HG.org Legal Resources

Science and Technology Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Science and Technology.


IT Services Agreements: Liability of Outsourced IT Services

  April 12, 2017     By Law Office of Vasilios Peros, P.C.
Over the years, technological advances have allowed many companies to outsource much of the creation, maintenance and support of their...

4 Ways Legal Processes Are Impacted By Technological Innovation

  March 27, 2017     By Associated Services
Technology offers huge opportunities for law firms to innovate in ways that benefit both them and their clients.

Anticipate the Future - How Lawyers Prepare for Technological Innovation

  March 6, 2017     By Associated Services
Across our society, we are witnessing economic and technological changes at an unprecedented rate. These changes will continue to influence the...

Cybersecurity: The Italian Paradise for Hackers

The current and rising spread of cloud computing, social media, wireless connectivity, e-commerce and big data is showing every day more and...

European Commission Proposal Strengthens Privacy Rules for Electronic Communications

Following a leak in early December, the European Commission has officially published the finalised proposed new legislation which aims to...

New General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) in The Netherlands and EU

Since 14 April 2016 the General Data Protection Regulation (AVG) has been adopted in the Netherlands. This means that starting from 25 May 2018...

Data Retention and National Law: Privacy over Public Security in the EU

The ECJ ruling in Joined Cases C-203/15 and C-698/15 Tele2 and Watson. The ECJ’s recent judgment in the important cases C-203/15 and C-698/15...

Leaked E-Privacy Draft: What to Expect in Malta & the EU

Following the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation, the European Commission has been working on reforming the E-Privacy...

The Copyright Paradigm: Marrakesh Treaty

Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled. Marrakesh...

Cybersecurity in Israel: Protecting Your Investments

Your company faces potential threats every day from hackers and online criminals. Whether they are interested in stealing money, absconding with...

Reverse Vesting and Holdback – Good News for Entrepreneurs in Israel?

“In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” Benjamin Franklin strikes again. However, in the world of high tech...

Raising Funds and Selling Your Start-Up in Israel: Be Prepared

By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.” Wise words from Benjamin Franklin. From day one most Israeli entrepreneurs are already...

From a Start-Up Nation to a Cyber Security Nation: The Evolution of Israel as a Security Leader

Most people who think about leading global players in online security concerns think big: the United States, China, and Russia. Quietly, though,...

Financial Technology: An Exciting Upcoming Industry in Spain

FinTech is becoming one of the most influential sectors within the economy. It has simplified mundane and extensive tasks in many industries...

Consent Provisions in a Globalized Research Community: Key-elements of the New European Regulation

In general, a patient’s choice whether he will undergo a particular treatment or participate in a clinical trial constitutes an expression of...

Clearing the Mist for Good: New EU Code of Conduct on Privacy

Individual developers as well as SMEs across the world are currently developing a Cambrian explosion of business activity on mobile. This in...

New Directive in EU Law on Trade Secrets and Know-how

Whilst the protection of Know-how and Trade Secrets is usually covered in local law there is often confusion as to how this will translate...

New Domain Extensions: Benefits and Opportunities for Businesses in Latin America

The Internet has become an important business tool for brand promotion. Any company that wants to successfully put its products or services...

New General Data Protection Regulation in Romania

In Romania, and perhaps in the rest of Europe, little attention seems to be paid to Data Protection and the implication of the regulations which...

Court Ruling Strengthens Protections Against Cell Phone Tracking

A judge from the federal district of southern New York has decided to invalidate evidence obtained through the use of a cell phone tracking...

The Features of Surrogacy Contracts in Ukraine

The complexity of procedures for implementing surrogacy requires fixing contractual relationships between the parties and fixing the potential...

The Popularity of Surrogacy in Ukraine

The right to maternity and paternity is one of the basic moral rights of the couple under Art. 49.50 Family Code of Ukraine. However, there are...

Can You Break the Law in Virtual Reality?

Virtual reality is now becoming mainstream. What was once a popular topic for science fiction, virtual reality is now becoming – for lack of a...

California Startup Seeking to Hire Foreign Employee on H-1B Visa

  By Kaass Law
Whether you are a foreign citizen willing to work in the US or an US employer that wants to hire a foreign employee, below are a number of...

Network and Information Security in the EU: Is it Still Utopia?

The rapid rise in the use of digital technologies in the healthcare sector is not lost to cyber criminals.

Personal Data Protection and Medical Research: The New Legal Fframework in the EU

On May 4th 2016, the official text of Regulation 2016/679 “on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data...

Pesticide Residues in Food and GM Foods in the EU - Latest Developments and Questions

The use of pesticides in food, especially when growing fruit and vegetables, is now commonplace; farmers use pesticides in order to preserve or...

Clinical Trials: When Will the New EU Regulation Apply?

ΕU institutions adopted on 16 April 2014 Regulation 536/2014 on “clinical trials on medicinal products for human use”. The Regulation...

Key Points on Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 on Cinical Trials on Medicinal Products for Human Use

The Regulation 536/2014’s purpose is the growth acceleration of pharmaceutical research via clinical trials in the European Union. Its...

Red Biotechnology: Legal Compatibility Is Color-Blind in the EU

“No other sector holds the promise to enhance quality of life, productivity and environmental sustainability through innovation like...

Health Apps: The Challenge of Digital Health for European Legislators

Health apps have a significant impact on the provision of medical care globally. In our previous article we focused on the legal protection of...

Mobile Health Apps and Big Data: The Legal Map in the EU

The use of mobile applications in healthcare has been rapidly growing, globally. Meanwhile, a long and intense discussion has emerged between...

Medical Devices & In-Vitro Diagnostics in the EU: What’s Next?

On October the 5th, 2015, the EU Council of Ministers agreed on its baselines on the looming two Regulations on medical devices and in-vitro...

Rational Choice as a Theory of Crime

Rational choice is a prominent theoretical model in many fields of research, though many criminologists continue to doubt its applicability as a...

Drones and the Challenges of Intellectual Property

Intellectual property as an autonomous branch of Commercial Law, is beginning to face a new technological challenge, since there are some...

Kazakhstan Personal Data Protection: Crucial Points

Nowadays personal data protection necessity has very high value. Possession of the data in the hands of swindlers transforms into criminal...

A Look at Cyber Crimes Related Legal Provisions in Bangladesh for Ordinary Internet Users

With the recent events of the “Xunaed Video Scandal” which went viral and the Bangladesh Bank heist, interest of ordinary internet users in...

China’s Updated High and New-Technology Enterprise Program

  By MMLC Group
On 29 January 2016, the Ministry of Finance, the State Administration of Taxation and the Ministry of Science and Technology jointly issued the...

How Businesses Will Be Affected by the New Cybersecurity Directive

Cyber security is a prominent issue on the EU’s digital agenda. Many governments and companies are vulnerable to cyber security threats. For...

Apple vs. The FBI

Last month a federal magistrate judge in California ordered Apple to bypass the security protocols on an iPhone 5 that belonged to one of the...

French Data Protection Authority Clamps Down on Facebook’s Privacy Violations

On Monday, the 8th of January 2016, the French data protection authority, Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertes (CNIL), issued...

Cyber Investigation - How Prepared are the Indian Police?

India has emerged as a favorite hub for cybercriminals, mostly hackers and other malicious users who use the Internet for committing crimes. As...

Access to Genetic Resources and Sustainable Utilization in Colombia

When we think about the economic development of Colombia we have to consider the importance of the biological diversity that this country has...

Trademark Oppositions in India: How Serious Should Your Business Take It?

An intellectual property portfolio is a collection of IP assets belonging to a business or an enterprise. Trademark is the essence of products...

Kazakhstan Launches Privatization of 60 Largest State-Owned Companies

In September 2015 Kazakhstani Government announced that in furtherance to large-scale privatization program being realized in Kazakhstan over...

European Parliament Shoots Down Amendments Protecting Net Neutrality

In a vote that took place on the 27th of October, the European Parliament has rejected a number of legal amendments to the proposed net...

The Commission Refuses to Comment on Germany’s Data Retention Laws

The Data Retention Directive was enacted as a reaction to the 2004 and 2005 terrorist attacks in Europe in order to harmonize the investigation...

Privacy Laws and Social Media Sites

  By HG.org
Social media sites and privacy are somewhat inherently at odds. After all, the point of social media is to share your life with the world; the...

Distribution Agreements in Turkish Law

Due to developments particularly in telecommunication technologies and transport since last century, more products have been demanded by...

German Telemedia Act in the Case of Websites on the Internet

The internet is today an indispensable part of many areas of life, but those running commercial websites have to be mindful of the German...

Facebook Taken to Court by Belgium over Privacy Breach Claims

The Belgian Commission for Privacy Protection (CPP) is claiming that Facebook is monitoring the web movements of both users and non-users...

Do Not Forget about the ‘Right To Be Forgotten’

Last year, European citizens were granted the right to submit a request to Google for the delisting of personal information deemed to be...

The Digital Single Market Top Priority for EU

Creating a Digital Single Market is one of the ten priorities of the EU President-elect Jean-Claude Juncker.

Copyright and Licensing: When is Copyright Infringement Not Infringement?

The High Court in the UK recently considered whether a company should pay damages for copyright infringement and/or breach of contract where...

Data Protection on the Web & E-Health

The issue of data protection becomes paramount. In the context of e-Health, it is critical that users are always given the option to users to...

Overhaul Aimed at Making all Media Equally Available throughout Europe

The European Union has recently unveiled a planned reform for the 28 Member State’s digital market aimed at boosting ecommerce and overhauling...

I'm Being Harassed on Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter; What Are My Legal Options?

  By HG.org
Cyber-bullying has become a very big problem in America, and it is not just limited to children. Every day, thousands of people have to contend...

International Payment Systems to Transfer Processing Inside Russia

Transactions inside Russia with the use of international payment cards will be processed within the Russian National System of Payment Cards...

French Data Protection Authority Adopts New Rules on Service Quality Monitoring and Bring Your Own Device

The French data Protection Authority (hereafter: “CNIL”) recently released two documents reinforcing employees’ rights to privacy in relation to...

The French Data Protection Authority CNIL Adopts Blanket Authorization for Pharma Industry

The French data protection authority (hereafter: “CNIL”) recently made public an important decision for the pharmaceutical industry. In a...

Rapidly Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Market in Turkey

Turkey’s expansion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector for 2015have been estimated by some recent researches.In following...

China’s Data Privacy Protection Comes of Age

  By MMLC Group
Here we look at some major recent developments in relation to data privacy protection in China. It is vital that all foreign and Chinese...

The Tao of Discovery

More than two thousand years ago, the Chinese warrior-philosopher Sun-Tzu wrote a treatise on military strategy called The Art of War. Since...

New Developments To Russian Personal Data Law

In July 2014, the Russian legislative authorities have adopted a set of amendments to the Federal Law "On Information, Information Technologies,...

Google’s Privacy Policy Questioned

European Union privacy regulators have been urging Google to refine its privacy policies for quite some time.

Regulating Software Usage Rights in Detail

Computers have become indispensable in private households and even more so in companies. When using software, licensing agreements, in...

China's Patent Law and the Pharmaceutical Industry

  By MMLC Group
This article is aimed at introducing some important provisions of the PRC Patent Law that pharmaceutical companies need to be aware of when...

Data Retention Directive is to be Succeeded in the UK by Emergency Data Law

The EU Data Retention Directive (2006/24/EC) was introduced into EU legislation during the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in Madrid, London...

New Law Concerning Debt Recovery in Albania - "On Late Payments for Contractual and Commercial Obligations”

The Albanian parliament has passed on 24.04.2014 the law no. 48/2014 “On Late Payments for Contractual and Commercial Obligations”, which is...

China's Plant Variety Rights Legislation

  By MMLC Group
The coverage provided by China's Plant Variety Rights Law and associated regulations.

Netflix Accused of Mudslinging

Verizon, the US telecommunications giant, has issued Netflix with a “cease and desist” letter following media reports claiming that Netflix was...

Is Apple in Breach of EU Consumer Rights Law?

On the 13th May 2014 the Norwegian Consumer Council lodged a complaint against Apple with Norway’s Consumer Ombudsman. According to the...

Oracle vs Google – Software Copyright Case

The US Court of Appeals ruled last Monday the 12th of May that software source code can qualify for copyright protection in certain...

Child Pornography Distribution Via Peer-to-Peer Networks

Peer-to-peer networks are commonly used in child pornography investigations. It's important to understand what they are and how they are...

US Authorities Granted Power to Search Foreign Servers

Last week a district judge in New York ruled that US authorities can access and search through electronic data stored by US companies on servers...

Internet Enables Thieves to Steal $4 Billion in Tax Refunds

Criminals are utilizing their Internet connection to file false tax returns that help them steal refunds from the innocent. In 2013, fraudulent...

EU Mobile Roaming Charges - Moving Towards an Open Internet

The concept of ‘net neutrality’, or of ‘open internet’, refers to the notion that internet service providers and governments should treat all...

Telecommunication In Nigeria

Broadcasting and telecommunication has come a long way in Nigeria. Formally these services were considered social services in nature hence...

Five Things You Should Know About The Do Not Call Registry in Singapore

The Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) of 2012 governs the collection, use and disclosure of personal data by private organisations. It...

DRC: Adoption of Legal Framework for Fiber Optic Telecommunication Networks

DRC: Adoption of legal framework for the implementation and operation of fiber optic telecommunication networks.

DRC: Adoption of Legal Framework for Fiber Optic Networks

The DRC adopts a legal framework for the implementation and operation of fiber optic telecommunication networks.

DRC: Non-Transferability of Telecom Licenses Challenged by OHADA

The principle of non-transferability of telecommunications licenses challenged by the OHADA Law as a result of the accession of the Democratic...

Merkel Calls for Data Protection Reform in Europe

The strengthening of data protection laws in Europe has been a pet cause for German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, for some time now. In July 2013,...

Employment Law in Israel

Significant Issues in Employment Law in Israel

Telecommunications and Electronic Communications in Albania

The electronic communications sector in Albania is governed by the Electronic Communications Law, 2008, as amended and supplemented by...

White Collar Crime in Malaysia

A Malaysian perspective on White-Collar Crime. A daunting task it has failed to curb, yet.

The New Opportunities For the Technoparks In Turkey and in the World

Research and Development (R&D) activities have been supported in numerous countries since 1970's in order to increase the industrial production...

U.S. Supreme Court Will Decide if the Human Genome Should Be Patented

Medical researchers and private companies across the world spend years mapping the human genome in an effort to discover the root causes - and...

PRC Data Privacy Laws in a Nutshell

Notwithstanding the reasoning, companies in China have yet another amorphous compliance bugbear to obey. Given the inconsistent state of...

Advantages of E-GKS in Terms of Transparency - Turkey

There is a significant regulation with regard to the companies in Turkey and their shareholders in Turkey and abroad which has been promulgated...

Every Book Ever Written Soon to be Searchable on the Internet Thanks to Fair Use Doctrine

  By HG.org
Virtually anyone who has used the Internet outside of China has heard of the search engine giant Google (China blocks Google and has its own...

Telecommunication Companies Must Report Data Mishaps Immediately – Germany

Once again, the EU is dealing with data protection. Under new EU regulations, companies must now report data mishaps within 24 hours.

Patent Expirations Creating Opportunities for Biotech M&A

With patent expirations large pharmaceuticals are facing, there has been a tremendous opportunity for growing biotech companies.

Legal Considerations for Website Terms of Service

  By HG.org
If you run a website, you may already be familiar with the concept of website's terms of service (“TOS”). If you are just starting out with your...

Getting a Clean Bill of Health for Privacy in Your Mobile App

App developers, users, and regulators alike are all grappling with the possibilities and implications of app technology in the health sector. As...

The Relevance of Cybersecurity Risk Management - Malta

The majority of enterprises nowadays rely on information technology as an essential tool for meeting their business objectives as well as...

Distribution and Sale of Used Software Licenses - Germany

The rights of software licenses may not simply be transferred with the sale of authenticity certificates.

Moves Towards Consolidation of Data Privacy Law in Indonesia

Of all human rights, privacy can be one of the most difficult to balance. This is exacerbated by the Internet where free, easy and voluntary...

A Comparison of the Legal Use of Electronic Signatures in the U.S.A. and in Turkey

The United States Congress enacted ESIGN in 2000 (Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 7001 – 7006, (2012))...

Ukraine Extends Tax Privileges for IT Sector

Acknowledging the importance of the IT sector in Ukraine’s economy, the government has provided tax breaks to qualified companies and...


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