Business and Industry Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Business and Industry.




Florida Couples Who Co-Own a Business May Benefit from Divorce Mediation

  March 3, 2015     By Daniel M. Copeland, Attorney at Law, P.A.
Many Florida couples are co-owners of a family business. As long as their marriage continues on good terms, the business usually runs without a hitch.

What is Contractual 'Consideration'?

  March 3, 2015     By Aaronson Law Firm
Legal parlance in our system is not to be confused with standard English. Often, words commonly used in standard English have a very different meaning in the legal context. For example, take the word 'consideration.' You know that this word typically refers to civility or empathy in socializing. Not so in legalese.

Discovery and Depositions in Germany

  February 27, 2015     By Planet Depos
Taking depositions in Germany can be easy with the proper planning and scheduling.

Divorce Can Derail A California Family Business

  February 26, 2015     By The Law Office of Heather Cullen, APC
How a dissolution matter can effect a functioning family business in California.

What Can I do if I Am Not Satisfied with an Order of Goods I Received?

  February 26, 2015     By HG.org
Not all businesses have policies in place that will allow you to have a full refund if you are not satisfied with goods. However, there may be a variety of remedies available to you if you are not satisfied with an order of goods that you received.

Recent Canadian Court Decisions Affecting Commercial Arbitration

More business cases are going to arbitration than ever before. Therefore, courts have to confront more procedural and legal issues arising out of arbitration cases. Judges often have to remind litigants of the deference given to arbitrators, when the parties have agreed on arbitration as their dispute resolution method. In this presentation, Igor Ellyn reviews nine of the latest cases and explains how they affect the law and practice of arbitration in Ontario and Canada.

Defenses to the Enforcement of Timeshare Contracts

Understand your timeshare contract obligations, the hidden language, and the defenses that may get you out of your agreement.

What Is a Product Defect?

  By HG.org
There are numerous ways in which a product may be considered defective. Once an item enters the stream of commerce and injures someone, the victim may be able to pursue a products liability claim against the party found to be responsible.

The Legal Truth of E-contracts in Egypt

No doubt that the technological evolution and its wide range usage in various fields became a part of our daily lives, accompanied by this evolution,it’s usage between people in civil and commercial transactions grew significantly.,

What is Net Neutrality and Why Should You Care?

  By HG.org
Much has been made over the last few years about net neutrality. Still, most people are confused by what this term refers to and why it matters. This confusion is understandable given the misleading nature of the name, and the way it is often misapplied in the media. But, net neutrality is actually a very important concept to understand and one that could directly impact the way the Internet works and how we all use it.

How to Bring a New Partner into a Group Medical Practice

When bringing a new partner into your group medical practice, first think whether the new partner will fit in with the culture. Culture includes things like required coverage hours, the handling of employees, and the division of money. As always, let’s talk about the money.

How to Negotiate a Managed Care Contract

Managed care contracts are not take-it-or-leave-it deals. A physician practice can and should negotiate its managed care contracts. Read this article to learn how to do it. I focus on three major topics: compensation, exit, and unilateral actions by the payor.

Operating Agreements for California Surgery Centers

In this article, I explain the basic negotiation points in an Operating Agreement for a California ambulatory surgery center (ASC). I focus mainly on control and on exit (buy-sell).

Subject to Contract? Emailed Negotiations

Businesses should be aware of the risks of informal communications such as emails and conversations whilst negotiating commercial agreements.

Georgia's Right to Repair Act

Georgia's Right to Repair Act allocates specifics obligations, duties and rights to homeowners and home builders. And this article helps explain the process in an effort to avoid construction litigation.

Supreme Court of Cyprus Reaffirmed the Principle that Directors do not Owe Fiduciaries Duties to Shareholders

In Wail Abuljebain v. Unetec-United Engineering and Technical Consultants et al, Civil Appeal 182/2009, 05 February 2015, the Supreme Court of Cyprus delivered a salutary reminder that Directors’ fiduciary duties are owed to the Company itself, as a whole, and not to its shareholders, parent or affiliate Company.

Assignment of Share at Limited Company Pursuant to Turkish Commercial Code

There have been detailed knowledge on assignment of registered shares transactions at Article 593 and following articles of Turkish Commercial Code.

Setting Up a Business in Italy

The first step a company based outside Italy has to take before starting a business in Italy is chosing the most appropriate form of incorporation. This article is a short introduction to the options available.

What Documents are Needed for the Employment Contract of a Foreigner in the Ukraine?

Due to current political changes, various processes of documentation preparation for foreigners in Ukraine seem to be easier than even a year ago. Due to this fact, one of such spread branches like creation and processing the employment agreements and contracts can generate much less issues, questions and complications in comparison to many other cases

Turkey’s Civil Offset/Industrial Participation Enthusiasm

Most probably many people would not know more about where offset/industrial participation discussions were moving toward before the article titled “The defence industry: Guns and Sugar” was published on The Economist’s on 25 May 2013.

Business Establishment in Ukraine

Nowadays many foreigners plan to establish their own business in other country. It can be very profitable because every country has some advantages in comparison with other countries. For example, agro-industrial and agricultural spheres in Ukraine are developed on a very high level and the profit of having business in such spheres in Ukraine can be much higher than in other countries.

Draft Law on Shopping Malls in Turkey

Turkey has been becoming a “shopping mall heaven” ever since 1988 which is the time that the first shopping mall was built in Turkey.

Overview of the Egypt Mineral Resources Law No. 198

Egypt has enormous mineral wealth, but it does not yet exploit it properly. This is because the participation rate of the wealth in the gross national product, according to the Ministry of Planning for the fiscal year 2013/2014 is estimated 4% only. This production percentage is nothing in relation to the wealth that Egypt possesses.

How Does the Foreigner Validate Documents Issued in Ukraine?

The largest part of all documents confirming one or another status of the foreign person by some country will require a further legalization according to current regulations of any other country, where a foreign national plans to work and/or reside in the future.

Your Business in Ukraine: New Perspectives for the Private Sector

It's not a secret that Ukraine is still one of the market dark horses in context of entrepreneurship. Not many of large companies venture to base their businesses here despite of the wide range of potentially profitable areas for investment. The events of winter and spring of 2014 scared even those who worked steadily for our economy for years. However, now due to the current European course, there are good prospects for the climate improvement in this area

New Corporate Governance Law in Spain

On December 4th the Official Gazette published Law 1/2014 amending the Capital Companies Act to implement corporate governance modifications. This reform is based on the Report of the Committee of Experts submitted to the Council of Ministers on the 23rd of May 2014.

Exceptions to No Damages For Delay Clause

The majority of construction contracts include a provisions referred to as the "No Damages For Delay" clause; a well-drafted clause can limit a party's exposure to damages in the event of a delay on the project's schedule. Despite these provisions, there are exceptions to their enforceability.

Why it is Still Good to do Business in Ukraine Through Cyprus

In 2014, the share of Cyprus companies exceeded 30% of the total foreign direct investment in Ukraine. Following the recently imposed duty to disclose beneficial owners, the proposed denunciation of double tax treaty with Cyprus initiated by the Ukrainian government, and the improved Ukrainian transfer pricing rules, the question is whether it is still good to do business in Ukraine through Cyprus.

Common Contract Clauses

This article intends to highlight and decipher some of the most common clauses that appear in a typical business contract. These basic provisions, called boilerplates, are included in agreements to protect the contracting parties. They typically follow a standard format and they are worded carefully in order to hold up in a court of law. Even though most contracts include these boilerplates, many people do not read nor understand what they are signing.

Less Talk, Less Liability

Don’t say it if you don’t have to, and never in writing.

Who Owns the Patient’s Medical Records in CA?

Who gets the patient medical records after a physician leaves a group medical practice? Here's a proposed structure that is fair and resolves the problem up-front for all sides.

Independent Bank Guarantee in Italy

Business clients dealing with international trade frequently asked us whether an independent bank guarantee issued under the URDG 758 (the ICC Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees 2010) is valid, binding and enforceable under the Italian law or not and, if not, whether and how it can be amended in order to ensure it is valid, binding and enforceable as an independent bank guarantee under the Italian law.

Spain's 3rd of December 31/2014 Bill has Reformed Capital Companies Law

This reform is of crucial importance since it makes numerous amendments to the listed company’s regime.

Civil and Commercial Court Rulings Will Have Effectiveness in All the EU

Savings of up to €48 million thanks to new rules for cross-border judgments.

Turkey: Mergers and Acquisitions Deals in 2014, Expectations for 2015

Turkey, as an emerging market, has its ups and downs to invest from time to time. These times depend on several different factors, but tracing them has crucial importance for investors. Focusing into Mergers & Acquisitions deals can be inspiring when taking decisions for investments.

Events, Nightlife, Attractions and Hospitality Law Palm Springs Style

In the past lawyers for the hospitality and entertainment industry, for restaurants, hotels, festivals, events, and attractions in California handled matters such as food safety, contracts with entertainers, alcohol regulations, or injuries on hotel properties. Hospitality and entertainment lawyers in places like Palm Springs today must also seek to protect guest confidentiality and safety at live music pool parties, film and music festivals, major sporting events and more.

Procedures of Land Acquisition in the Framework of Investment – Land Acquisition Deriving in Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
Land Acquisition in the framework of investment is particularly regulated by Decree of State Minister for Agrarian Affairs/ Head of the National Land Agency Number 21 of 1994 on Procedures of Land Acquisition for Company in the Framework of Investment (“Kepmenag No.21/1994”).

How Are Private Investigators Paid?

  By HG.org
Like lawyers, private investigators may charge in a variety of ways. In order to have a clear understanding, ask for a written explanation of fees.

Executing Foreign Judgments: Enforcing Law Across Borders

The jurisdiction of courts ends at state borders. This makes it difficult to enforce claims against foreign debtors. Notwithstanding this, creditors can be helped to ensure that justice is done to them.

The Gateway to Europe

Despite the fact that the German market is considered to be the third biggest economy in the world, with an annual turnover of (if you mention turnover an exact figure is expected) Billions of Euros, Israeli business presence in Germany is still relatively poor. How should business be done in Germany? Which Israeli businesses succeed in Germany and in interacting with Germans, and how can the Israeli “Chuzpa” be more helpful? These are things one ought to consider.

Conducting A Case: Legal Disputes not Decided in Court

Legal proceedings are not decided in court; rather, it is comprehensive and detailed preparation that is decisive for the successful conduct of a case.

Inherited IRAs and Creditor Protection

Your IRA is protected from creditors if you have to file bankruptcy, but what happens to that IRA if you die and leave it to a child? Many assumed that the inherited IRA retained that creditor protection in a child’s bankruptcy. The United States Supreme Court ruled otherwise in Clark v. Rameker, 134 S. Ct. 2242 (2014).

Tax Evasion in Germany: Voluntary Disclosure Only Effective If All Requirements Are Satisfied

The rules pertaining to voluntary disclosure in the event of tax evasion are set to be tightened from 2015, but even now a voluntary declaration has to be able to satisfy certain conditions for it to be effective.

Hong Kong’s Draft Competition Law Guidelines

As part of the implementation of the Competition Ordinance (Cap 619), the Hong Kong Competition Commission (“Commission”) is required to issue guidelines on how it expects to interpret and enforce the Ordinance (Section 35). For that reason, the Commission together with the Communications Authority on 9 October 2014 jointly published 6 draft guidelines (“Guidelines”) for public consultation.

Who Bears Risk of Non-Payment Between General and Sub-Contractor in Ohio?

A recent decision by the Supreme Court of Ohio highlights the importance of having clear terms in contracts between general contractors and subcontractors, especially in regard to payment provisions.

It's OK, I've Got it in Writing - Michigan's Uncertain Treatment of Dual Source Supply Contracts

Parties to a contract usually feel a sense of security knowing that their agreement is embodied in a written, properly executed document containing all of the agreed upon terms. However, if such an agreement is a “dual source” supply contract executed under Michigan law, the parties may not be as secure as they believe.

Piercing the Corporate Veil

Just how limited is your liability if you own a limited liability company?

Tax Evasion in Germany: Take Every Precaution Regarding Voluntary Disclosure

Voluntary disclosure can spell a return to a state of legal tax affairs for tax evaders. However, despite growing pressure, voluntary declarations should be thoroughly considered and well prepared.

Quality in Consulting : How Hard is it in Application

TQM is commonly known for the principles of continuous improvement, awareness of total cost of quality, recognition that everyone holds responsibility for quality, customer orientation/focus, process orientation, commitment of senior management etc. However, quality has been commonly associated with industries where it originated and not with services which are difficult to measure, evaluate and apply a zero-defect concept to.

Tax Dispute in Germany: Ways of Putting Up a Fight Against the Tax Authorities

Legal action can be taken even against the assessment notice of a tax office. Those who get involved in a tax dispute normally require plenty of stamina and competent legal representation.

G20 Declares War on Tax Evasion - Submit Voluntary Declaration on Time

The finance ministers of the G20 are continuing to expedite the fight against tax evasion. Account data is rapidly set to be automatically exchanged among them.

Growth Through Corporate Mergers and Acquisitions in Germany

In order to assert oneself in an increasingly global market, many firms are making growth their priority. Yet there are many legal aspects that need to be observed in cases involving takeovers, acquisitions or mergers.

German Leasing Law: The Devil is in the Detail

Thanks to relatively favourable conditions for the financing or use of property, leasing enjoys great popularity. The lease agreement regulates the corresponding rights and obligations.

International Procedural Law: Correctly Enforce Justified Claims

The receipt and service of papers play a vital role in international procedural law, e.g. they set in motion important time-limits.

Trademark Law: BGH on the Protection of a Colour Trademark

The German Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof (BGH)) reached a decision on September 18 in a trademark lawsuit and prohibited the defendant from using a registered colour trademark (Az.: I ZR 228/12).

Twentynine Palms Marine Accidents and Fatalities on CA Hwy 62, The Killer Highway - A Personal Injury Tragedy

At least 182 people have died on CA Hwy 62 since 2002. More than 90 lives have been lost since 2007. The risks of dying on Hwy 62 make this highway a dangerous road to travel and the stretch of Hwy 62 from 29 Palms to Palm Springs one of the most dangerous stretches of highway in California. Marines from the Twentynine Palms Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center and personal injury attorneys who represent grieving families know all too well what is known as “The Killer Highway.”

Company Formation in Dubai and UAE

Setting up a business in a new jurisdiction often calls for deciding on legal structure of entity to be incorporated. Investors may consider setting up a sole proprietorship, a limited liability partnership, joint-venture from of business or operate as co-operative society. There is no yardstick in choosing the entity type - a lot depends on careful planning, understanding governance norms, exit strategy & more. The best choice isn't always obvious or readily available.

Doing Business in Cuba

In January 2015 the Treasury Department issued regulations to establish banking relations and allow U.S. companies to export items for sale in Cuba without the trade barriers that have existed for decades. While some Republican leaders have criticized Obama’s actions, normal relations with Cuba are only a matter of time and the opportunities for attorneys representing American and European companies wishing to pursue commercial opportunities in Cuba have never been greater.

Tax Evasion: Voluntary Disclosure Relieves Pressure on Tax Evaders

Untaxed illicit earnings in foreign clandestine accounts are preying on the minds of more and more tax evaders. A voluntary declaration can ensure they sleep easy again.

Optimise Corporation Tax

Corporation tax is a type of income tax for legal persons, e.g. corporations. It is for this reason that some of the rules of income tax are applied to its taxation.

Can a Minor Enter into a Contract?

  By HG.org
Yes, a minor can legally enter into a contract. However, whether the contract is enforceable will depend on a number of factors.

Tax Evasion: Small Mistakes in Voluntary Declaration Can Have Serious Repercussions

Voluntary declarations leading to immunity serve as an incentive to return to a state of legal tax affairs, yet they will only succeed if they are error-free.

Criminal Tax Law: High Penalties For Tax Evasion in Germany

German tax law is complex and constantly changing. It is therefore easy to unwittingly render oneself guilty of tax evasion. The consequences can be drastic penalties.

What Is Anticipatory Repudiation?

  By HG.org
When a person indicates that he or she is not planning to perform his or her obligations under the contract, this is considered anticipatory repudiation. The party who was not planning to breach the contract can use anticipatory repudiation in order to seek remedies against the other party.

Tax Evasion: Tightening Up Of Voluntary Declarations Has Cash Tills Ringing

The planned tightening up of voluntary declarations supposedly has cash registers ringing. Die Welt reports that this will apparently entail additional revenues of around 15 million euros a year.

Mandatory Biometric Registration in Russia?

The State Duma was sent a draft law on mandatory biometric registration of citizens of Russia. According to the authors of the draft law, mandatory biometric registration will allow getting away from the practice of presenting identity documents and will allow solving problems in the law and in the social sphere in time.

Gift Tax in Germany: Make Use of Room for Manoeuvre

The state looks to profit even from gifts, levying gift tax as soon as the tax allowance is exceeded. There are, however, different possible arrangements in connection with gift tax.

Inherited Illegal Earnings – Voluntary Disclosure Can Help

Heirs must file an inheritance tax declaration with the tax authorities. If the estate includes illicit earnings, these must be reported immediately.

Notice Period of Resignation for Directors in Malaysia

There is always the beginning and the end. Upon being appointed as directors, many of these directors may not be aware of the requisite notice period of resignation from their high office.

Voluntary Declaration: Hessen Not Ruling Out Further Purchase of CDs on Tax Evaders

The pressure on tax evaders continues to rise. Since North Rhine-Westphalia announced an additional purchase of CDs on tax evaders, Hessen is now also not ruling out this option.

Three Things You Need to Know About Business Formation in Thailand

In Thailand, business formation in Thailand is very expensive in order to comply with the rules and regulations set forth by the government. Many might have expected that it is going to be cheap, but it is more of a hassle than one could anticipate.

International Tax Law: Avoiding Double Taxation

Due to the advancing pace of globalisation, international tax law is becoming increasingly more important. This affects private individuals, but especially internationally operating businesses.

Contracting the Petroleum Operations Under Turkish Petroleum Law

As exception to liberty of contracting and unlike a number of other industries, Turkey's petroleum industry imposes certain obligations to petroleum right owners in contracting the conduct of the petroleum operations. At the first glance this seems that it aims to strengthen the management of hazards by enhancing the safety however the liability imposed to petroleum right owners in case of contracting the operations still remains unclear in terms of limitation.

Tax Law: Key To A Closed Book

For many people, tax law is a closed book. Expert help is frequently necessary in order to pay taxes correctly and at the same time avoid giving away too much money.

Company Formation in Russia

A brief description of corporate vehicles commonly used for doing business in Russia.

Planned Obsolescence - Shouldn't Be an Offense Punishable like Any Deception

  By HG.org
Planned obsolescence occurs when a product designer creates a design that is meant to phase out after a certain period of time. This makes the product have a lifespan of a limited duration, often influencing consumers to upgrade to a more expensive model. Many times, the product fizzles out just after the warranty period.

Which Business Entity is Right for You?

There are many different types of business entities, each having their own advantages and disadvantages. This article intends to define and explain some of the most common entities. Since people have different goals and circumstances, it is important for one to know which option is the best fit for his or her business.

Things to Consider When Buying a Franchise

Buying a franchise can be an immensely profitable business opportunity. You can sell goods and services that have instant name recognition, and get training and support that can help you succeed. However, buying a franchise is no guarantee of success. Here is some useful information about franchises to consider before you decide to purchase one.

Germany Tax Evasion: Only Those Who Take Notice of the Details Pertaining to Voluntary Declarations Emerge Unpunished

It is a misapprehension to believe that a voluntary declaration automatically leads to immunity following tax evasion. Strict rules apply for voluntary disclosure.

Tax Evasion: Federal Government Passes Stricter Rules For Voluntary Disclosure in Germany

On September 24, the federal government adopted a tightening of the rules for voluntary disclosure in the event of tax evasion. Amounts shall only remain unpunished up to 25,000 EUR.

Risk Of Discovery Continues To Increase – Return To A State Of Legal Tax Affairs Via Voluntary Declaration

Owing to so-called group enquiries, German tax investigators are able to retroactively search for tax evaders in Switzerland up to February 1, 2013.

Public Chamber of the Russian Federation Regarding "On Migration Control"

Public Chamber of the Russian Federation held a hearing to discuss issues on improving legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of migration control. Part of the hearing dealt with the basic provisions of the second version of the bill "On Immigration Control of the Russian Federation".

As of January 1, 2015, Foreign Citizens Will Not Be Required to Obtain Work Permits in Russia

On November 24, the President of the Russian Federation signed the Federal Law eliminating the need for foreign citizens obtaining a work permit in the Russian Federation who arrived via a visa-free regime. From January 1 2015 for the implementation of the work in Russia CIS citizens have to be issued a patent. The patent will allow the specified foreign citizens to work as for legal entities and for physical persons.

Save on Inheritance Tax Through Tax Optimisation

Anyone coming into an inheritance generally has to pay inheritance tax. However, by observing certain regulations, they can ensure that the tax authorities take a smaller share.

Anti-Trust snd Strategic Approval Requirements for Investments in Russia

Like other jurisdictions, Russia has a set of requirements which may impact upon persons considering investing or investing into Russian businesses.

Overseas Service Businesses Under the Thai Foreign Business Act

The Foreign Business Act of 1999 generally restricts service businesses under Category (21) of List Three, with certain explicit exemptions such as hotel management services under Category (17). Furthermore, the Ministerial Regulation Re: List of Service Businesses Exempt from Requiring a Foreign Business License of B.E. 2556 (2013) also exempts certain businesses related to securities and investment from requiring a Foreign Business License.

Opening and Closing Branches and Representative Offices of Non-Russian Companies in Russia

Effective January 1, 2015, a new regulation on opening and closing branches and representative offices of non-Russian companies shall come into force in Russia.

Court of Appeals of Georgia Confirms the Importance of a Well-Drafted Contract

In large construction projects, it is not unusual to have a joint venture between parties; when these joint venture agreements are terminated, however, the specific terms must be scrutinized. A recent Georgia Court of Appeals case discusses some important issues such as fiduciary responsibility, contract ambiguity, and indeminification.

If Your Debtor is a Resident of the Ukraine

Debt collection is a complicated juridical procedure, especially if your debtor is in the other country. Along with the already familiar problems there are some additional aspects (like linguistic barrier, country’s specific legislation). It seems nearly impossible, but it can be solved easily. To solve the problem, a foreign businessman needs Ukrainian lawyers’ help.

Russian Antitrust Law: Prohibition of Monopolistic Behavior and Unfair Competition

The Russian Law "On the Protection of Competition" (the "Competition Law") came into effect on October 26, 2006.

Russian Antitrust Law: Important Considerations For Non-Russian Investors

To successfully structure a cross-border transaction, it is important to do a careful antimonopoly law analysis at an early stage.

Distribution Agreements In Russia

Distribution agreement is not a concept that is well-developed in Russia. There is not an established court guidance on most of the terms and conditions a reasonable non-Russian supplier seeks to include into the distribution agreement.

Patentability of Business Methods in Ukraine

  By IPStyle
In different countries Patentability of business methods has always been the subject of controversy. Ukraine is not exception of this rule.

Visa Appeal: An Important Part of Immigration in Bangladesh

Immigration laws are very important factor for the developing countries who used to export manpower to developed countries. In the developed countries, the immigration practices are handled by skilled lawyers but unfortunately in Bangladesh it is mainly handled by brokers,agents, Travel Agencies and illiterate people. That is why the applicants are not getting proper legal advice and facing serious problems as well as harassment regarding Immigration matters.

An Introduction to Personal Guarantee in the UAE

The economic boom in UAE has resulted in huge developments and a considerable increase in trade. This in turn has led to a rise in transactions which require a fast debt recovery mechanism.

Collecting A Judgment From an Employer in California

A large part of our judgment collection law practice is collection of labor awards, or more specifically enforcement labor judgments. Essentially, these result when an employer fails to properly pay an employee for wages, overtime pay, or otherwise violates California labor laws.

Foreign Skilled Technicians and Experts Under the Board of Investment in Thailand

The Investment Promotion Act of B.E. 2520 (1977) allows three categories for foreigners to enter Thailand in addition to the standard immigration rules. Section 24 of the Act allows for foreigners to enter the country in order to survey investment opportunities. Section 25 allows foreigners who are skilled technicians or experts (and their dependents) to enter the country to work for a company that has been promoted by the Board of Investment (BOI).

Testing Foreign Citizens in the Russian Language, History and Basic Understanding of Russian Law

Testing of foreign citizens in the Russian language, history and basic understanding of Russian law. In the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation the issue of control over the organization where foreign citizens are tested for knowledge of Russian language was discussed. This issue is particularly relevant in relation to foreign citizens who hold certification, but are not able to speak in Russian.

Georgia Court of Appeals Decides Against Material Supplier

A recent decision by the Georgia Court of Appeals has given homeowners loop-hole against lien claims as the lien claimant's summary judgment against the homeowner was reversed.

An Introduction to Corporate Guarantee in the UAE

Strong relationships with customers remain the key to successful contractual lending and borrowing arrangements in the UAE. However, lending on the strength of relationship (or name) alone is not economically viable or justified.


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