In January 2015 the Treasury Department issued regulations to establish banking relations and allow U.S. companies to export items for sale in Cuba without the trade barriers that have existed for decades. While some Republican leaders have criticized Obama’s actions, normal relations with Cuba are only a matter of time and the opportunities for attorneys representing American and European companies wishing to pursue commercial opportunities in Cuba have never been greater.
A vessel was hijacked in the Gulf of Aden by Somali pirates. Unfortunately for cargo owners and insurers, the High Court in the UK has ruled that additional classes of expense - including wages paid to crew, and bunkers consumed during the period of the hijack - could be recovered by ship owners from cargo interests.
The Alternative Investment Funds Law of 2014 was enacted by the parliament on the 10th of July 2014 and entered into force on the 27th of July 2014.
The broad scope of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“US FATCA ”) introduced by the United States (“US”) and the implementation of that broad scope of application into Cayman Islands law means that it is very important for Cayman Islands domiciled entities to each undertake an assessment of whether or not it is a Financial Institution under Cayman Islands law for the purposes of US FATCA.
Israel's Supreme Court recently found that trademark infringement in Israel should not be attributed to an importer who did not knowingly order counterfeit goods, had no intention of buying counterfeit goods, and was the innocent victim of a scam.
Israel's Supreme Court has just handed down a watershed ruling in relation to the question of parallel import in Israel. In addition to re-affirming the existing common law, which permit parallel import, the Supreme Court clarified many do's and dont's relating to this kind of activity, thereby painting a fairly clear picture of what will, and will not, be permitted in Israel.
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has recently published a consultation paper on the asset segregation requirements under the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD).
In October 2014, Armenia signed the Treaty of Accession to the Eurasian Economic Union, which already includes Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.
According to a bill signed by the President of the Russian Federation, foreign citizens of countries in the Eurasian Economic Union will be able to receive a pension in Russia.
Length of stay of foreign citizens in the territory of Russia will be reduced.
From 1 January 2015, citizens of CIS countries will enter the Russian Federation with foreign passports.
The Presidents of the Russian Federation and Mongolia signed an agreement on conditions of mutual travel of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of Mongolia.
On November 24, the President of the Russian Federation signed the Federal Law eliminating the need for foreign citizens obtaining a work permit in the Russian Federation who arrived via a visa-free regime. From January 1 2015 for the implementation of the work in Russia CIS citizens have to be issued a patent. The patent will allow the specified foreign citizens to work as for legal entities and for physical persons.
Currently, the Moscow City Duma is considering a bill to increase the value of the patent (the size of the tax on personal income, charged monthly) to 4,000 rubles.
By MMLC Group
A look at the web of Chinese laws that potentially apply to the import of live animals into China.
Ukrainians will be able to apply for Russian citizenship under the state program for the voluntary resettlement of compatriots in a simplified manner.
The Foreign Business Act of 1999 generally restricts service businesses under Category (21) of List Three, with certain explicit exemptions such as hotel management services under Category (17). Furthermore, the Ministerial Regulation Re: List of Service Businesses Exempt from Requiring a Foreign Business License of B.E. 2556 (2013) also exempts certain businesses related to securities and investment from requiring a Foreign Business License.
Pursuant to a treaty of accession between the Russian Federation, Crimea and Sevastopol dated March 18, 2014 Crimea and Sevastopol became integral parts of the Russian Federation as two separate new Russian regions. As such, they fall under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.
The Investment Promotion Act of B.E. 2520 (1977) allows three categories for foreigners to enter Thailand in addition to the standard immigration rules. Section 24 of the Act allows for foreigners to enter the country in order to survey investment opportunities. Section 25 allows foreigners who are skilled technicians or experts (and their dependents) to enter the country to work for a company that has been promoted by the Board of Investment (BOI).
Simplified Admission to Citizenship of the Russian Federation by Foreign Entrepreneurs and Investors
Russian Ministry of Economic Development has identified economic activities, the implementation of which the individual entrepreneurs and foreign investors are entitled to receive a simple Russian citizenship.
We remind you that until October 4, Russian citizens were obliged to report that they have foreign citizenship or residency in another country.
The issue of recognition and enforcement of foreign court judgments and arbitration awards in Turkey is one of the most vital final key points in international transactions in case the object of the transaction (i.e. the aircraft, goods, assets of debtor, marriage) is situated and the defendant or debtor having its assets and principal place of business in Turkey when the time comes to regaining of the title or to enforce any foreign court judgment or award.
FIDIC, (Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs Conseils), International Federation of Consulting Engineers aims to find a resolution in construction sector. There are five different FIDIC contracts in different colors that regulates different and separate obligations and rights.
First to be explored is the legal nature of the so called “nominee shareholder”. Nominee shareholder is a shareholder of a company holding shares nominally only, that is, only in name. In such a way the identity of the ultimate beneficial owner (“UBO”) of the shares is not disclosed.
On September 6, 2014, the Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM") issued the Outbound Investment Management Rules (the "Rules"), which took effect on October 6, 2014. The Rules have replaced old MOFCOM regulations regarding Chinese outbound investment projects. On April 8 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission ("NDRC") issued a regulation regarding measures for the administrative approval and filing of outbound investment projects (the "Measures").
Security for costs is money that a plaintiff is ordered to provide to the court as a condition of continuing with a claim or execution proceeding, and which will be applied on any costs order that may be made against the plaintiff. It provides a safeguard to the defendant in financial terms so as to ensure that he is not unduly burdened by having to bear his own costs in defending claims by plaintiffs who may be unable or unwilling to pay costs to the defendant when ordered by the court.
Do you have court order from court of your country that you wish to seek recognition of it in Turkey, but you are concerned that it might not be recognized, because it does not contain the grounds on which the decision is built? Well, here is a good news!
It is not possible to "pledge" registered shares under Cayman Islands law because title to the shares cannot be transferred by physical delivery. Any grant of security over registered shares that is called a "pledge" will typically be either (i) a legal mortgage or (ii) an equitable mortgage/share charge, depending on its terms. If the security purports to be something else, the chances are that it will be entirely ineffective.
A brief overview about the guarantees that Ukrainian legislation provides for foreign investors and which steps should be done to enjoy them.
Globalisation continues to advance. Trade has long since ceased to stop at national borders. This also has implications for jurisdiction.
Known by its acronym TTIP, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership has the capacity to serve as a game changer in global economic balances. At its core TTIP is a free trade agreement between the United States and the European Union with the underlying objective to increase bilateral trade among two economic blocks by the removal of tariff and non tariff based obstacles before the Transatlantic trade.
Writers often express their views on blogs or forums. With the advancement of laws, anyone who writes articles, must be cautious of consequences of doing so. This is a Malaysian perspective.
The recent decision by the China SPC turns on its head all that international arbitrators and contract drafters have come to believe of the China Arbitration rules, which requires all arbitration to be done by a Chinese institution, which invariable meant the application of that institution's arbitration rules.
By Karbal & Co.
Libya is largely dependent on imports, consisting mainly of industrial and food commodities. Libya’s biggest trading partner is the European Union and Italy leads with 30% of Libyan imports. This significance of the Libya/EU trade-link across the Mediterranean is undisputed as the seaports of Libya are invigorating their connections to the southern European seaports.
The United States is still by far the leading country in defense spending, allocating a sizable portion of its GDP to produce cutting edge military technologies. However, recent reports indicate a decline in American exports in military hardware.
The benefits that will the TTIP bring to the table for both of the signatories across the Atlantic are well documented by the Atlantic Community. Generation of a volume trade that amounts a USD$ 1.2 billion and the expansion of the already existing transatlantic trade accompanied by the removal of non-tariff barriers as well as cheaper prices for the consumers and common standards for the producers that would give leeway for them in fierce global competition by declining production costs.
Despite all the current geopolitics, trade goes on in Ukraine, but what if you are an exporter and have concerns about repayment?
The broad negative list initially issued at the launch of the Shanghai Free Trade Zone (FTZ) in Oct 2013 has been revised as promised. The newly issued negative list issued on June 30 2014 takes immediate effect and decreases the initial number of prohibitions from 190 to 139.
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) rules on arbitration requires arbitration by an institution. Therefore for China based arbitration this usually means arbitration through the China International and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC).
The free trade agreement, known with its acronym TTIP, currently being negotiated between the United States and the European Union is expected to have immense legal implications as well as commercial ones for the signatories.
Shale gas revolution has been driving US energy market by increasing economic and industrial competitiveness. Today, shale gas has gained acceptance as “bonanza” which triggered slump in gas prices and sparked off widening the energy gap between US and Europe.
EEIG in Italy ("Gruppo Europeo di Interesse Economico", GEIE) is an associative organization. GEIE or EEIG can exclusively be used within European area, it encourages cooperation between companies, others economic entities, professionals and physical persons even, and its main requirement is that, at least, partners are coming from two States members of the U.E. This tool can be easily employed in the participation to tenders.
The recent troubles facing Tesla’s expansion into China, particularly the trademark of its name and it’s Chinese version TeSiLa should be paid close attention to especially by small businesses.
The New Turkish Commercial Code numbered 6102, published in the Official Gazzette on February 14,2011 came into effect on July 1, 2012.
By Brown, PC
In 2008, when it was revealed that wealthy individuals around the world were utilizing accounts and trusts in Liechtenstein to evade taxes, the United States initiated a coordinated effort with foreign governments to combat tax evasion through the use of offshore trusts and accounts. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) has since launched criminal investigations of several foreign banks, many of which are ongoing.
On Friday the 4th of July the European Banking Authority (EBA) published an opinion addressed to the EU Council, European Commission and European Parliament outlining its view on how ‘virtual currencies' should be regulated.
Texting people is extremely common. Now, one might just be liable, if you do so to someone who is driving, and causes an accident. An Appellate Court decision which has thrown principles in disarray.
The United States and the European Union are readying themselves to celebrate the formation of the biggest single market to date which is expected to ease trade barriers across the Atlantic and increase the volume of bilateral trade between these two economic blocks.
Russian Migration Legislation Changes in June 2014.
By Brown, PC
U.S. taxpayers hiding assets abroad should take note of the Internal Revenue Service’s plan to sharply increase penalties for such acts, while those who unintentionally fail to disclose offshore accounts will experience much more leniency.
Licence and Registration, Please! – New Licensing and Registration Regime for Directors of Cayman Companies
On 4th June 2014, the Directors Registration and Licensing Law, 2014 (the “Law”) came into force in the Cayman Islands. The Law requires all directors (wherever they reside in the world) of “Covered Entities” to register with the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (“CIMA”). The Law has also introduced a licensing regime for “Professional Directors” and “Corporate Directors”.
TTIP, the free trade agreement that is currently being negotiated between the United States and the European Union, if successfully concluded by both parties will create the single most important common market in the world where more than one third of the world economic output is already being produced in these two sovereign blocks.
By STA Law Firm
The near collapse of major financial markets around the world in 2008; has clearly left a lasting legacy on many. Questions have been raised in past as to what led ot the crisis, people who were instrumental in driving the downturn