HG.org Legal Resources

Criminal Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Criminal Law.

Texas Man Sentenced to 20 Years in Prison for DWI

A Texas City man was sentenced to 20 years in prison for a drunk driving accident that occurred in 2011.

Domestic Violence: California Penal Code 273.5

California domestic violence law has changed a lot over the years. The author explains how things have changed as well as the influences that spurred changes.

The Relevance of Cybersecurity Risk Management - Malta

The majority of enterprises nowadays rely on information technology as an essential tool for meeting their business objectives as well as safeguarding their intellectual property, financial information and the Company’s reputation, amongst others. Concurrently, critical digital assets are being targeted and the potential impacting businesses has never been greater.

Los Angeles Shoplifting: Felony or Misdemanor, It's Still a Crime

When thinking of shoplifting, you may think of Jean Valjean in Les Misérables who stole bread for his starving sister and was imprisoned for five years. But not everybody who shoplifts steals food because they're hungry. It doesn't matter what was shoplifted, or who did the shoplifting, it is still a crime, and is the most common type of theft happening today in the United States.

Los Angeles DUI Defense Process

Regardless of where you live, driving under the influence is a serious offense with serious consequences, but California drunk driving laws can be especially confusing and difficult to maneuver. The best way to approach them is to work with a lawyer that is well versed in what the laws are and what they mean for you.

Breathalyzers: Defects Then/Failures Still

Breathalyzers have had a long history of controversy over their effectiveness and validity when used as evidence in a court of law. The author details their history of failure and malfunction as well as their current problems.

Illinois Allows Marijuana for Medical Use

Any activity involving the cannabis plant is a criminal offense. In all the jurisdictions, it is an offense to possess marijuana, transport marijuana, drive under the influence of marijuana, sell marijuana and grow cannabis. But scientific evidence verifies that marijuana has the following therapeutic effects:

Ignition Interlock Device Laws in Florida

Individuals convicted of drunk driving in Florida are often required to install Ignition Interlock Devices (IID) in their vehicles as part of their sentences. IIDs require drivers to take a breath test before their vehicles will start. Learn about IID laws in the state of Florida.

44 Ways to Beat the Cops

A careful review of your case may find critical mistakes. Each may work in your favor and result in a dismissal of your case

Time of Arrest is Key in Drunk Driving Arrests

What happens after you've been arrested for a OUI in Boston?

FIAU Annual Report 2012 - Malta

On the 15th July 2013, the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) issued a Notice for the purpose of formally notifying all Financial Services License Holders of the recent publication of the Malta Financial Intelligence Analysis Unit (FIAU) Annual Report for 2012, issued in terms of Article 42(1) of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (Chapter 373, Laws of Malta).

An Overview of DUI Penalties in Arizona

Each state has unique laws governing drinking and driving. Continue reading to learn about Arizona’s DUI administrative and criminal statutes.

Proposals for a Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive - EU

The European Central Bank ("ECB") and the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee ("ECON") have issued opinions following the adoption by the European Commission, on 5th February 2013, of a Proposal for a Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive and a Proposal for a Regulation on Information Accompanying Transfers of Funds, to reinforce the EU's existing rules on anti-money laundering and fund transfers.

FL Texting While Driving Ban Signed Into Law

The “Florida Ban on Texting While Driving Law” is set to go into effect on October 1, 2013 and has already come under criticism for being too weak, leaving a lot to be desired in the realm of enforcement.

Extraordinary Dismissal in Cases of Suspected Personal Enrichment - Germany

The Hamburg Labor Court recently ruled that the strong suspicion of credit memos belonging to a business being used for private purposes can justify an extraordinary dismissal.

Alternative Criminal Sentencing – Drug Courts

Sometimes jail just isn’t the answer. To help combat criminal activity in a more effective manner, alternatives to the standard criminal sentencing are being used, namely, drug courts.

House Arrest: Florida’s Community Control Program

The Florida Community Control Program places offenders under house arrest or electronic surveillance as an alternative to a traditional incarceration sentence.

Pending Litigation Determines Whether Alcohol “Sniffing” Device Violates the Fourth Amendment

A recent program has been initiated by the National Traffic Safety Board, and it is referred to as the “Sniffer.” The “Sniffer,” has been overshadowed by another proposal to decrease BAC levels from 0.08% to 0.05%; however, if enacted, it may have just as serious implications to drivers apprehended for driving under the influence.

How to Beat a Reckless Driving Ticket

Unlike speeding tickets, which are considered to be civil violations a reckless driving charge is defined as a criminal offense and comes with more, and more severe penalties. One will not be able to simply pay a fine and move on with their life if they are charged with a willful or wanton act.

Effect of out-of-state DUI Convictions in Illinois

Pursuant to the Illinois Driver License Compact (625 ILCS 5/6-700), the ‘home state’ of a driving license holder is the state which has issued and has the power to suspend or revoke the use of the license or permit to operate a motor vehicle.

Increasing Use of DNA Evidence Both Convicts and Exonerates in Texas

One of the more recent technological advancements in the criminal justice world is DNA analysis. More and more frequently, especially in Texas, DNA evidence gathered from a crime scene is used to identify someone who may have been present. It is also used to exclude someone from consideration as a suspect or to save him or her from a wrongful conviction.

Investigators Deploy Various Tools in Texas Internet Solicitation Cases

Becoming the subject of an Internet investigation related to the online solicitation of a minor is life altering. Not only are there criminal penalties, but also if convicted sex offender registration rules apply and jobs and housing can be hard to come by with required background checks.

Michigan's MIP Law Offers Deferred Prosecution

The Michigan MIP law allows Courts to dismiss the case if the minor successfully completes a probationary period. Deferred prosecution protects the underage drinker from jail and a permanent criminal record. On the other hand, the repeat offender faces potential jail time, costly probation conditions and a mandatory license suspension.

The Minnesota Commercial Driver and DWI

Minnesota DWI Laws can be very difficult for drivers that choose to drive under the influence of alcohol. But, they can be especially harsh for those individuals that possess a commercial driver's license.

Careless Driving Ticket in Fort Lauderdale or Miami

If you have received a careless driving ticket in Broward or Miami-Dade County, you probably got the ticket due to being involved in an automobile accident where the officer investigating the accident found you to be at fault or the cause of the crash. A careless driving charge in Florida carries a four point penalty against your license. If you pay the ticket outright, these points will be assessed on your license, which will cause your car insurance rates to increase.

Embezzlement in North Carolina Can Get You in Criminal Trouble with the State or the Feds

Employees who are wrongly accused of theft or who made an innocent mistake that is interpreted as fraud have even more on the line than the businesses themselves.

Discovering Evidence in Criminal Cases

Every criminal defense in Michigan rests on the strength of the Prosecutor's evidence. Discovery is essential to a successful criminal defense strategy. Discovery is the stage where your Defense Attorney submits a written demand to inspect the evidence, and get copies of all reports. If the Prosecutor refuses to comply with the Discovery Demand, the Court may issue and Order Compelling Discovery, which directs the Prosecutor to release the evidence.

Outsourcing of AML Compliance: How Far Can a Financial Institution Go?

Several banking giants, such as HSBC and Standard Chartered, are currently being investigated by US regulators for alleged failings in anti-money laundering (AML) compliance. All fingers point to lapses involving outsourcing units operating without adequate oversight.

Law against Internet Solicitation in Florida

Internet solicitation of children and teens has been a persistent problem following the immense popularity of the Internet as a means of information and communication. The state of Florida has put in place adequate laws to deal with this problem firmly and reduce the risk of Internet surfers becoming victims of such online solicitation.

Drug Convictions Disqualify Student Financial Aid Applicants

People with a one drug possession conviction lose Student Financial Aid eligibility for one year from conviction date. People with two drug possession convictions or one drug sales/delivery conviction lose eligibility for two years. Those with three drug possession convictions or two drug sales convictions are ineligible indefinitely.

Special Consideration for Motorcycle Accident Caused by a Drunk Driver Crash

When a motorcycle accident is caused by drunk driver crash the consequences for the victim may be more serious.

What to Do if Pulled over for Suspicion of Driving under the Influence

What do I do if I get pulled over and have had a little bit too much to drink and think I’m about to be arrested for driving under the influence?

What Is Unlawful Search and Seizure?

In the United States, the US Constitution's 4th Amendment provides protection for US citizens from unreasonable search and seizure.

Too Drunk to Fly? Federal Blood-Alcohol Limits for Pilots

In January 2013, a pilot was arrested after failing a breathalyzer test in the cockpit. The pilot was about to take off with more than 50 passengers aboard the plane.

Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants in Oregon

A DUI in Oregon is actually a DUII, which stands for driving under the influence of intoxicants. Drivers who are found operating a vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of .08 percent or higher are considered legally drunk, whether they have shown impairment of driving abilities or not.

Texas DWI Traffic Crashes in 2011

The Council on Alcoholism & Drug Abuse reports that approximately 16,000 alcohol-related traffic accident deaths occur every year in the United States. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), alcohol plays a role in about one out of every three traffic fatalities.

Nevada DUI

Nevada DUI DUI Las Vegas

Study Reveals Texting and Driving Just as Risky as Drunk Driving

Most people are very aware of the dangers of drinking and driving, but texting while driving is becoming just as serious a threat on our public roadways.

No Duty to Defendant for Criminal Charge that Could Include Fines

From the tragic Station Night Club fire came a decision from the Rhode Island Supreme Court discussing R.I. Gen. Laws § 12-28-5. See Derderian v. Essex Ins. Co., 44 A. 3d 122 (R.I. 2012).

Felony Traffic Offenses: What to Do if You Are Arrested?

Felony traffic offenses are the most serious type of criminal traffic offenses.

Criticism and Changes to the Maryland Sex Offender Registry

Sex offender registries exist in one form or another across the nation, but there are differences state to state. However, most (if not all) state registries are public in nature.

Job Hunting with a Criminal Record

Privacy is a thing of the past, and in a matter of minutes potential employers can have the ability to access public arrest records. In fact, in 2010 73% of companies conducted a criminal background check for all candidates.

Cultivating and Manufacturing Drugs in Arizona

Drug manufacturing offenses can be charged for the cultivation, production or possession of items necessary for the creation or growth of illegal drugs.

Semi Truck Scares Interstate Drivers in Wrong Lane

The driver of a semi truck got lots of attention on the morning of March 18th, 2013 when he drove for about 10 miles in the wrong direction on an interstate. Police dispatchers were first alerted to the wayward semi a little after four in the morning, when motorists began calling in handfuls to report the truck, which many reported forced them to swerve in order to avoid a collision.

Florida’s Cyberstalking Laws

While the Internet, email, smartphones, and the widespread usage of social media sites have improved our lives in many ways, they have also unfortunately become the breeding grounds for new types of crime.

Taking a Look at Some Common Defenses for Criminal Charges

This article describes the most common defenses used when facing a criminal charge. It's important that the accused are made aware of their rights so that they can properly defend oneself. Briefly describes self-defense, statute of limitations, alibis, entrapment, and insanity defense strategies.

Contempt of Court Charges in Florida

Unless you’ve been living under a rock, you’ve surely caught wind of the viral news story about Miami’s bad girl du jour: the foul-mouthed, bird-flipping teen Penelope Soto. Here’s a recap of the infamous February 2013 courtroom incident:

Federal Child Porn Sentencing Guidelines

In imposing sentences in Federal Court judges are required to consider the advisory sentencing guidelines adopted by the United States Sentencing Commission.

Changes to Arizona DUI Penalties - Senate Bill 1200

The state of Arizona has extremely harsh penalties for DUI convictions. Starting in 2012, the Arizona legislature passed a bill to lessen some of those penalties.

Online Publication of Mugshots in Florida

A mugshot is a photographic portrait taken of a defendant by the police department after the defendant has been arrested and is in police custody. Typically, the arrestee will take one front-view photo and one-side view photo. The purpose of a mugshot is to provide law enforcement with a photographic database of all arrested individuals, which is then often used by victims and investigators for identification purposes.

An IRS Criminal Investigation at a Glance

The Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigation Division serves the American public by conducting criminal investigations regarding alleged tax violation and various money laundering statutes. The IRS is the only federal agency that can investigate potential criminal violations of the Internal Revenue Code. There is a long, complicated investigation process involving many levels of personnel that goes into prosecuting these types of criminals.

Criminal vs. Civil Charges

A cab driver was taken to the hospital after being assaulted and battered by a customer who didn’t want to pay his fare. According to reports, the driver of the cab had just finished dropping off four customers when one of the customers pulled a handgun and used it to strike the cab driver in the head.

Daytime DUI Rising Across The Country

Law enforcement officials agree that intoxicated driving during the day is a rising problem.

Voluntary Compliance #1 Goal for 2013, Reports Hawaii Department of Taxation

The Hawaii Department of Taxation has announced its goals for 2013, and the #1 goal is to increase voluntary compliance. The Department is going to focus its outreach and enforcement efforts on non-compliant groups, including non-residents and persons "new" to the tax system.

California School’s Duty to Report Abuse

In California, the responsibility of school employees to report suspicion of child abuse is not only a component of a person’s moral compass, it’s the law. Communities rely on places like institutions of education to provide an element of safety for children, and teachers and administrators are assumed to uphold that expectation.

Maryland Citizen’s Dream of Death Penalty Abolition Closer to Reality

To execute just one innocent person is too much, even if it means that people convicted of offenses like homicide will escape the ultimate punishment for their crimes.

Collateral Consequences of a Criminal Conviction

More and more often, the collateral consequences of a criminal conviction (often referred to as the four C's) are more serious than the direct penalties determined in court.

The Bail Review Problem in Maryland Criminal Justice

Often times defendants without legal representation end up getting held for criminal offenses when they shouldn’t be.

Underage Drug and Alcohol Risks

As summer begins, so does the opportunity for teens and other underage people to try drugs and alcohol for the first time.

Amendment of FIAU Implementing Procedures - Malta

The Malta Financial Services Authority has issued a Circular addressed to the investment services industry regarding the Prevention of Money Laundering and Funding of Terrorism (Amendment) Regulations 2009, following the revision of Part I of the Implementing Procedures which changes are being introduced through the inclusion of a new Chapter 9 and additional paragraphs to Section 6.1 of the Implementing Procedures.

New York State Tops the Nation With Investment Fraud Schemes

New York City is known as the nation capital for federal securities and investment fraud investigations and prosecutions. The most common claims in arbitration filed in New York include Breach of Fiduciary Duty, Negligence, Fraud/Misrepresentation, Failure to Supervise and Breach of Contract.

States with the Most Strict Marijuana Laws: Part 2 of 2

In the midst of marijuana reform, and even legalization in some states, there are many parts of the country whose marijuana laws remain stringent, and some states are even getting stricter.

States with the Most Lenient Marijuana Laws: Part 1 of 2

2012 marked a year of marijuana reform, legalization and heightened freedoms for recreational users. While some states have taken steps back, others have begun to pave the way and have inspired conversations among lawmakers.

Sexual Assault under Texas Criminal Law

  By HG.org
Sexual offense or abuse is when one person intentionally, knowingly or recklessly harms another person or threatens to harm another person sexually and without the other party’s permission.

Child Pornography under Texas Law

Internet sex crimes are becoming more prevalent and more serious in today's technology-driven society where offenders falsely assume their online identity is anonymous. The Internet Watch Foundation confirmed 1,536 child sexual abuse domains on the Internet in 2008, 58% of which were housed in the United States. Child pornography is a $3 billion annual industry, and continues to grow with its' demand.

Ignition Interlock: A Simple Step Toward Preventing PA Drunk Driving Fatalities

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recently recommended that all states require ignition interlock devices for first time drunk driving offenders.

Spoliation: Destruction and Failure to Safeguard Evidence

At any trial, parties must show evidence to prove their claims. Sometimes, the most effective way, or even the only way, to prove a point is through physical or documentary evidence, e.g. the allegedly defective product in a products case, the weapon actually used in a criminal case, or patient files in a case of nursing home negligence. There are obvious motives to destroy such evidence, and destroying or failing to safeguard such evidence is known as spoliation.

FATF Recommendations to Turkey and Draft on Preventing Terrorism Financing

On 19 October 2012, the FATF (Financial Action Task Force) has decided to suspend Turkey’s membership on 22 February 2013 unless the following conditions are met before that date: (1) Turkey adopts legislation to adequately remedy deficiencies in its terrorist financing offence; and (2) Turkey establishes an adequate legal framework for identifying and freezing terrorist assets consistent with the FATF Recommendations.

The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act and Violence Against Men

Last week, the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act was reintroduced by the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy, a Democrat, and Sen. Michael Crapo, a Republican. This act continues and expands upon the 1994 landmark law, the Violence Against Women Act, which combatted domestic violence, sexual abuse, and stalking by authorizing services such as shelters and legal assistance for victims and survivors of abuse.

Classes of Felonies in Florida

Most states classify their felonies by class, ”a class D felony ” is a term that is often heard. Florida does not have Felonies that are classified by letter.

Michigan Implied Consent & Drunk Driving Laws: The Double Edge Sword

The Michigan Implied Consent statute has the power of a double-edged sword when added to the fines, costs and jail-time handed out for a drunk driving conviction. If a driver refuses to consent to a chemical test, they face a mandatory 12 month suspension, and 6 points on their driving record.

Misdemeanors and Finding a Job in South Florida

Finding a job with a criminal record can be very difficult. If you have had a misdemeanor in Miami, you need to understand the difficultly of finding a job and what to do about it.

Texas DWI FAQs from a Dallas DWI Lawyer

If you are facing DWI charges in Texas, or are just interested in the the drunk driving laws of the state, continue reading this article written by a DWI lawyer in Texas to learn more about this state's statutes. DWI and DUI laws differ in every state, so it's important to know the laws just in case you are charged with a DWI in Texas.

South Carolina Implied Consent DUI Law

While most would agree that the most significant piece of evidence in a DUI case is the results of a blood alcohol test, cases do arise in which this information is not available. It then comes down to a debate between the arresting officer, and the defendant.

The Attorney-Client Privilege in Florida

Communications between a client and his attorney are generally privileged under the attorney-client privilege, which is a legal and ethical concept that preserves the confidentiality of communications between a client and his attorney.

Competence Legal Assistance for Homicide

Homicide charge can be serious. You are required to hire a lawyer with specialization in criminal law to prepare the murder defense.

How a Lawyer can help you in fighting a Traffic Ticket

Are you convicted of a traffic law violation? A lawyer can come to your rescue in this difficult situation of yours. The lawyer after analysing your case details will acquaint you with different courses of action and their pros and cons. He will then, gather information about your case and examine the aspects of the offense charged against you.

DWI and Gastric Bypass Surgery

A recent study published in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons shows that patients who undergo gastric bypass surgery take a longer period of time to process alcohol in the body which can lead to excess drinking and other problems.

Marietta White Collar Crimes

In recent years, white collar crimes are on the rise due to easier accessibility to private information on the internet allowing for fraud, identity theft and embezzlement. Penalties can be harsh for this offense without the help of an aggressive attorney.

Kansas DUI Changes and 2012 Highlights

Effective July 1, 2012, the state of Kansas made some changes to its current DUI laws and penalties. One particular change that went into effect is how the state is now criminalizing chemical test refusals.

Judge Rules DUI Field Tests Inaccurate

According to a recent report in the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, on December 31, a Dauphin County Court of Common Pleas Judge ruled that machines, known as Breathalyzers and Intoxilyzers, cannot be considered accurate for specific blood-alcohol levels.

Judge Rules DUI Field Tests Inaccurate

According to a recent report in the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, on December 31, a Dauphin County Court of Common Pleas Judge ruled that machines, known as Breathalyzers and Intoxilyzers, cannot be considered accurate for specific blood-alcohol levels. He deemed readings between zero and 0.05 and readings above .15 percent potentially inaccurate.

Failure to Comply with Requirements Under Taxation Law in Victoria

In Australia, failure to comply with taxation laws can lead to a Commonwealth criminal charge. What happens if you are found guilty and what penalty can you receive? Know the law for this offense and what you should do if you are charged.

What Can You do if Your License is Suspended – Can I Get a License From Another State?

What can you do if your Pennsylvania driver’s license is suspended?

Florida Ignition Interlock Device Laws

Traffic crime offenses in Miami, Florida can be categorized as both felonies and misdemeanors. The majority of traffic violations are considered civil infractions but there are cases where traffic offenses are deemed as criminal in nature.

Habitual Misdemeanor Larceny

If A Defendant Has Four Or More Prior Larceny Convictions, A Subsequent Larceny Offense Is A Felony.

Breach of Intervention Order or Family Violence Order in Victoria

Breaching an intervention order? If you live in the state of Victoria (Australia), breaching a condition of an intervention order could land you in prison for more than a year. So, how do you fight the breaching intervention order charges in Court? Read on to know the possible defenses.

Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicating Liquor or of Any Drug (DUI) in Victoria, Australia

Charged with a DUI? What consequences are you likely to face if found to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs while driving? Learn about the criminal law for this traffic offense and get advice from an expert about how to deal with the charge in Court.

Failing to Comply with Reporting Conditions (Sex Offender Registry) in Victoria, Australia

Are you listed on Victoria’s (Australia) sex offender registry? If you fail to comply with any of the reporting conditions, you will be charged with a criminal offense. Find out the law for this charge and know what exemptions are being accepted by Courts.

Driving While Texting

On March 8th, 2012 Pennsylvania will join 35 other states with a statewide traffic law banning texting while driving. Under Senate Bill 314, text messaging while behind the wheel will be subject to primary enforcement, which allows law officers to stop and cite offenders for that reason alone and will carry fines of $50. The new traffic law does NOT ban talking on handheld phones while driving.

Holiday DUI Checkpoints

Being charged with a DUI in South Florida has very serious repercussions. It is important to find a DUI defense attorney that will do everything in their power to ensure that a DUI conviction does not haunt you for the rest of your life. The best DUI defense attorneys in South Florida are often able to get a DUI charge expunged, leaving you with a license and a clean record to police and employers.

Indecent Act with a Child under the Age of 16 in Victoria - Australia

Obviously sexual offences are considered some of the most serious criminal charges in Australia – especially if the victim is a child. What legal consequences are there for indecent acts with a person under the age of 16? And how is this charge processed in Victorian Courts?

Collecting or Making Documents Likely to Facilitate Terrorist Acts in Victoria

How does Victoria treat crimes related to terrorism? If you’ve been charged with collecting or making documents likely to facilitate terrorist acts, you need to know your rights when questioned. Learn how the charge is established and defended in Court.

Stand Your Ground Laws

  By HG.org
Self-defense is not a new idea or concept. It has been around for many years. The notion of protecting yourself against intruders is something most citizens take to heart. It is better to have some way of protecting yourself in your own home when intruders invade, and such instances allow a victim to fight back if necessary.

Failure to Answer Bail in Victoria, Australia

What legal consequences are there for failure to answer bail in Victoria? Know the law and the proper way of addressing legal issues arising from this bail offense. Read on to find out the elements and defenses for this charge.

Exceeding PCA in Victoria

Exceeding the Prescribed Concentration of Alcohol is one of the drinking driving charges in Victoria, Australia. When can you be found guilty? Learn about the legislation for this offense and how it is established and defended in Court. Know what to do when charged.

Differences Between a Misdemeanor and Aggravated DUI Charge in Arizona

The State of Arizona has some of the strictest DUI laws in the entire country. There are many differences between DUI charges, such as the differences between Misdemeanor and an Aggravated DUI charge in Arizona.

Destroying or Damaging Commonwealth Property in Victoria, Australia

Have you destroyed or damaged a Commonwealth property? In Victoria, the act is a serious criminal Commonwealth offense that may result in up to 10 years in prison. Know more about the law for this offense and the legal steps you should take when faced with this charge.

Corrupting Benefits Given To, or Received By, a Commonwealth Public Official in Victoria

What are the elements of the offence of the offense of giving benefits to a Commonwealth public official? Learn the Victorian criminal law for the offense of “Corrupting Benefits Given To, or Received By, a Commonwealth Public Official”.

Dishonestly Cause a Loss in Victoria

Have you caused a financial or property loss in Victoria? You could be charged with “Dishonestly Cause a Loss”. Find out the elements of this Commonwealth offense and what you should do in case you get charged.

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