Business and Industry Law Articles
Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Business and Industry.
By Tila Legal
Doing a business in Thailand is now profitable for most investors. It has a very stable economic condition which is favorable for many businesses. Aside from this, the strategic location of Thailand is another factor that makes business in Thailand advantageous. There are many things that are needed in applying business registration in Thailand. Before applying for business registration in Thailand you must choose the type of operation that you wanted for your company.
It may be safe to say that most people realize the need for an estate plan. It is also safe to say that the majority of people put off creating one until long after one should have been created. Although each person’s needs are unique to the individual, the general rule when it comes to estate planning is the early the better.
One thing to consider when contemplating the contingencies of reaching an advanced age, is the possibility of being unable to handle your day-to-day needs on your own. The likelihood of a stay in a nursing home or assisted living community may be the first thing that comes to mind. These options exist, but there are some pitfalls that go along with these types of facilities.
You might have heard that you can give some of your money to your heirs before you pass away without any tax consequences. While this is sometimes the case, if you do not speak to an estate planning attorney before you give your money away, you might be making a big mistake. A well-intentioned, but improperly given, gift can cause more problems and greater financial burdens than anyone wants deal with.
An important goal of many estate plans is to make sure that your heirs can quickly and easily get their inheritance and wrap up your affairs. In today's computer-based society, making sure that your heirs have access to your online accounts is an important, but often overlooked, part of this process. Your estate plan should include some way for someone to access your online accounts.
Once you've begun the estate planning process and start looking towards practical concerns such as funeral planning, you may want to consider some new options that are currently available. No longer are people only limited to a choice between a burial and cremation. Today there are several alternatives you can consider when trying to decide what you wish to do with your earthly remains.
Gabriele Giambrone, Managing Partner at Giambrone Law ILP, the Anglo-Italian law firm, comments on the failed venture of the British firm, British Gas and its decision to forego its business venture in Southern Italy. Setting up a business in a foreign country can be a daunting endeavor.
The Italian term “Avvocato” (from Latin “advocate”) is normally translated with similar equivalent terms in the English language, namely with the expressions “Italian lawyer” or “Italian solicitor” in England, Wales and Ireland or “Italian attorney” in the United States.
First, don't panic. It is often common to find a mistake or error in your estate plan, especially when you've created your plan yourself or used a website or self-help product. Second, the kind of changes you can make will depend upon the kind of mistake that was made and what you want to change. Let’s look at some common scenarios.
As more and more Americans reach retirement age every day, many often find that their new lives can lead to some regrets. If you have yet to reach retirement age and are creating your estate plan there are several issues associated with retirement you may want to consider as you make your planning choices.
If you have had children with multiple spouses during your lifetime, your estate planning can get complicated. You will want to make sure that all of your children are provided for in your estate after you pass away. A simple Will from a legal document service is not a good option. Instead, you should speak to an estate planning attorney about how to divide your estate.
Everyone should have an attorney draft a general durable power of attorney for them as part of their estate plan. If you do not have one, your loved ones may have to scramble to make sure that your interests are protected if you are incapacitated. This can cause needless delays and frustrations for you and your loved ones.
Planning for what will happen to your assets and property after you pass away is one of the most complicated and confusing legal decisions that most people ever have to make. The number of different estate plan options and documents can be overwhelming. Attorneys who specialize in estate planning can alleviate problems that you have in understanding all of the different options.
In 2011, there was a poll conducted by the Associated Press and LifeGoesStrong.com. The purpose of the probe was to get an idea about how prepared baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) are for retirement. The baby boomer generation is reaching retirement age and massive numbers of people are involved.
It would be logical to consider giving gifts to people that you would otherwise be leaving inheritances to while you are still alive in an effort to gain estate tax efficiency. However, the powers that be are well aware of this logic as well. Therefore, there is a gift tax in place that is unified with the estate tax.
Like a muscle, a good estate plan is one you regularly use and maintain. It's especially important to change or update a plan if you go through major life event, such as a divorce, the birth of a grandchild, or a substantial increase or decrease in wealth.
The typical layperson is usually going to equate estate planning with drawing up a last Will and in fact there are entities out there that will sell you a blank last Will document. They tell you that you just have to fill in the blanks and everything will be set in the event of your death.
Do I Need a Will – The short answer to that question is yes; everyone should have a will. Although all states have laws that dictate who the people are that are your beneficiaries if you don’t have a will, having one will let you, and not the court, determine who will inherit your assets.
There was a 60 Minutes segment that aired in '09 that was entitled "The Cost Of Dying," and this report was very relevant to anyone who is wondering why estate planning lawyers recommend advance health care directives like living wills and durable medical powers of attorney.
The Successor Trustee of a Revocable Living Trust is the lifeline between the affairs of a decedent’s estate and the beneficiaries. If beneficiaries have no idea what is happening with the estate settlement process, they may feel like they have no control and may begin to protest the actions of the Trustee. As Trustee, you must always keep the lines of communication open.
Do you know what to do if you suspect elder abuse? First you must understand what elder abuse is and how to spot it. - Types of Abuse - Elder abuse is the abuse of a retired aged individual in a nursing facility or in his or her own home. There are many types of elder abuse: financial, physical including sexual, verbal, and neglectful.
If you have a Last Will and Testament, Revocable Living Trust or an Irrevocable Trust, you have the option to include a No Contest Clause in your document. So what is a “No Contest” clause? It is a statement that says any beneficiary who challenges your estate document will be completely disinherited.
Federal estate taxes are taxes that will be owed upon your estate after you pass away. Your estate will owe taxes if your assets are worth more than a certain amount. The maximum estate tax rate is quite high, so finding ways to decrease your taxable estate is vital.
During this time of economic woes, more people are turning to their retirement accounts for extra funds. So, is this a safe option to help you get through a job loss or financial crisis? Before you withdraw your funds early you should consider the costs you may incur, if your situation may avoid some of those costs, and if there is an alternative to provide you with the same financial relief.
What is a breach of contract? What are the types of disputes that may arise? What should you do if you have found yourself in this situation? Get the information you need regarding business litigation and contract disputes. There are many reasons why a contract may be entered into and there are just as many reasons why a breach of contract may arise.
When you start a business, you should not only consider how your business will thrive; you should also think about what will happen to it when you are no longer available to run daily activities. You may have an unspoken plan to hand the business down to your children, but you must evaluate whether this will really work.
Trusts, both revocable and irrevocable, offer a variety of options that allow you to tailor your estate plan to your specific needs and desires. If you have an estate that extends beyond a basic Last Will and Testament, you should understand the differences between these two types of Trusts.
A fiduciary is someone who monitors assets for you, with your best interests in mind. This may be a financial institution, a property management company or a trustee. Fiduciaries are not only an important part of life; they are also essential during your disability and after your death. During the estate planning process, you must take care when choosing your attorney-in-fact, health care agent, successor trustee, or estate executor.
Since you do not know what age your children will be when you pass away, it is best to plan their inheritance as if they have not reached adulthood at that time. You can always update your plan after your children are grown. There are several ways to leave an inheritance for your minor children.
The standard image of a family as a mother and father with two children is becoming less frequent. In the current age, families include a variety of situations divorces, single parents, unmarried couples living together, same-sex parents, second marriages and beyond. So how do you ensure that your blended family receives the inheritance you wish to leave upon your death? A valid Last Will and Testament is one way to safeguard your final wishes.
Your pets are an important part of your family, so it is vital that you include them in your estate plan. Like naming a guardian for your children you can name a guardian for your pets. You should do so to avoid family disagreements if more than one person should want to care for your furry loved ones. A worst case scenario is if no family member is willing to step forward and take your pet into their home.
For many, the idea of creating an estate plan is something they’ll do “later.” As in when they’re older, when they have more “stuff” or whenever they have some time to actually sit down and do it. But putting off creating your estate plan isn’t a good idea, and I’ll tell you why.
The decision to seek long term care for a loved one is a difficult one to make. Perhaps you are afraid of hurting your family member’s feelings by suggesting they are no longer capable. Or maybe your family member isn’t ready to admit the need for help. Despite the difficulty of broaching this touchy subject, you must do so for the health and safety of your loved one. The good news is you don’t have to do it alone.
Most people like to believe that they will be able to retire years before they reach full retirement age. Although this is a nice thought, it’s not very realistic unless you commit to solid planning early on. One of the first things you should decide is at what age you would like to retire. The second thing you’ll need to know is how much financial security you expect to have.
If, like Sabina and me, you have a loved one who is disabled, then you know how important government assistance programs can be to their well-being. But to qualify for these programs, your dependent must have limited finances. So, any inheritance you leave him or her could potentially put their eligibility for government assistance at risk.
Because so many families have children from more than one marriage, estate planning for blended families has become a common challenge in the estate planning world. How, for example, do you ensure that your children from a previous marriage will benefit from your assets if you die first?
Estate planning is a complicated and on-going process. It can seem tiring because you need to frequently update your plan based on changes in your personal circumstances, as well as changes in the tax laws. Although there is no way out of the frequent reviewing of your estate plan, you can simplify the entire process by following a few do’s and don’ts.
Choosing an executor for your will or estate is necessary to make sure your wishes are carried out after your death. Not only should your executor be responsible, but they should also know how you think. Sometimes, we overlook certain parts of our estate, either because they seem insignificant to us or because they simply slipped our mind. Should this happen, your executor will be expected to provide a resolution.
Most people look forward to coming up with an estate plan about as much as they look forward to going in for a root canal. However, with the right help, having an effective estate plan in place does not have to be difficult, and it’s a necessary part of taking care of your family. Here are a few simple errors to avoid:
If you’re familiar with living trusts, then you know that one of the big benefits of a trust is the ability to avoid probate. This is possible because the trust holds title to your property and assets, with you in control as the Trustee. When you pass on, your Successor Trustee steps in and maintains control over the trust and the assets it holds but the title to those assets never actually changes hands.
Funding your living trust is an important part of estate planning, especially if your goal is to avoid probate. Here are some tips for how and with what to fund your living trust. A living trust offers a variety of benefits and is an essential component of any good estate plan. With it, you can minimize estate taxes, protect your property from creditors and lawsuits and even avoid the costly process of probate.
You can withdraw money from your IRA at any time, but there are sometimes penalties or income tax associated. The rules vary depending on whether you have a Roth or a traditional IRA and, as with a 401(k), the “magic” age is 59 ½.
Everyone gets older – that’s just a fact of life. And while we can’t avoid aging, we can take steps to ensure that our loved ones are properly cared for when they become elderly and can no longer take care of themselves. It’s a sad fact that abuse of the elderly in nursing homes and medical facilities is an ongoing concern. Not in every facility of course, but it does happen. And unfortunately, the victims frequently suffer in silence.
When it comes to financial matters we need several people we can trust to act in our best interest. These people include friends, relatives and professionals. In legal language, such people are called fiduciaries. A fiduciary can be a person or institution that you trust would act in your best interest when you need help. Fiduciaries can include attorneys, bankers, business advisers, mortgage brokers, real estate agents etc.
An advance medical directive can actually consist of two different legal documents, both designed to protect you medically in the event you can no longer speak on your own behalf. The first is commonly called a Healthcare Power of Attorney or Health Care Proxy and it allows you to specify who will make decisions on your behalf in case of a medical emergency.
A Living Will is a legal document that alerts your healthcare providers to your wishes and preferences regarding medical treatments and life-support measures. Living Wills are used when a person becomes incapacitated by illness, accident or old age and is unable to speak on their own behalf.
If a relative or friend asks you to serve as the executor of their estate – or, more likely, you are choosing an executor for your estate – make sure you know what is involved. In some cases serving as an executor could be quite involved and time-consuming, especially if the estate contains a number of assets and the estate plan is relatively complicated.
Entering into a business intertwines partners in many ways with more than just finances being invested. When a dispute arises, in some instances legal assistance is needed to resolve it. A partnership is comprised of two or more persons. When partners enter into a business together the road ahead can be a difficult one. There will be many factors that are decided upon that pertain to how they run their business.
Under the majority “American Rule,” parties are generally required to bear their own attorney’s fees in civil cases. For over 100 years, however, Texas has been in the minority that allows courts to award attorney’s fees to prevailing parties for certain claims, such as for breach of oral or written contracts.
Over the last few years Israel has become an attractive jurisdiction for tax planners, the following article will provide information on some of the tax benefits which new immigrants or returning residents can obtain.
After you die, your family will not be able to immediately receive your property until the probate process is completed. Depending on your estate and the nature of your case, this can take months and may even last several years if there are conflicts. If your family needs the property quickly, this lengthy process can cause a lot of stress.
As you embark on your estate planning journey, it's important to keep in mind that your career goals, estate planning desires and your dreams of retirement are all factors you need to carefully weigh.For many people who reached the retirement age and stop working, they often experience regrets that they are unable to correct.
If it's important for most people to have all of their estate planning documents in place before something catastrophic happens. It is even more important for members of the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community. This is because different states have different laws about GLBT life-partnerships. These laws can affect your end-of-life financial and medical directives as well as who will inherit your estate.
Estate planning typically requires a thorough understanding of the tax laws that will directly impact the choices you make for your plan. Unfortunately, in an election year, uncertainty surrounds the fate of many tax laws, making estate planning more difficult. That is not to say that you should be complacent this year -- on the contrary.
This article outlines the basics of Maryland consumer protection law. The reader will understand how to effectively advise the client at the initial consultation. The Maryland Consumer Protection Act (CPA) is codified at Md. Code, Com. Law § 13-101 et seq. The CPA is very broad, and covers virtually any form of fraud that a business might commit or attempt against a consumer.
This article details the basics of representing the homeowner facing a Maryland foreclosure. With the continued economic crisis, it is important for lawyers to know how to represent a homeowner in foreclosure. While much discussion has been devoted to deeds in lieu of foreclosure, short sales, and other ways to help a homeowner exit their home, not much discussion has been devoted to how to challenge a wrongful foreclosure. This article covers the basics.
General overview of Kazakhstan in World Mineral Industry. - Kazakhstan ranks second only to Russia among the countries of the CIS in its quantity of mineral production. It is endowed with large reserves of a wide range of metallic ores, industrial minerals, and fuels, and its metallurgical sector is a major producer of a large number of metals from domestic and imported raw materials.
In years past, family wealth was traditionally passed down from one generation to the next without question. It was rare for a family patriarch or matriarch to disinherit the children without a very good reason. Even the proverbial “black sheep” of the family typically received something when the time came. Passing on the family fortune was done out of tradition, family loyalty and pragmatism.
If you own a family business, you have likely spent your lifetime growing and nurturing the business. You have undoubtedly given considerable thought to the future of your business, including what will happen to it upon your death. If you are like most family business owners, your initial thought is that you wish to pass the business on to your family. But is this really a wise choice?
You are not required to utilize the same vehicle of asset transfer to facilitate the distribution of assets to each of your heirs. This is something to keep in mind, especially if you have someone on your inheritance list who you feel as though may need some guidance.
For many people in the later years of their lives, pets are their closest family and friends. Your children no longer live with you. Over the years friends have moved or passed away. However, your faithful pets are always therein your will, you leave assets to your other family members, and it only makes sense to make sure that your pets are also provided for by including a trust for them in your will.
As thousands of baby boomers reach retirement age every day, many of them are finding the idea of having a traditional funeral to be less than satisfying. Luckily, boomers—and everyone else—have a wider range of choices instead of the traditional coffin burial. Here is a brief list.
Share is a proof that shareholders have conducted a full deposit of capital in Limited Liability Companies (“Company”). Shares in Company are classified based on similar characteristics, it is called classification of shares. Article 53 paragraph (1) of Law Number 40 of 2007 on Limited Liability Companies (“Company Law”) states that the Articles of Association (“AOA”) specifies more than one class of shares.
By V&T Law Firm
Legal Representative is a basic company system under current China Corporate Law. That is, any new established company should appoint a natural person as the company’s legal representative, who may act on behalf of the company.
More than two years ago Thailand decided to concentrate several governmental services for foreign investors at one place in Bangkok. In the meantime, Thailand has gone through ups and downs. Therefore, it is justified to make a judgement in 2012 whether the formation of this one-shop-solution has been accepted and adopted by foreign investors.
Unless you are in a very rarefied financial position you are going to have to plan ahead intelligently to be able to enjoy a comfortable retirement. Just going through life day to day without any plan is probably going to leave you lacking as you start to get near the typical retirement age. Unfortunately, a lot of people find this out when it is too late to get on track.
As the owner of a Worcester family owned small business, you have likely devoted your lifetime to growing the business from the ground up. As a result, you certainly have a stake in the future of the business, including what will happen to it upon your death. You have probably considered passing down the business to your children, but is this a wise choice?
As a Leominster resident, you have probably given considerable thought and consideration to how you wish to structure your estate plan in order to transfer your estate assets to family members and loved ones upon your death.
Home ownership has long been the foundation of wealth building in the United States. If you are like most Americans, your home is your single most valuable possession. As a result, if you were to reduce the taxable value of your home you could go a long way toward mitigating your estate tax exposure.
San Jose estate planning attorneys invariably speak to many clients who feel as though the estate tax is fundamentally unfair. Their clients register multiple complaints, but the primary reason that they cite is the fact that the estate tax is an instance of double taxation.
In this article #5, I explain how you take back an employee’s stock when the bum quits or you fire him. In the previous articles #3 - Stock Option Plans and #4 - Restricted Stock Plans, I introduced stock option plans and restricted stock plans. Don’t forget article #2, Equity Plans – Stock Options and Restricted Stock. In that article I introduced ten basic concepts for all equity plans, including restricted stock plans.
In this article #4, I explain how you use restricted stock plans to reward and encourage employees. In the previous Article #3 - Stock Option Plans I introduced stock option plans. Restricted stock plans work best for a small, select number of employees. These people are high level management; they are not rank-and-file employees. Think of restricted stock plans as one-off deals for individual employees.
In this article #3, I explain how you use stock option plans to reward and encourage employees. In the prior article, Equity Plans – Stock Options and Restricted Stock I introduced ten basic concepts for all equity plans, whether stock option plans or restricted stock plans. You should understand the prior article before moving on to this article.
Today, I briefly outline the legal requirements that apply when a group medical practice pays compensation to its members. My prior newsletter explained compensation plans from a non-legal perspective. This newsletter talks about the law, specifically, medical practice compensation plans under California and federal referral laws (Stark and Anti-Kickback).
TEFRA stands for the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982; however, it has evolved into a much different use in the parlance of New Jersey tax lawyers. TEFRA is the common acronym used to describe the judicial, examination, and processing requirements that apply to most entities treated as partnerships for income tax purposes.
On 2 March 2012, MOFCOM published its conditional approval to the $4.5 billion acquisition of Viviti Technologies Ltd (a company directly holding Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. ,which holds Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Singapore Pte. Ltd.) (“Viviti”) by Western Digital Corporation (“Western Digital”).
Beginning the estate planning process usually requires you to set up a meeting with your estate planning lawyer so you can get down to the concrete steps involved. To make this meeting go easier, there are several items you can bring with you. Always talk to your lawyer or his or her personal assistant before you come to any meeting so you know what to expect and what you should bring.
Oral wills were traditionally used when a person was too sick or otherwise unable to write. Question 1: What is a nuncapative will? - Answer: A nuncapative will is simply a fancy way to say oral or verbal will. With an oral will, the testator—the person who makes the will—states his or her wishes verbally instead of writing them down.
When you sit down to evaluate your legacy, you may need to do some serious soul-searching. In the field of estate planning. you generally stick to the pragmatic financial realities, but when you are preparing to “meet your maker” as it were, a lot of things may enter your mind.
Over the course of your lifetime it is likely that you will have accumulated some considerable financial resources. Given the fact that it took you many decades to get to where you are arranging for the transfer of these assets after you pass away is not something that can be done by a layperson in the blink of an eye.
The high and rising costs associated with long-term care are something to take very seriously when you are making preparations for the latter portion of your life. If you combine the typical length of stay with the average cost of nursing home care you could be looking at an expense that exceeds a quarter of a million dollars. This is an amount that a lot of people would find difficult to pay without seeing a significant portion of their legacies going down the drain.
While everyone in Washington who is a competent adult can create his or her own last will, State law also allows some people to create an oral will in limited situations. These wills, known as nuncupative wills in the State statutes, can only be used in a very limited set of circumstances, and you should not rely on the oral will provisions to create your last will and testament.
In most states, to create a valid Will, you must sign your Will in front of two witnesses. Your witnesses must also sign your document in your presence. Typically, your witnesses should be impartial and have no monetary motivation for witnessing your Will. In many states, your local probate court will require the testimony of one or both of your witnesses when someone tries to probate your Will or admit it for filing.
No one wants their family members to fight in court over their assets after they pass away. Probate battles can be long, costly, and nasty. The damage to familial relationships is often never undone. The keys to avoiding a probate battle between your family members are proper estate planning and communication of your plans.
Estate planning often encompasses numerous different tools and strategies. While your Last Will and Testament may be the cornerstone of your estate plan, you will likely wish to use other tools as well such as a trust. Trusts can be beneficial for a number of reasons such as avoidance of probate or estate taxes or retaining some degree of control over the trust assets long after death.
The top 10 essential elements of a commercial lease... Most people are pretty familiar with the concept of leasing; most people experience leases when they rent an apartment or a car. Commercial leases are almost no different; they just involve space for a business. Commercial leases in Western North Carolina are frequently used to rent an office of warehouse.
The advantages of starting a company and being your own boss... You have a unique idea, you have a fresh product, you have a desirable service, why NOT start your own business? Entrepreneurship is an exciting venture, and can quite literally change a person’s life. There are so many great advantages to taking on such a project. To start a business you need motivation, talent and desire.
Starting a business is an exciting time, but there are important decisions to be made about the structure of your business. Here is a list of business entities and their differences. Once you decide to incorporate, one of the first things you will have to determine is the type of entity for your business structure.
Most businesspersons will enter numerous contracts over time. However, if a dispute arises over a contract, one or both parties may accuse the other of “breaching” the contract; therefore, making legal action a necessary tool. Whether your business is small or large, you are more than likely to enter into numerous business-related contracts as time passes.
Recently, McDole & Williams has received multiple requests to evaluate official-looking trademark registration notices received by clients. These official-looking notices claim to be from governmental trademark offices, alleging that the client must pay fees in order to maintain his/her trademark and rights.
Background - Background or purpose of the issuance of Government Regulation Number 43 of 2011 on Procedures for Filing and Use of Limited Liability Company Name (“GR No. 43/2011”) is to implement the provisions of Article 9 paragraph (4) and Article 16 paragraph (4) of Law Number 40 of 2007 on Limited Liability Company (“Company Law”).
There are two basic reasons why estate planning is so important. First, estate planning allows you to decide what will happen to your assets upon your death. Second, by planning ahead, you can substantially decrease the tax consequences of transferring your estate assets to family members or loved ones. In the absence of planning, your estate assets may be subject to either estate or gift taxes, both of which can significantly drain estate assets.
You have choices when planning your estate. You are not required to utilize a last will to direct the distribution of your assets after your death. Instruments such as revocable living trusts are viable options and they are not exclusively for the wealthy.
The Russian Legislation Overview includes a brief overview of the major legal acts that came into force in January 2012. Federal Law N 353-FZ dated December 12, 2010 entitled "On amendments to the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation”. Came into legal force on January 01.2012 (excluding certain provisions).
These days you see various entities offering blank generic legal forms. They would like you to believe that anyone can plan his or her own estate. All you have to do is purchase one of these forms and fill in the blanks. You then have an ironclad estate plan in place and you have no need for any further action.
Military service is demanding on many different levels and it is not something that everyone is going to be suited for. Without question there are a lot of sacrifices that go along with serving your country but at the same time there are some rewards to be had, especially if you serve for a significant period of time.
In that aviation has helped advance the globalization of our world, it is important to review our beginnings and look forward to where we see ourselves in the future. This article will concentrate on the origins, functions and licensing of modern air transportation systems throughout our world; in particular, where we started and the direction we are headed.
After much debate, the Washington Legislature finally passed the Washington State Death with Dignity Act in 2008. The law allows certain physicians to prescribe lethal doses of medication to terminally ill patients. Terminally ill patients, according to the Washington State Death with Dignity Act, are those with six months or less remaining to live, who reside in Washington, and who are at least 18 years old.
In this article you will find general information on Free Trade Zones regulation of Turkey that will help foreign investors to make transit trade through Turkey without involving to any domestic trade area.
When a married couple consists of two U.S. citizens, the estate planning rules treat them differently than if one spouse is a non-U.S. citizen or if both spouses are non-U.S. citizens. Although the differences may only affect the postponement of Federal estate taxes, the marital deduction set forth in the Internal Revenue Code may affect your estate plans.