HG.org Legal Resources

International Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of International Law.


Is a Surrogacy Contract Valid in the U.S. or Abroad?

  May 16, 2017     By HG.org
Surrogacy contracts are often complicated to enforce. There are many terms that protect the mother until she gives her rights away.

Transcription of Foreign Decree Absolute in Italy

  May 16, 2017     By Arnone & Sicomo
Transcription of foreign decree absolute: All you need to know to request it.

Summary of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Intellectual Property in Saudi Arabia

  May 15, 2017     By Hazim Al Madani Law Firm
The Paris Convention applies to industrial property in the widest sense, including patents, trademarks, industrial designs, utility models (a...

Acquiring Turkish Citizenship Through Investment

  May 12, 2017     By Ongur & Partners International Law Firm
Turkish Citizenship Law numbered 5901, indicates the procedures regarding the regulation of principles relating to the acquisition and loss of...

Residence Permits of Foreigners Acquiring Immovable Property in Turkey

  May 12, 2017     By Ongur & Partners International Law Firm
Foreigners and International Protection Law numbered 6458 publishing in the Official Gazette dated 11/04/2013 and numbered 28615 have brought...

Termination of Employment Contracts in Turkey

  May 8, 2017     By DAB Law Firm
The Labour Code numbered 4857 (“Labour Code”) regulates the working conditions and also rights and obligations of the employees and employers.

VAT and Selective Tax in Saudi Arabia

  May 8, 2017     By Hazim Al Madani Law Firm
Recently, some questions and discussions have been raised on the Saudi street as well as through the audio and visual media on the decision of...

Enforcement of Foreign Judgements and Arbitral Awards in Saudi Arabia

  May 8, 2017     By Hazim Al Madani Law Firm
There are speculations internationally that, enforcement of foreign judgements and arbitral awards in Saudi Arabia are still in dark. Saudi...

U.S. District Court Upholds Multiple Willful FBAR Penalties Against Taxpayer

  May 8, 2017     By Brown, PC
In a case that has raised eyebrows in the tax community, a jury in the Southern District of Florida has sustained the IRS's assessment of...

IRS Assesses Another 150% Civil FBAR Penalty

  May 4, 2017     By Brown, PC
The IRS has asserted multiple maximum civil FBAR penalties against Ashvin Desai, who failed to disclose the existence of offshore accounts or...

The Procedure for Foreigners and Non-Resident Turkish Citizens to File a Lawsuit in Turkey

  May 3, 2017     By Ongur & Partners International Law Firm
The procedure for a foreigner to bring an action in Turkey is not very different from the procedure a Turkish national would follow when...

New Rights, Equality and Citizenship Work Programme and Financial Services User Group to Be Renewed in EU

  April 18, 2017     By KCG Partners Law Firm
The European Commission adopted the ’2017 Rights, Equality and Citizenship Work Programme’ on 1 March 2017.

Debt Collection in China

  April 13, 2017     By Zhejiang Xinmu Law Firm
[The] collection of commercial debts in China can only be carried on by Chinese lawyers.

The "Big Order" Scam in China

  April 13, 2017     By Zhejiang Xinmu Law Firm
“Big order” scam is a sort of scam that was often-to-be-seen in international trade business. And foreign companies need to be very careful with...

How to Achieve Italian Citizenship

  April 12, 2017     By Giambrone Law
Immigration has enjoyed the status of the hot potato of politics for some time and with Brexit looming that is unlikely to change in the near...

Trade Mark Registration in Romania

  April 12, 2017     By Hammond, Minciu and Associates
The registration of a trademark in Romania involves several steps and procedures which must be closely observed. The Trade Mark registration can...

Planning for the Brexit Impact on Businesses

  April 7, 2017     By Giambrone Law
With the dawning of a new age, that of the separation of the UK from the EU and all that it entails, British businesses that depend on the...

EU Cartel Authorities Examining Possible E-commerce Competition Violations

  April 7, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The European Union’s cartel authorities are targeting e-commerce more aggressively and are carrying out three investigations looking into...

Renewal of European Union Trademark Registration

  April 4, 2017     By Krasimira Kadieva
European Union trademark registration is administered by the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO).

Debt Collection in Bosnia-Herzegovina

  March 31, 2017     By Law Office of Alma Prnjavorac
The legal success is crowned by the winning verdict. However, the economic success is only brought about by the implementation of this judgment....

Common Reporting Standard: Are We Finally Seeing the End of Tax Evasion in Participating Countries?

  March 30, 2017     By Harvey Law Group
The Common Reporting Standard (the "CRS") was developed in response to the request of the G20 to fight against tax evasion and call on...

When Does the Duty to Incorporate a Business Vehicle in Colombia Arise?

  March 28, 2017     By Abusaid Gómez & Asociados
Doing business in Colombia requires, in some cases, to create a domestic business vehicle.

SME Internationalization: Business Strategies in Italy

  March 20, 2017     By Arnone & Sicomo
SME Internationalization: How to expand business to overseas markets.

Opportunities Created by the New Duty Free Zone Regulation in Colombia

  March 17, 2017     By Abusaid Gómez & Asociados
After the 2016 tax reform that took place in Colombia one thing is clear. Duty Free Zones (DFZ) took the best portion of tax benefits and...

Offshore Web Hosting for an Online Business

  March 16, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Privacy, security, and freedom of speech and expression are reasons many businesses give for choosing offshore website hosting. The physical...

Trademark Coexistence Agreements

  March 7, 2017     By Krasimira Kadieva
Trademarks are graphically represented signs, which are used to distinguish and identify the goods of one manufacturer or seller from those of...

Are My Products Subject to Anti-Dumping/Countervailing Duties?

  March 6, 2017     By Torres Law, PLLC
Many importers will discover at some point that products they import may be subject to anti-dumping duties (“ADD”) or countervailing duties...

Evicting Tenants for Non-Payment: English and italian Procedure

  March 1, 2017     By KM Legal Net
Eviction is a process that allows a landlord to lawfully remove a tenant from the leased premises. Most of the time eviction proceeding can be a...

Difficulties in Factory Registration in Egypt

  February 27, 2017     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
The new ministerial decrees 991/2015 and 43/2016 issued by the Minister of Trade introduced new measures concerning the registration and...

Import Violations: What You Need to Know about 19 USC § 1592

  February 24, 2017     By Torres Law, PLLC
In 2016, Customs and Border Protection (“CBP” or “Customs”) processed $2.28 trillion in imports, levying 13 monetary penalties totaling over...

Freight Forwarding as Brokering Activity

  February 24, 2017     By Torres Law, PLLC
In August 2013, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (“DDTC”) published an interim final rule that clarified some aspects of the...

The Anti-Corruption Law and Compliance Programs in Brazil

  February 23, 2017     By M F Ejchel
The Anti-Corruption Act has been approved as a result of the international commitments made by Brazil to confront and fight major local...

Moving Your Business Forward with a Cross-Border Merger in the EU

  February 23, 2017     By Giambrone Law
During the course of 2016 there were approximately 144 mergers and acquisitions (M&As) of UK businesses by foreign companies and around 104...

The Perplexing Problem of Who Can Stay and Who Must Go When Brexit Bites

There are fears in Brussels that the UK immigration system will be unable to define who has the right to stay and who must leave when Brexit...

Law 20, 243 Extends IP Benefits for Performing Artists, Directors and Scriptwriters in Chile

Sometimes artists are not aware of their Intellectual Property rights, and this means that they do not protect their creations, performances or...

License to Skill – An Outline of Malta's Regulation of Skill Games

Gambling, from a legal and policy perspective, has been consistently defined by reference to the constitutive elements of involving a monetary...

European Commission Proposes New VAT Rules to Support E-Commerce and Online Businesses in the EU

On 1 December 2016, the European Commission has published proposals to improve the Value Added Tax (VAT) environment for e-commerce businesses...

New Tax Transparency Rules for Cross-Border Tax Rulings and Advance Price Arrangements in EU

New transparency rules entered into force on 1 January 2017. EU Member States are obliged to automatically exchange information through a...

Doing Business in Russia: Choosing a Form of Legal Presence

Russian corporate law provides several options for foreign investors planning to enter the Russian market. Depending on the general purposes of...

New “European Account Preservation Order” procedure

The regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a European Account Preservation Order procedure to facilitate...

Enforcement of Italian Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters in England and Italy

If you have got an Italian or English judgment concerning civil and commercial matters but the defendant/debtor fails to comply with it and...

European Commission Proposal Strengthens Privacy Rules for Electronic Communications

Following a leak in early December, the European Commission has officially published the finalised proposed new legislation which aims to...

Minimize Product Liability Risk with a Well-Written Contract

If your company is importing products made overseas, what is your liability for a safety or quality issue that causes harm? A well-written...

New General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) in The Netherlands and EU

Since 14 April 2016 the General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) has been adopted in the Netherlands. This means that starting from 25 May 2018...

Data Retention and National Law: Privacy over Public Security in the EU

The ECJ ruling in Joined Cases C-203/15 and C-698/15 Tele2 and Watson. The ECJ’s recent judgment in the important cases C-203/15 and C-698/15...

Arbitration in Egypt: Myth or Reality?

The Egyptian Judicial System has traditionally been regarded as the primary and sometimes exclusive forum for the settlement of legal disputes...

Simplifying of Contracting Pprocedures for Services Exporters in Ukraine

From January 2017 the procedure of agreement conclusion will be simplified for services exporters.

Leaked E-Privacy Draft: What to Expect in Malta & the EU

Following the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation, the European Commission has been working on reforming the E-Privacy...

Incorporate Your Idea. How to Develop Your Intellectual Property in the Cayman Islands.

  By Loeb Smith
The Cayman Islands have taken significant steps in recent years to update and modernize the legal framework with respect to protection of...

Divorce in Jordan

Filing divorce case in Jordan need a legal procedure, and at the end the woman will have a divorce and shall get her financial rights.

Subsidiary Company or Registration of a Branch or Overseas Company in Jamaica

International or Foreign Companies are normally interested in establishing companies with limited liability in Jamaica. The Foreign Investors...

The Irish Immigrant Investor/ Entrepreneur Program: A Path to Permanent Residence & European Citizenship

The European market remains one of the leading alternatives for foreign investors wishing to expand businesses.

Legal Insight - Payment of Dividends by a Cayman Islands Company

  By Loeb Smith
Cayman Islands holding companies, operating companies, and investment funds structured as companies pay dividends and make other distributions...

Whom Must the Customs Authority Notify Regarding a Seizure of Goods in Israel?

The Ramla Magistrate Court rejected a claim filed by an importer in order to release goods seized in the possession of a different person as he...

Will the Recent Amendment of the Defense Export Control Law Ease the Licensing Process in Israel?

Recently, the Knesset (the Israeli Parliament) approved the Amendment of the Defense Export Control Law, 2016, thus establishing it as an...

The Copyright Paradigm: Marrakesh Treaty

Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled. Marrakesh...

GAPSME: General Accounting Principles for Small and Medium Enterprises in Malta and the EU

The EU Single Accounting Directive 2013/34/EU, which repealed the 4th and 7th Accounting Directives on Individual and Consolidated Accounts,...

US sanctions on Myanmar lifted: Effects on the EB-5 Visa

The US has finally lifted all remaining sanctions against Myanmar on 7 October 2016. President Obama signed an Executive Order terminating the...

Could 2017 Be the Year of Larger NAFTA Payloads?

For Texans, the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) are not only visible in an invigorated economy but also in the...

The Real Risks Offshore Workers Face on a Daily Basis

Offshore workers face numerous risks on a daily basis. When these risks lead to on-the-job injuries, the physical, financial and emotional...

Chile: The first Latin American Country that Has the WIPO CASE System

In 2011 the World Intellectual Property Organization – WIPO developed an initial system called WIPO CASE, and in 2012 they enhanced the platform...

Doing Business in Israel: a Nation Friendly to Business Investment

Companies, countries, and individuals who are interested in doing business abroad are looking more and more towards Israel. This has not...

Potential for British Children to Be Forced into Care as a Result of Brexit

An alarming consequence of the Brexit vote became apparent during the recent legal challenge at the High Court aimed at forcing the British...

The Latest Milestone in U.S. / Cuba Relations: Commercial Flights

The United States and Cuba marked another historic milestone recently when JetBlue Flight 387 sojourned from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, to Abel...

Mexico Moves Forward with New Anti-Corruption Act

Corruption is a significant risk for companies doing business in Mexico: bribery is widespread, and business registration processes, including...

Inheritance Procedure in Romania for UK citizens

Inheritance and succession issues in relation to UK citizens with assets in Romania are one of the areas about which we are being asked more and...

Australian Trade Marks Attorney Not Always Required

  By Wadeson
With a recent drop in trade mark official filing fees, Australia just became up to 50% less expensive for foreign trade mark applicants to...

Cypriot Citizenship by Investment Revised Scheme, Approved by the Cabinet Early September 2016

The main goal of the revised scheme is a further encouragement of Immediate Foreign Investments.

Turkey’s Civil Offset Enthusiasm

Most probably many people would not know more about where offset/industrial participation discussions were moving toward before the article...

Record Fine For Truck Cartel – Enforcing Damages Claims in EU and Germany

Members of the truck cartel will have to pay a fine totaling approx. 2.9 billion euros, and things could become even more expensive if damages...

The Necessity and Some Problematic Aspects of the Choice of Law Clauses for International Transactions

In their day by day practice business entities very often conclude transactions that have cross border nature for example a company may conclude...

New and Updated Regulation on the Naturalisation (Citizenship) of Investors in Cyprus by Investment

The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Cyprus, on the 13th of September 2016 has issued an amended Regulation in relation to the Scheme for...

"Failure to Use" as a Legal Ground to Cancel the Registration of the Trademark ‘’McDonald’’ in Armenia

In 2014 WEST LLC company registered in the Federation of Russia, has submitted a number of applications to the Administrative Court of RA,...

Corporations in Panama

Panama has a Corporations Act, which facilitates business and investment, so it is recommended to entrepreneurs take advantage offered by this...

Enforcement and Registration of Judgements in Romania

The court system in Romania is still to many a confusing impenetrable system. In the past the rules and regulations seem to have a mind of their...

The Ship Arrest Concept

According to the provisions of the International Convention on the Arrest of Sea-Going Ships, signed at Brussels 10 May 1952, capture means the...

Cyprus: Implementation of the EU Regulation No. 655/2014

The EU Regulation No. 655/2014 establishes a European Account Preservation procedure to facilitate cross-border debt recovery in civil and...

The Legal Impact of Brexit on the Real Estate Investments of UK Nationals in Bulgaria

Many UK nationals have purchased in Bulgaria an apartment, a house with land or simply a piece of land in the mountains or near the seaside to...

Improvements in Panama Corporation Law for Redomiciliation

Decree Law 5 of 1997 included several improvements for the redomiciliation and powers of attorney for corporations which are still useful today

China Simplifies Administrative Procedures for Foreign Invested Enterprises

  By MMLC Group
On September 3, 2016, the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) released a draft of the Interim Measures for the Administration of the Recordation of...

Retail Trading and Distribution in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia’s economy showed an impressive performance in the retail sector as per survey of 2015. Saudi Arabia’s retail sector is the largest...

Taxation in Agriculture in Ukraine

The main provisions of the Ukrainian legislation governing taxation in agriculture are embodied in the Tax Code of Ukraine, which regulates the...

Invest in Ukraine: Protection of Foreign Investment

One of the means for protection of foreign investment is the conclusion of international agreements on promotion and protection of investment.

Taxes in Ukraine: Corporate Income Tax

Corporate Taxpayers: Corporate Income Tax (CIT) is paid by the resident companies, which receive income in Ukraine as well as abroad. CIT is...

Bank in breach of duty of care in the case of excessive lending in the Netherlands?

In the current economic climate, more and more people in the Netherlands have problems repaying consumer credits. To protect consumers, lenders...

Setting Up a Company in Italy

Doing Business in Italy - It should be noted that there are subtle differences compared to other countries and it is important that these are...

What is International Adoption?

International adoption laws and procedures are complicated. It is important to consult with an experienced immigration attorney who has...

Company Formation in Romania

The first question international clients usually ask lawyers in Romania is how long will it take to incorporate a company. For an experienced...

Financial Technology: An Exciting Upcoming Industry in Spain

FinTech is becoming one of the most influential sectors within the economy. It has simplified mundane and extensive tasks in many industries...

Consent Provisions in a Globalized Research Community: Key-elements of the New European Regulation

In general, a patient’s choice whether he will undergo a particular treatment or participate in a clinical trial constitutes an expression of...

Clearing the Mist for Good: New EU Code of Conduct on Privacy

Individual developers as well as SMEs across the world are currently developing a Cambrian explosion of business activity on mobile. This in...

New Directive in EU Law on Trade Secrets and Know-how

Whilst the protection of Know-how and Trade Secrets is usually covered in local law there is often confusion as to how this will translate...

Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey under the New York Convention

Although arbitration is considered as a reasonable form of alternative dispute resolution, foreign arbitral awards are subject to an enforcement...

Purchasing a Ukrainian Bank: Obtaining Approval from the National Bank of Ukraine

In 2015 Ukrainian legislation related to the acquisition of a significant shareholding in a bank was substantially amended. This was due to the...

Registration of Companies in Ukraine with the Participation of Non-Resident

In accordance with the Constitution of Ukraine, foreigners and stateless persons who are in Ukraine on legal grounds enjoy the same rights and...

Features of Registration of Foreign Investments in Ukraine

Foreign investments are invested by foreign investors’ values in objects of investment activities in order to make a profit or to achieve social...

Ukraine: Legal Regulation of the Labor Migration

There are internal and external labor migrations. Internal migration is implemented within a country, while foreign migrant workers involve...

New General Data Protection Regulation in Romania

In Romania, and perhaps in the rest of Europe, little attention seems to be paid to Data Protection and the implication of the regulations which...

New Domain Extensions: Benefits and Opportunities for Businesses in Latin America

The Internet has become an important business tool for brand promotion. Any company that wants to successfully put its products or services...

How To Find Out What Is in the Canada Revenue Agency’s Files about Your Audit

  By LexSage
Wouldn’t you like to know what is in the Canada Revenue Agency’s (“CRA”) files concerning your GST/HST audit?


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