International Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to International Law.

New Tax Incentives to Attract Investors in Cyprus

  October 7, 2015     By Evagoras Anastasiou & Associates LLC
The government of Cyprus has announced new amendments in the island’s tax system in order to attract foreign investment and increase Cyprus’ economic activity.

The Acquisition of Property in Spain by Non-Resident Foreigners

  October 5, 2015     By Mariscal Abogados
More and more non-resident foreign nationals, attracted by the good economic climate, decide to buy a property in Spain. The drop in real estate prices has increased the number of investors.

Foreign Infusions into Charter Capital of the Company in Ukraine: Benefits and Guarantees

  October 6, 2015     By Kydalov & Partners
“Foreign Invested Enterprise” in Ukraine, what should we know about benefits and guarantees.

Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Cayman Islands

  September 27, 2015     By Loeb Smith
The Foreign Judgments Reciprocal Enforcement Law (1996 Revision) (the “Law”) allows a judgment creditor to apply for the judgment to be registered in the Grand Court and thereafter is deemed to have the same force and effect as Judgment of the Grand Court. However, at present the Law extends only to the enforcement of Australian Judgments. As a consequence of the limitation of this statutory remedy, most foreign judgments are enforced at common law.

Can I Sue a Foreign Doctor for Malpractice in an American Court?

  September 24, 2015     By
Medical tourism is on the rise for Americans. Many Americans seek the substantial savings they can obtain by getting various medical treatments, bot necessary and elective, performed by doctors in other countries. But, what happens when something goes wrong? Can you sue a foreign doctor for malpractice in an American Court?

Get Protection and Security for Your Investments in Colombia

  September 22, 2015     By B&R Latin America IP LLC
A legal framework that guarantees stability to international business is always desirable for any investor or company in any sector of the economy anywhere. Provided that each country has jurisdiction on its own territory, How to promote and protect business abroad? And how to avoid, or at least reduce, the political risk involved in doing business in a different country?

Trademark Fees Will Increase in Argentina

  September 20, 2015     By B&R Latin America IP LLC
The Trademark Direction of the National Institute of Industrial Property in Argentina decreed that the trademark fees will rise from October of 2015.

Cuba Enacts New Foreign Investment Law

  September 10, 2015     By Abogados Lombardi Aguilar Group
The Law clearly provides that foreign investment is regulated within a framework of the law, sovereignty, independence and mutual benefit, in order to contribute to Cuban economical development within a prosperous and sustainable socialist economy

Legal Aspects of Real Estate Purchase of Foreign-Capital Companies in Turkey

  September 13, 2015     By Ketenci & Ketenci
Due to Turkey’s rapidly financial growth and increasing population, real estate market has been developing for last five years.

Liability for Collisions under UAE Maritime Law

  August 30, 2015     By Karbal & Co.
Hosting one of the world’s largest ports, Dubai has rapidly expanded to become a leading maritime hub. As an expected consequence of the growth of Dubai’s maritime industry, the number of marine accidents has steadily increased over the past few years, as Dubai Port police have reported that there were 53 maritime accidents in 2013, 37 accidents in 2012, and 34 accidents in 2011. According to Marasi News, 9 of the 37 accidents that had taken place in 2013 were collisions.

Can a Lawyer Help with Extradition?

  August 28, 2015     By
Extradition is the process in which one country or state that has possession of a criminal suspect hands him or her over to another country or state. A lawyer may be able to help with this process by fighting extradition or by helping to facilitate it, according to the suspect’s wishes and the governing law.

Major Changes in Dutch Corporate Statute Governing Netherlands BV-Companies

  August 24, 2015     By KerkmanLaw
On October 1, 2012, major changes to Dutch corporate statute governing Dutch companies with limited liability (the so-called ‘besloten vennootschap’ or ‘BV’), have taken effect.

Public Procurement Disputes in Romania

  August 19, 2015     By Ion Florin Chivu Law Offices
For both local Romanian investors and also foreign investors interested in obtaining public contracts in Romania it is very important to be familiar with the local public procurement legislation, out of which the most delicate part is the one pertaining to the public procurement disputes.

New Amendments to Investment Law No. 8 in Egypt

  August 17, 2015     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
Egypt in its accelerated movement towards economic reform has been emphasizing the importance of real estate development projects and large scale projects in order to restore the market and economy after its decline post Revolution of 2011.

Free Zones in Egypt: The New Start

  August 5, 2015     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
Egypt started its free zones programs in the 70s; during this period the country’s policy was directed at attracting and retaining foreign direct investment and to increasing the percentage of import and export in the country. Therefore, Egypt has developed nine free zones:

Recent Legal Amendments on Real Estate Acquisitions by Foreigners in Turkey

  August 4, 2015     By Ongoren Law Office
Some significant amendments for real-estate acquisitions by foreigners introduced by a new Law. The most notable amendment in the Law is abolishment of the reciprocity clause. As a result, a foreigner may acquire a real-estate in Turkey even if a Turkish citizen may not acquire a real-estate in the foreigner’s home country.

Risk Allocation in Treaty Obligations

  August 4, 2015     By Kydalov & Partners
The specificity of commercial relationship shows that at the stage of execution of the obligation against the will of any of the parties may be circumstances (events) leading to a breach of contractual obligations. How to manage these risks.

How to Protect and Save Assets that Remained in Crimea

  July 30, 2015     By Kydalov & Partners
As a result of the illegal annexation of the Crimea by the Russian Federation, many owners of the property and assets in the Crimea have gotten quite difficult issue: how to protect and save these assets?

China's New National Security Law

  July 29, 2015     By MMLC Group
Developments in China's national security regulation, and contrasts the position with that existing in Australia and the USA as of 29 July 2015.

The Latest Development and Tax Issues of Islamic Bond Market in Hong Kong

  July 19, 2015     By Masson de Morfontaine
Islamic finance is one of the fastest growing sectors in the international financial market. Given the strategic importance and influence of the Middle East investors, Islamic finance is increasingly in demand by investors wanting investment and financing products compliant with Islamic law (known as “Shariah”).

Registration and Licensing of Motor Vehicles Amendment Regulations in Malta

  July 14, 2015     By CSB Advocates
Before the introduction of the Registration and Licensing of Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Regulations, published on the 5th of June 2015, if an individual bought a car abroad and imported the car into Malta the law did not authorise the individual to use the car on the Maltese roads until the registration process was completed and until the Maltese number plates would have been obtained.

EU Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive

Public opinion became familiar with the term ‘bank resolution’ during the Cyprus banking crisis of 2013. The legal model that had been used in Cyprus, under which powers were vested in the Central Bank to resolve failing banks pursuant to the provisions of emergency national legislation, now exists within the legal order of the European Union (‘EU’) and is in full application as of 1/1/2015.

Validity of Foreign Court Decisions in Turkey

Increase in international trade, people living abroad for various reasons and the disappearance of borders by time has resulted that the legal relationships and disputes not confined in one country or state. This situation has highlighted the difference between the national legal systems.

Egypt: Amendments to the Investment Law

There were many debates over the investment law in the Cabinet of Ministers before the Presidential Decree 17/2015 amended some provisions of the Investment Law 8/1997 on March 12, 2015 in the lead up to the Economic Summit in Sharm El Sheikh. In particular amendments touched base of Companies Law 159/1981, Income Tax Law 91/2005, and Sales Tax Law 11/1991.

Debt Collection in Italy

How the debt collection works in Italy.

Asset Tracing in Cyprus

Even in cases in which the identity of the wrongdoer or the whereabouts of the misappropriated property is unknown, there are tools available for recovery of property, or proceeds of property, which have been misappropriated from a Cyprus company or a company managed and controlled from and in Cyprus.

Hong Kong is an Ideal Place for Investment despite the Unbounded EC Tax Haven Blacklist

Hong Kong was named among the thirty uncooperative tax jurisdictions in the European Commission’s (“EC”) tax haven blacklist released on June 17, 2015. The tax jurisdictions on the aforesaid list had been flagged up by ten or more European Union member states. Six of the thirty countries blacklisted are former British territories. Countries notable by their absences include Jersey, Luxembourg and Switzerland, whose secretive tax system are well-known to the world.

International and Domestic Law

With globalization and recent reshaping of the global landscape the paradigm shifted, and the international law moved away from its classical definition of regulating relations between nations and extended well beyond regulation of ‘the conduct of states toward their own citizens’.

Recent Amendments and Modernisation of the Companies Act in Cyprus

The Law amending the Companies Act, CAP 113, Number 4, of 2015 has been passed by the Cyprus parliament. It provides for significant changes to the Companies Act and modernises several of its provisions. The main changes are as follows:

Lawyer Tariff in Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina there are two lawyer tariffs in effect, for the territory of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina applies the Lawyer Tariff of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina “Official Gazette of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina”, No.: 22/04 dated April 24, 2004 and 24/04 dated May 8, 2004, and for the territory of the Republic of Srpska, Tariff for Remuneration and Compensation of Costs for Services of Lawyers of the Republic of Srpska.

When Buying from Foreign Sources, What Can You Do if the Seller Does Not Send Your Product?

Buyers large and small have begun purchasing from foreign sources. Sites like have revolutionized the international market for consumers, while the Internet in general has made it easier for companies to interface and conduct business with others around the world.

Enforcing Child Support in US Courts When the Child Lives Overseas

In the modern, global world, it is not uncommon for people to migrate from one country to another. Unfortunately, doing so can complicate family issues, particularly after a divorce or when children are involved.

The Unified Judiciary Law of GCC

In 34th Session of the Supreme Council of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) the council agreed that The Unified Judiciary law of GCC.

When to Retain an Attorney for a Missing Child in California and for What Purposes

Each year, nearly 1.3 million children are reported missing. Fortunately, most missing children are returned home in a short period of time. In any missing child case, you must act quickly. The first 48 hours are crucial. You must move quickly and decisively. Rather than hiring an attorney to coordinate your search, save your resources. If later, you need advice on specific points of law, you may want to consider using a lawyer to advise you only in a limited role.

Efficacy and Validity in International Law

Compliance and its relation to validity is one of the central points in the discussions related to the international law. H Kelsen stated that ‘the efficacy of law constitutes a condition of the validity of law’[1], where efficacy refers to ‘whether law is actually observed’[2] and ‘validity whether law must be observed’[3].

Singapore The Island Nation with Global Significance

Singapore is a hub for international arbitration. Learn more about the city-state and what to do to prepare for an upcoming arbitration.

Does America Have to Follow International Laws?

Attorneys often experience a passionate client coming into their office and insisting that they have a case based on something they read about happening in another country. In other instances, people will invoke rights they believe they have under treaties or international agreements like the Geneva Convention. Thus, many wonder whether American courts must follow international laws?

Compulsory Marine Liability Insurance

If you are involved in the maritime and shipping industry, you will be only too familiar with the wealth of legislation and regulation with which you are obliged to comply. When it comes to business at sea and in port, it is essential to ensure that you are fully compliant in order to protect you, your employees, your clients and your business.

Dispute Resolution in the Eurasian Economic Union

  By Integrites
On 29th of May 2014, the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan), the Russian Federation (Russia) and the Republic of Belarus (Belarus) have signed the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union.

Shipping Contracts: Affirming the Contract

A recent High Court judgment in the UK highlights the difficulties that can arise when unexpected problems strike. In the case of MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company1, the courts looked at the implications of a party who, when faced with potential repudiation, chose instead to affirm a contract and claim demurrage charges.

Fair Use or more Fair Dealing: China’s Copyright Law in Transition

The third draft of proposed amendments to the Chinese Copyright Law was released on March 31, 2012. As expected with any piece of legislation with economic import, this draft was the result of much political pushing and pulling. In the end, no one was happy. But as we live in a time of profound technological and cultural change, it’s reasonable to be unhappy some of the time with what the Copyright Law does and does not allow.

Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in China

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the New York Convention as applied in China, in particular in relation to when courts in China are able to refuse to enforce foreign arbitral awards, by reference to decided cases.

Michael Jordan and the Chinese Trademark System: Two Languages, One Superstar

Waiting too long to protect your trademark can end badly. In China, with its first to file system, foreign brands have learned the hard way to be proactive in protecting their foreign language brand names. But some have been slow in protecting the Chinese language versions of those brand names. And have seen their brand recognition pulled out from under them.

The Digital Single Market Top Priority for EU

Creating a Digital Single Market is one of the ten priorities of the EU President-elect Jean-Claude Juncker.

Shipping Contract Disputes

A recent contract dispute demonstrates the need to secure expert shipping law advice as soon as possible, particularly if the contract in question contained a jurisdiction clause, which can affect both the outcome of the case and any damages awarded.

IT-startups in Ukraine: It's Time to Start

Ukraine, as a potential country for doing business, is often discussed by foreign investors, despite the fact that the ratings of favorable legal environment of Ukraine is not too high. The main reason for the low ratings of favorable investment climate in Ukraine is corruption and overly regulated legal regulation of business.

China’s Case Acceptance Regulations: Getting into Court Gets A Little Easier

Getting in the courthouse door in China has always been problematic even for seemingly straight-forward cases. China’s Supreme People’s Court is trying to make the case filing process easier, more efficient and maybe even a little more transparent. Predictability, above all, is hopefully within reach.

UAE Banks must apply Sharia Law to Bank Accounts

Very recently Emirates Airlines together with the Chamber of Commerce in Abu Dhabi organized a conference on Asset Protection and Estate Planning held in Dubai. The Central Bank has issued regulations requiring all banks to apply Sharia Law regardless if the is a will indicating a different law.

Investing in Cyprus

Large-scale projects, privatisations and a burgeoning oil and gas sector are firmly placing Cyprus on the map as a hotspot for investment from the US, Asia, Russia and the Middle East.

An Arbitral Award has No Immediate Effect in Cyprus

A foreign judgment or an arbitral award has no immediate effect in Cyprus. A procedure must be followed in order to enforce the foreign judgment. This can be made under E.U regulations, common law and statute depending on the country issuing the judgment and/or the arbitral award.

A Methodological Approach to Negotiating International Business Disputes

The United States government has declared increased exports are the path for financial recovery. In particular, the Small Business Administration declared exports are the principal method to buttress American small business. So, how do small businesses effectively negotiate in the international market?

Foreign Companies in Ecuador

Foreign companies wishing to open a branch in Ecuador, should be incorporated in their country of origin as a trading company, may be of limited liability or a Inc and consider the following issues.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

Firstly, is important to understand the cause of money laundry crime. Usually, is related to drugs traffic, terrorism, trafficking of humans, others international crimes. In 1989, the group of seven (G-7), composed in those days by Italy, United Kingdom, France, Canada, United States, West Germany and Japan, create Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Spotlight: Concerns about Constitutionality of Turkey’s New IP/O Regime in Civil Industrial Sectors

On 06 February 2014, Turkish Parliament has enacted a 6518 Omnibus Bill, gazetted February 19th 2014, which adjoins a provision to article 3 of the Law No 4734 Public Procurement Law (“Law”) stipulating that purchase of goods and services provided to ensure innovation, local production and technology transfer under offset/industrial participation programs are not subject to Law No 4734.

The Main Advantages for Clients of Using Cayman Islands Corporate Structures

  By Loeb Smith
What is the single most important advantage that Cayman Islands corporate structures provides to clients?

Introduction to Jurisdiction of Divorce in Turkey

Divorce principles in Turkish Law related to divorce. Enforcement of a Foreign Divorce Decree in Turkey requires some standards.

Worry and Reassurance: A New Food Safety Law in China and What You Can do for Your Customers

Fake wine is nothing new in China. Even though the economic incentives for going after counterfeiters have never been greater, the fakes are still out there. But there are two things to keep in mind.

Risk Management and Prevention Strategies for Start-Ups in China

For any start-up, there are multiple legal issues involved in building your business but risk management and prevention issues can be arranged into four major risk areas.

Avoiding of Risks in Property Interests Purchase in the Ukraine

Investing to the real estate market is very profitable in Ukraine. There are a lot of foreign companies which provide their activity in Ukraine with one purpose – to buy and rent the real estate. Ukrainian state bodies designed very good legal remedies for property and owners too. But now we still have a lot of legal gaps.

Overhaul Aimed at Making all Media Equally Available throughout Europe

The European Union has recently unveiled a planned reform for the 28 Member State’s digital market aimed at boosting ecommerce and overhauling Europe’s telecoms market.

Parameters to Request the Granting of a Concession in a Maritime Zone

If a private person or a legal corporation wants to purchase a property at the beaches of Costa Rica, whether it is to build a house, hotel, resort or business, first it should be informed about the requirements to obtain a concession in the maritime zone. To have a concession means that the person doesn’t acquire the property, but obtains a permit for using it, that allows the exploitation and enjoyment of the land, according to the parameters established by the local regulatory plan.

Scammed by Someone from Another Country, What are My Legal Options?

They are a routine part of our modern, online world: Internet scams are a daily annoyance for many. Often found in annoying emails, website popups, and other dark corners of the web, these digital scam artists seem to be everywhere today. And, with many of these scams operating overseas, it has left many to wonder what they can do if they fall victim to the tricks of someone from another country.

E-Residency in Estonia

As the world seems to develop faster and faster, a new gadget has been placed to the disposal of the foreigners and non-resident persons in Estonia, namely the digital identity card also known as e-residency.

Oil Contracts, What Is it all About?

Perhaps fuel could be the quickest product to come in to mind when thinking about petroleum, but the list of petroleum products is long and includes numerous materials such as propane, liquid fuels blending such as kerosene, benzene, etc…lubricants, sulfar, asphalt and many more….Petroleum contracts through the history were designed with crude oil in mind, and this ethos still dominate the structure of the contracts up to this date.

Legal Aspects of Conflicting Views on Cyprus's Exclusive Economic Zone

We explore the general legal aspects of the conflicting positions between Cyprus and Turkey relating to Cyprus’ exclusive economic zone and the exploration for natural gas. This note does not constitute nor should be relied upon as legal advice and is for general information only. Regulated legal advice and counsel can be retained by contacting our Public International Law practice.

Parallel Import to be Legalized in Russia in 2015 - Antitrust Risks

Parallel import allows import of goods not only by their owner or dealer, but also by any importer.

Enforcing the 1958 New York Convention in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of arbitral awards signed in New York on June 10, 1958, (« The New York Convention »), has been ratified in Democratic Republic of the Congo ("DRC") through Law No 13/023 dated 26 June 2013 authorizing the accession of DRC to the Convention in accordance with article 215 of the Constitution.

Ratification to the Treaty Relating to Grand Inga Hydroelectric Project in the Congo

In accordance with articles 213 paragraph 1 and 214 paragraph 1 of the Constitution of February 18, 2006 as amended to date, the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo ("DRC”) promulgated on the 21st November 2014 the Law No. 14/026 authorizing the ratification by the DRC of the Treaty relating to the Grand Inga hydroelectric project between the Republic of South Africa ("RSA") and itself.

USA: Business Structures Available for Foreign Investors

The choice for the appropriate legal structure to transact business in the United States (“U.S.”) depends on a combination of factors relevant to a specific activity or sector, as well as on the needs and goals of the investor.

The Schengen Agreement

The Schengen Agreement is very important when travelling across Europe.

Turkish Energy Market 2015

Turkey’s importance in the energy market grows as a regional transit hub given its location between the oil rich Middle East, Caspian region, and Europe. Turkey is the home of the Bosporus and Dardanelles connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.

Enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey

Explaining current provision and practice of enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey. New York Convention and Turkish Private Law and Procedure Act (Called MÖHUK in Turkey International Private Law and Procedure Act) related to enforcement of foreign arbitral awards are the main provisions governing terms of subject concerned.

Discovery and Depositions in Germany

Taking depositions in Germany can be easy with the proper planning and scheduling.

Recent Canadian Court Decisions Affecting Commercial Arbitration

More business cases are going to arbitration than ever before. Therefore, courts have to confront more procedural and legal issues arising out of arbitration cases. Judges often have to remind litigants of the deference given to arbitrators, when the parties have agreed on arbitration as their dispute resolution method. In this presentation, Igor Ellyn reviews nine of the latest cases and explains how they affect the law and practice of arbitration in Ontario and Canada.

Important Frequently Asked Questions on Vessel Arrest in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel. Let's see the important frequently asked questions on vessel arrest in Tunisia

The Applicable Procedures to Arrest a Ship in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel. Let's see the applicable procedures to arrest a ship in Tunisia.

Arrest a Vessel in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel.

Cyprus Courts Do Not Recognise Foreign Arbitration Awards when Neither Party Has its Domicile in Cyprus

The Supreme Court of Cyprus ruled on 17 February 2015, in STX OFFSHORE & SHIPPING CO. LTD v. STX (DALIAN) SHIPBUILDING CO.LTD, Civil Application No. 152/2014, that in order for a foreign arbitration award to be recognized and enforced in Cyprus either the applicant or the respondent must have its domicile in Cyprus.

When a Marriage Breaks in the United Arab Emirates

Shedding light on the application of the UAE Personal Affairs (‘Sharia’) versus foreign laws. The case of a Hindu divorce granted by the Sharia Court in the UAE to the wife with full custody of the kids as well as alimony.

The Legal Truth of E-contracts in Egypt

No doubt that the technological evolution and its wide range usage in various fields became a part of our daily lives, accompanied by this evolution,it’s usage between people in civil and commercial transactions grew significantly.,

Buying Property in Dubai

The endless opportunities that Dubai is bringing back to its real estate sector and the influx of new people relocating to Dubai have substantially increased the Dubai property demand. The basics of buying a property in Dubai are the same as anywhere else in the world: “One needs to be very careful in closing a property deal”.

Setting Up a Business in Italy

The first step a company based outside Italy has to take before starting a business in Italy is chosing the most appropriate form of incorporation. This article is a short introduction to the options available.

Recognition of Foreign Judgments by Thai Courts

The recognition of foreign judgments by Thai courts is an issue likely to be of great interest to foreigners and Thai nationals alike. Its implications have consequences over a diverse array of legal matters, ranging from the enforcement of foreign judgments against Thai-domiciled businesses operating overseas to the recognition of foreign divorce or child custody judgments against Thai spouses who have returned to live in Thailand.

Turkey’s Civil Offset/Industrial Participation Enthusiasm

Most probably many people would not know more about where offset/industrial participation discussions were moving toward before the article titled “The defence industry: Guns and Sugar” was published on The Economist’s on 25 May 2013.

Business Establishment in Ukraine

Nowadays many foreigners plan to establish their own business in other country. It can be very profitable because every country has some advantages in comparison with other countries. For example, agro-industrial and agricultural spheres in Ukraine are developed on a very high level and the profit of having business in such spheres in Ukraine can be much higher than in other countries.

Legal Aspects of Marrying Ukrainian Citizens

Nowadays, many people move to Ukraine to marry with Ukrainian citizens. A foreigner who married a person who lives in Ukraine will face a number of challenges before and after the registration of a marriage. This is not about difference between mindsets and some special culture features: in this article we will consider Ukrainian law features and different law problems related to marriage.

Overview of Business Crime in Latin America

While several Latin American countries have vowed to combat corrupt practices and have enacted legislation to formalise their intentions, meaningful change requires active enforcement as well as the political will and sacrifice to exact it.

How Does the Foreigner Validate Documents Issued in Ukraine?

The largest part of all documents confirming one or another status of the foreign person by some country will require a further legalization according to current regulations of any other country, where a foreign national plans to work and/or reside in the future.

Your Business in Ukraine: New Perspectives for the Private Sector

It's not a secret that Ukraine is still one of the market dark horses in context of entrepreneurship. Not many of large companies venture to base their businesses here despite of the wide range of potentially profitable areas for investment. The events of winter and spring of 2014 scared even those who worked steadily for our economy for years. However, now due to the current European course, there are good prospects for the climate improvement in this area

Independent Bank Guarantee in Italy

Business clients dealing with international trade frequently asked us whether an independent bank guarantee issued under the URDG 758 (the ICC Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees 2010) is valid, binding and enforceable under the Italian law or not and, if not, whether and how it can be amended in order to ensure it is valid, binding and enforceable as an independent bank guarantee under the Italian law.

Civil and Commercial Court Rulings Will Have Effectiveness in All the EU

Savings of up to €48 million thanks to new rules for cross-border judgments.

The Gateway to Europe

Despite the fact that the German market is considered to be the third biggest economy in the world, with an annual turnover of (if you mention turnover an exact figure is expected) Billions of Euros, Israeli business presence in Germany is still relatively poor. How should business be done in Germany? Which Israeli businesses succeed in Germany and in interacting with Germans, and how can the Israeli “Chuzpa” be more helpful? These are things one ought to consider.

The Cargo Transport Units Code of Practice – What Does it Mean for You?

A new Code of Practice aims to increase safety and security in the working environment in dock and on board ship – and helps shipping, cargo and haulage companies understand their liabilities and responsibilities when it comes to packing and transporting cargo.

Enforcement of UK judgments in Turkey

How to enforce UK judgments in Turkey. Uk Decrees are generally enforceable in Turkey based on high court decision.

Enforcement of US Judgments in Turkey

As a civil based law country (continental European Law) in Turkey, enforcement of foreign judgments are entitled to specific provision in International Private Act (MOHUK). It is noteworthy to mention that Turkey is not part of European Union and accordingly Brussels Convention and other relevant legislation which deal with judgement enforcement does not have any effect in Turkish Law.

Doing Business in Cuba

In January 2015 the Treasury Department issued regulations to establish banking relations and allow U.S. companies to export items for sale in Cuba without the trade barriers that have existed for decades. While some Republican leaders have criticized Obama’s actions, normal relations with Cuba are only a matter of time and the opportunities for attorneys representing American and European companies wishing to pursue commercial opportunities in Cuba have never been greater.

Shipping and Maritime: Costs Following Hijacking of Vessels

A vessel was hijacked in the Gulf of Aden by Somali pirates. Unfortunately for cargo owners and insurers, the High Court in the UK has ruled that additional classes of expense - including wages paid to crew, and bunkers consumed during the period of the hijack - could be recovered by ship owners from cargo interests.

Alternative Investment Funds in Cyprus

The Alternative Investment Funds Law of 2014 was enacted by the parliament on the 10th of July 2014 and entered into force on the 27th of July 2014.

FATCA: Cayman Islands Investment Entities Should Act Before Upcoming Registration Deadline

  By Loeb Smith
The broad scope of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“US FATCA ”) introduced by the United States (“US”) and the implementation of that broad scope of application into Cayman Islands law means that it is very important for Cayman Islands domiciled entities to each undertake an assessment of whether or not it is a Financial Institution under Cayman Islands law for the purposes of US FATCA.

Innocent Infringer Trademark Defense in Israel?

Israel's Supreme Court recently found that trademark infringement in Israel should not be attributed to an importer who did not knowingly order counterfeit goods, had no intention of buying counterfeit goods, and was the innocent victim of a scam.

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