Business and Industry Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Business and Industry.


Acquiring Recorded Conversations with a Business

  By HG.org
Many businesses record phone calls that come into the business as a matter of practice. This may be to keep a record for future use, for training purposes or to protect the business’ interests. However, if a customer wants a copy of the conversation, he or she may have difficulty acquiring it.

Cyprus: English Court Guidance on the Wording of a Freezing Order

Recently the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in the case of JSC BTA Bank v Ablyazov [2015] UKSC 64 made a landmark decision on the construction of freezing orders.

Corporate Governance in Egypt

The nineties of the twentieth century had a quick and violent developments which affected the structure of the global economy, the effects of the globalization of financial markets emerged, and financial markets collapsed in Southeast Asia and Latin America.

Setting up Joint Ventures in Azerbaijan

General legal matters relating to how to set up joint ventures in Azerbaijan.

Hiring Licensed Contractors

Most of us have never hired someone to do construction work of any sort, so when the need arises to hire a contractor to make repairs or improvements on our residential or commercial property, we don’t know where to start. Beware: these are dangerous waters!

Protecting Trade Secrets Using Employment Agreements

Most California business owners know that a provision in an employment contract which purports to prevent a former employee from competing with the employer’s business is unenforceable in California. Under California law, there is a strong and clear policy favoring the free and unfettered rights of workers to find work where they can, using all their skills and experience to command the best wages they can find.

Letter of Intent to Purchase a Business

So, what are the benefits of using a letter of intent when purchasing a business? This article explores that question and provides practical tips for both buyers and sellers in the context of a private sale.

How to Create an Enforceable Contract in Florida

Contracts govern many aspects of our personal and business lives, so it’s important to be sure they are legally enforceable. A contract governs the terms of a working relationship, and provides important protections for the parties involved. A good one can help you avoid litigation, or prevail in a lawsuit if a dispute winds up in court.

Non-Compete Agreements in California

  By HG.org
A non-compete agreement or covenant not to compete is a legal agreement in which one person, usually an employee, agrees not to compete against the business for a certain amount of time. California has very specific rules regarding such agreements.

Provisions to Include in a Contract

  By HG.org
When a contract is clearly worded and contains all of the relevant information, it is less likely to be misunderstood by the parties. Additionally, if one of the parties has to have the contract enforced by the court, a clear contract can dramatically help.

Succession Planning for Owners of a Family Business

If you own a small business, there is probably at least some part of you hoping to pass the reins on to one or more of your children. After all, spending so much time and effort on something that’s not going to last doesn’t sit well with most entrepreneurs.

Cross-border Reorganization of Companies in the European Union

There are number of specific features in the reorganization of companies established in EU members states. What are they?

Post-contractual Non-competition Clause for Commercial Agent Ineffective in Germany

In its ruling of December 3, 2015, the Bundesgerichtshof (Federal Court of Justice) invalidated a post-contractual non-competition clause in a commercial agency agreement (Az.: VII ZR 100/15).

Romania and the New Insurance Directive

After much debate and discussion the European Parliament and the Council have issued the recast Directive on Insurance Distribution.

BAG on the Effectiveness of a Post-Contractual Restraint on Competition

According to a judgment of the Bundesarbeitsgericht (German Federal Labour Court), even a mere interest-free loan for a competing company has the potential to violate a post-contractual restraint on competition (Az.: 10 AZR 260/14).

Apple vs. The FBI

Last month a federal magistrate judge in California ordered Apple to bypass the security protocols on an iPhone 5 that belonged to one of the San Bernardino shooters. This public order ushered in what has become a national spectacle, pitting the FBI and many Americans against Apple and Privacy proponents.

China Issues a Draft of its New Law Against Unfair Competition and Passing Off

  By MMLC Group
In 2014, the National People’s Congress authorised the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) to issue a draft revision of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law of the People’s Republic of China, which was first enacted in 1993. We look at some of the major changes proposed in the draft.

The Registration Of Individuals & Companies In Free Zones in Jordan

Free zones in Jordan offer investors exemptions from income and social services taxes, custom duties and import duties.

The Ownership & Participation of Non-Jordanian in the Jordanian Companies

Maritime transport and auxiliary services, including: Passenger and freight transportation excluding transportation over ships owned by non- Jordanians. Maritime survey and inspection. Maritime freight forwarding. Shipping agents’ services. Ships chandlers, Ships brokers.

The Ownership & Participation Of Non-Jordanian In The Jordanian Companies

According to the Regulation of Regulating Non-Jordanian Investments, Foreign investors are allowed full ownership in many sectors, including manufacturing, hospitals, hotels, and Agriculture.

The Non-Operating Foreign Companies in Jordan

According to Jordanian Corporate law, the non-operating Foreign Company in Jordan is a Company or an entity which has its regional or representative office in Jordan for operations that it conducts outside the Kingdom for the purpose of using such a regional or representative office for managing its operations and coordinating them with its headquarters, and it is prohibited from carrying out any business or commercial activity inside the Kingdom.

The Foreign Companies Operating in Jordan

The Foreign Companies Operating in Jordan

The Consular and Diplomatic Protection: The State’s Law and the Supranational Legal Orders

The consular and diplomatic protection's public law studied the interaction between the State’s law and the supranational legal orders

Kazakhstan's Accession to the WTO: What Has Changed in Trademark Use?

The accession of to the WTO led to the changes in Kazakhstan legislation. In this review, we would like to specifically refer to the matters of Trademark use.

Reinsurance & Reinsurance Investments by International Companies in Turkey

The laws and regulations governing the insurance and reinsurance practices in Turkey are quite complex, This brief aims to inform readers on general reinsurance regulations in Turkey and tries to shed light to the reinsurance business by international insurance providers in Turkey.

How To Get Paid: Pennsylvania’s Law Regarding Contractor Payment

A Review of Pennsylvania Law Regarding Contractor Payment

Difference Between an LLC and an LLP

The business structure you choose when you start a new business should first and foremost meet your business needs. If you are starting the business with other people, you may be wondering about the differences between a limited liability company (LLC) and a limited liability partnership (LLP).

How Can Your Lawyer Help Protect You in Romania

The use of lawyers in Romania has in the past has often been limited to using them for legal advisory and court work. Most clients should consider using their lawyers in other fields in Romania. They should be used not only for legal matters but for commercial matters which have a legal angle.

LAG Düsseldorf Affirms Dismissal Without Notice for Outburst During Carnival Festivities in Germany

Even during carnival time there are limits. According to a ruling of the LAG Düsseldorf (Regional Labour Court of Düsseldorf), anyone misbehaving too much during office festivities for carnival risks being fired (13 Sa 957/15).

Contracts of Inheritance Have a Strong Binding Effect in Germany

Anyone who wishes to arrange their estate according to a contract of inheritance should note that a contract of inheritance can have a strong binding effect, as demonstrated by a ruling of the OLG München (Higher Regional Court of Munich) (31 Wx 280/14).

Anticipated Inheritance and Gifts

It is possible for assets to be transferred to the prospective heirs during the lifetime of the testator. This is then referred to as an anticipated inheritance, which frequently occurs by way of gifts.

Legal Aspects of Marketing of Organic Products in Ukraine

The Ukrainian land is the most fertile in the European Union, the development of agro-industries are a significant and also market of organic agricultural products has been growing.

Cyprus: Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations - Rome I Regulation

Since 17 December 2009, the EU Regulation (EC) No 893/2009 on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (“Rome I Regulation”) is directly applicable in the Republic of Cyprus, and all other Members states of EU, except from Denmark.

Open-Ended Real Estate Funds in Liquidation: Damages Still Possible

Investors in open-ended real estate funds which have since gone into liquidation can still assert claims for damages. Their prospects have improved, thanks to the jurisprudence of the Bundesgerichtshof (German Federal Court of Justice).

Establishing a Company: Choosing the Right Corporate Form in Europe

Company founders have to come to a decision regarding the corporate form of their new business. The favourite is often the Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (limited liability company) – GmbH.

Kazakhstan Business Code: What’s New?

On 30 October 2015, the president of the Republic of Kazakhstan (“RK”) signed the Business Code (“BC”). BC is a consolidated code that embodies basic legal acts on regulations of enterprise. The adoption of BC renders some regulatory legal acts invalid.

Change in Smoking Law in Romania

In the 1930’s smoking was seen as the “in” thing to do. Social and economic pressure was such that no-one knew or cared about the consequences of smoking. This was also true in the 1950’s and early 1960’s. Romania allowed this until recently.

How Foreign Nationals Can Start a U.S. Business

Foreign nationals who wish to start a U.S. business do not need to have U.S. citizenship or residency to do so. However, there is a visa requirement as well as some statutory restrictions that foreign nationals who wish to operate as entrepreneurs in the U.S. need to be aware of.

Storage, Bailment, Warehouse Lien Foreclosure and Logistics Issues Under the UCC

The heart of the bailment relationship which results when a logistics customer transfers property to a warehouse for storage is the warehouse receipt. It is much more than a receipt. It is a document of title and provides essential terms. An attorney retained to provide advice relating to damages or foreclosure of a warehouse lien needs to be experienced with the UCC and also with third party logistics contracts which are often incorporated into the warehouse receipt.

Business Succession: Reform of Inheritance Tax Entails Greater Burden in Germany

The reform of inheritance tax could entail a greater burden on company heirs in the context of business succession than was hitherto thought to be the case. The government’s plans are coming under fire.

What Attorneys Need to Know To Draft Third Party Logistics (TPL) Contracts

Third party logistics (TPL and 3PL) contracts are some of the most complicated agreements an attorney can draft. For the manufacturer entering into an agreement with a third party logistics provider, or a new entity providing logistics services, well-drafted and negotiated third party logistics contracts are essential to protect profits and exclude liability for damages or unforeseen additional costs.

What Tax Will You Pay On Company Incorporation in Romania

One of the current most challenging issues on the incorporation of a company in Romania is the immediate tax impact on the company and its profitability. The majority of Romanian companies were incorporated with the minimum capital of two hundred (200) RON. This means a minimum capital of approximately forty five (45) Euros. This is still the case.

How to Organize an Oregon Limited Liability Company

Portland is a great city for startups, and the limited liability company (“LLC”) is often an equally excellent choice for organizing a new business entity. The advantages of LLCs are many, including the fact that while owners enjoy the benefit of personal limited liability like a corporation, an LLC is taxed like a partnership or sole proprietorship. But after you’ve chosen the LLC form, what steps are required to set up your company to do business as an Oregon entity?

Kuwait Agents lose ‘Exclusive Agent’ Status

Bringing in a paradigm shift to the Commercial Agency laws prevailing in Kuwait, the state’s National Assembly had passed significant amendments in February 09, 2016. The new amendment laws precisely struck down the concept of ‘exclusivity’. The principal-companies henceforth can appoint more than one agents or dealers of commodities in Kuwait once the new laws hit the official gazette.

BGH: Fruit Juice can be Promoted with Description “Lernstark” in Germany

In its judgment of December 10, the BGH ruled that statements such as “lernstark” (fast learner) and “Mit Eisen zur Unterstützung der Konzentrationsfähigkeit” (with iron to promote concentration) are permissible on foodstuffs (I ZR 222/13).

Avoiding Ownership Disputes

Many clients contact business litigation attorneys when it is too late to avoid a dispute. When that happens, the costs and stress of litigation can mount. Here are some relatively simple and cost-effective measures to help you avoid an ownership dispute down the road.

Fidentum GmbH Insolvent – BaFin Orders Liquidation of Lombardium Hamburg GmbH & Co. KG

Preliminary insolvency proceedings were opened against Fidentum GmbH before the Amtsgericht Hamburg (Hamburg Local Court) on December 4 (Az. 67c IN 473/15). The issuing house offered its clients the LombardClassic 3 Fund.

The Limited Liability Company in Albania and Branch in Albania

Register an LLC in Albania and register a Foreign Company Branch in Albania

BGH on Contingent Liability of GmbH Shareholders in Germany

If a partner of a GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung) [limited liability company] sells his ownership interest, he thus becomes excluded from contingent liability and is not liable for the other partners’ outstanding capital contributions.

IT Crimes in Saudi Arabia

Anti-Cyber Crime Law of Saudi Arabia is ny act committed related to computer or the internet violating stipulations of this law.

A Breakthrough in the Retail Sector in Saudi Arabia – 100% Ownership to Foreign Investors

Now a Foreign Investor can have 100 % ownership in retail sectors. SAGIA plans to pump in more high-level investors into the kingdom and introduce new technology and maintain economic growth that may become increasingly important if oil prices stay low and to make Saudi Arabia an international center for the distribution, sale and re-export of products.

Cyprus: Warrant of Search Issued against a Lawyer Cancelled Due to Violation of Legal Professional Priviledge

In the recent case, Antonakis Andreou & Co LLC, a Supreme Court Judge, in Certiorari proceedings, cancelled a warrant issued against a lawyer and his law firm, for the search of the lawyer’s premises, on the ground that the law firm withheld certain important documents, relating to the alleged commission of serious crimes, by a client of the law firm.

BGH Strengthens Commercial Agents’ Entitlement to Payment of Voluntary Contributions in Germany

The Bundesgerichtshof (German Federal Court of Justice) has strengthened the rights of commercial agents after their agency agreements have been terminated with its ruling of November 5, 2015 (Az.: VII ZR 59/14).

Breach of Fiduciary Duty

Introduction: When People You Have a Right to Trust Cheat You Ours is a world of contractual relationships, written and oral. We hire people to help us, and we hire people to act on our behalf. We enter into business associations, like becoming partners and shareholders of partnerships and corporations.

Why a Mandate Contract in Romania?

Since 1989, Romania has passed from the command economy of socialism to commerce based on the free market and capitalism.

VG Koblenz: Managing Director Liable for Tax Debts in Germany

The managing directors of a German Unternehmergesellschaft (entrepreneurial company), UG for short, are liable for the company’s trade tax debts. That was the decision of the Verwaltungsgericht Koblenz (Administrative Court of Koblenz) (Az.: 5 K 526/15.KO).

Supervisory Board in Polish Corporate Law

The Polish Corporate Law provisions which define duties and powers of Supervisory Board Members of Polish Companies, and the rules of appointing, dismissing and remunerating Supervisory Board Members of Joint Stock Companies in Poland.

Issues to Consider When Offered Stock Options

It is commonplace for start-ups and emerging companies to offer stock option to employees, consultants and service providers in conjunction with, or often in lieu of, cash compensation. The potential recipient of stock options should be aware of certain important considerations before simply accepting stock options in a start-up or emerging companies.

Cayman Islands Limited Liability Companies Bill

It is proposed that a new law (the “Law”) be enacted, to permit the formation of a new type of vehicle in the Cayman Islands – a Cayman Islands limited liability company (an "LLC").

How to Enforce an EU Judgement within the European Union

Council Regulation No. 44/2001 contains the rules applicable to enforce a civil or commercial judgement in another European member state. However, Spain, with no bilateral agreements, follows the Hague Convention.

Execution of Decisions of Non-Resident Individuals and Legal Entities in the Ukraine

What can non-residents (individuals and legal entities), who have received judgments in their jurisdictions, and such decisions should be enforced in the territory of Ukraine, do?

Six Key Matters About the Hong Kong Competition Ordinance

Six key matters about the Hong Kong Competition Ordinance.

Regulating Foreign NGOs in China – Draft Foreign NGO Law

Very fast growing number of foreign non-governmental organizations (“NGO”) operate in China. However, the laws regulating them are few, vague and inadequate. Currently, only the Regulation for the Administration of Foundations applies for NGOs to establish representative offices in China. As such, some of the existing foreign NGOs in China operate as business enterprises whilst others may even remain unregistered and thus unregulated.

How to Remove a Shareholder from a Business

  By HG.org
When a corporation wishes to remove a shareholder from a business, there are several particular steps that they must follow. These steps are determined by the nature of the relationship between the business and the shareholder and the corporate documents.

LG Düsseldorf Strengthens the Rights of Commercial Agents Regarding Compensation Claims in Germany

The Landgericht Düsseldorf (Regional Court of Düsseldorf) has strengthened the rights of commercial agents with a view to their entitlement to seek compensation (partial judgment of August 28, 2015, Az.: 33 O 119/12).

Benefits of a Financial Power of Attorney

Many of our estate planning clients have heard about a Financial Power of Attorney but are not clear as to why they should have one or how they might benefit from having this legal document. At the outset, it is important to consider, “Who takes care of my financial interests if I become incapacitated and unable to handle my own financial affairs?”

Bulk Sales Law for California Asset Sales

While many states have repealed their bulk sales laws, California’s Bulk Sales Law remains in full force and effect. The primary stated purpose of this law is to protect buyers and creditors following the purchase of more than half of a business’s assets. If a buyer makes a bulk sale purchase but does not adhere to the requirements set out in the bulk sales law, the buyer will typically remain liable to the seller’s creditors.

California’s Anti-SLAPP Laws Increase Risk when Suing Based on Consumer Complaints

California anti-SLAPP laws are are designed to protect the public right to petition and free speech in matters of public interest and concern, including in connection with lawsuits, legislation, in public forums and discussions, and generally in matters of public interest. Where anti-SLAPP law applies, however, it can spell disaster for a plaintiff who is found to have filed a contravening lawsuit as illustrated by the example below.

Senegal Business Environment: From a Local and a Regional Perspective

Senegal belongs to two major regional entities: ECOWAS and WAEMU. ECOWAS is an association of 16 West African entities aiming at having one economic and monetary zone with a uniform legislation on the main sectors regarding economy, trade, natural resources, diplomacy, to mention a few. WAEMU is an entity of eight West African countries, having the same currency, the same reserve bank and the same business law.

Doing Business in Cote d’Ivoire: New Steps for a More Attractive Business Climate

On regional level, Cote d’Ivoire belongs to three major regional entities: The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), The West-African economic and monetary Union (WAEMU). These countries share the same currency, the same central bank (BCEAO), and the same business law. The Organisation for the Harmonisation of Business Law in Africa (OHADA)

Georgia's Registration Process for Out-of-State Contractors

It is common for a contractor in one state to participate on a project in another state. Unfortunately, each state has its own rules and regulations for letting out-of-state contractors work within its borders. For those contractors and subcontractors who are bidding on or working on Georgia projects, there are registration requirements with the Georgia Department of Revenue. This article provides useful information to construction professionals seeking working in Georgia.

Settle Business Succession Early On in Germany

The issue of business succession preys on the minds of the heads of many family-run businesses. Plans for succession ought to be made at an early stage. It can also be helpful to prepare a will.

Derivative Claims in the Cayman Islands

  By Loeb Smith
What is a derivative action? A derivative action is one commenced by one or more minority shareholders on behalf of a company of which they are member in respect of loss or damage which that company has suffered. Such a claim can only be brought in certain circumstances and amounts to an exception to the rule that a company, as a separate legal person, should sue and be sued in its own name (often referred to as the rule in Foss v Harbottle (1843), 2 Hare 461; 67 E.R 189).

Amendments on the Double Tax Treaty between the Republic of Cyprus and Ukraine

Representatives of the Cyprus and the Ukrainian governments have signed, in Kiev, on Friday, 11 December 2015, a protocol amending their Double Tax Avoidance Treaty.

Guidance for Cyprus Courts on the Duties Owned by Directors of a Company to the Shareholders

In a recent decision by the High Court of the United Kingdom, the court clarified the following:

Sharing Photographs: Excessive Copyright Demands

Technological advancements in social media sites and website development tools have allowed users to easily share and discuss articles and photographs across the globe. In parallel with these technological developments, various organizations have sprung up that claim to represent owners of these shared photographs. These organizations send a letter and make an excessive copyright demand. Users must understand their rights before deciding whether to succumb to such excessive demands.

Escrow Agreement Implementation in the Legal System of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The escrow agreement is used worldwide as a security measure in M&A transactions. In this article, we will try to highlight the foreign practice of the regulation of escrow agreements, analyse the existing practice and the recent legislative initiatives in Kazakhstan, and make recommendations for improving Kazakhstan laws on escrow matters.

New Amendments to Company Law of Saudi Arabia

The Ministry of Commerce and Industrial (MOCI) announced on 9 November 2015 about New Company Law(NCL), which may be implemented after 150 days from its publication in the Saudi Official Gazette (Um Al Qura). The announcement came after the Kingdom considering the various factors and issues faced by both domestic and Foreign Companies

Company Shares and Forgotten Agreements in the Bahamas

The sale of company shares where an agreement in relation to those shares had been forgotten, was found to be valid in an important ruling in the UK’s Court of Appeal.

Pros and Cons of Forming an LLC for Real Estate Investments

Forming a limited liability company (LLC) for real estate investments has been a common practice in Florida for more than 30 years because an LLC can help investors protect their personal assets from any liabilities associated with their real estate investments.

M&A Transactions on the Rise in Germany

M&A transactions are on the rise in Germany. According to a report published by Wirtschaftswoche, mergers and acquisitions have gone up by 5.9 per cent in the first three quarters of 2015.

Access to Genetic Resources and Sustainable Utilization in Colombia

When we think about the economic development of Colombia we have to consider the importance of the biological diversity that this country has and the need to manage it in a sustainable and balanced way in the light of the needs of today's world.

Termination of Commercial Contracts in the UK

Do you have an Exit Strategy in the event that a Commercial Contract does not work out for You or Your Business?

Established National Business Center in Albania

Starting from December 29th, 2015 functions of National Registration Center and National Licensing Center in Albania shall be unified in one single entity.

Legal Route to Gambling- India Perspective

"There are many harsh lessons to be learned from the gambling experience, but the harshest one of all is the difference between having Fun and being Smart." -Hunter S. Thompson

What to Expect from the Seller when Making an Online Purchase in the EU

As 2015 comes to a close, the e-commerce industry is expected to make €185.39 billion this year. In the EU, the average online shopper spends €970 yearly, and these numbers continue to grow annually. EU Directive 2011/83/EU details the rights of EU consumers when shopping online and was transposed into Maltese law through Legal Notice 439 of 2013.

UK Commercial Contracts: When Will Penalty Clauses Be Enforceable?

Businesses with commercial contracts imposing pre-determined financial or other penalties in the event of a breach may find they are unenforceable, following landmark rulings in two similar cases.

The Franchise Contract under the Civil and Commercial Code in Argentina

On August 1, 2015, the Civil and Commercial Code (hereinafter “CCC”) entered into force, introducing specific legal regulation on the franchise contract from Sections 1512 to 1524.

Effective Compliance Management Systems in Germany

The VW scandal involving manipulated emissions test data highlights the importance of effective compliance management systems. This is true for large corporations as well as small and medium-sized businesses.

De-Registration of a Cayman Islands Exempted Company and Transfer by Way of Continuation

  By Loeb Smith
Under the Companies Law (as Revised) (the "Companies Law") of the Cayman Islands, the Registrar of Companies (the "Registrar") will de-register a Cayman Islands exempted company incorporated and registered with limited liability and a share capital (the "Applicant") which proposes to be registered by way of continuation as a body corporate limited by shares under the laws of any jurisdiction outside the Cayman Islands (the "Relevant Jurisdiction") if:

Legal Actions against Website Posting Fake Reviews

  By HG.org
Many consumers report looking over reviews before purchasing a product or service. This has been made easier by the Internet and the easy ability for consumers to include reviews. However, it has also given a forum for consumers to post negative reviews about businesses and individuals that portrays them in a negative light. In some instances, legal action can be taken against posters or websites if the conduct amounts to defamation.

Office Sharing Agreements

You use an Office Sharing Agreement for separate practices that share the same suite of offices. Here is an outline of the basic terms of an Office Sharing Agreement.

Area Development and Representative Agreements; Sub-Franchisors and Master Franchisees

Franchise law for area development, area representatives, sub-franchisors and master franchisees.

Calendar Your Business and Corporate Deadlines

Various deadlines and dates that you must calendar, or suffer the consequences.

Transferring Shares in Corporate Companies in the UK

Transferring Shares in a Corporate Company is a key benefit of being a shareholder and owner of a Company. It is important to ensure that you are aware of the different circumstances under which you can transfer shares and ensure that relevant provisions are included in the company's constitutional documentation.

4 Simple and Reliable Ways to Check a Legal Entity – Resident of Ukraine

At the stage of making decisions whether it is worth to start business negotiations with a potential business partner, any information is valuable to help to determine in advance or formulate a thought. This article will provide examples of fast, reliable and at the same time, completely free of charge possibilities to find information about the legal entity – resident of Ukraine. You just should know a minimum of Ukrainian or Russian and your keyboard layout should support Cyrillic characters.

Types of Companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Company Law of the Federation of B&H (Official Gazette of FBiH No. 23/99, 45/00, 2/02, 29/03, 68/05, 91/07, 84/08, 7/09, 63/10 and 75/13) and the Company Law of Republic of Srpska (Official Gazette of RS No. 127/08, 58/09,100/11 and 67/13) regulate the establishment, operation and termination of businesses in BiH.

Forming a Medical Corporation in California

California has specific laws that govern the formation of a medical practice or health care facility in California. The creation of the business entity requires a unique blend of corporate law experience and health care law expertise.

Disputes Between a California General Contractor and a Subcontractor

The nature of the relationship between a California general contractor and a subcontractor is legally quite complex. The general contractor awards a sub-contract based upon a bid, or extensive experience with a particular subcontractor. It is not unusual for work to begin on a jobsite under a subcontract prior to any physical agreement being drafted or signed.

What Happens When a Partner or Co-Owner is Stealing From the Company?

What should you do if you suspect that one of your partners or a co-owner is stealing money from the company? What proof are you required to obtain, and what course of action must you take to protect your interests? The first and most important thing to do is clear your mind and do your best to remove emotion from the equation for now. A mind filled with anger is distracted and cannot think clearly.


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