HG.org Legal Resources

Business and Industry Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Business and Industry.


Florida Legal Services Guide to Starting a Sole Proprietorship Business

  March 2, 2017     By Apfelbaum Law
What’s delaying your final decision to set-up a business in one of the busiest streets of Florida? Is it your lack of knowledge on the legal...

Operating a Forex Bureau in Ghana

  March 2, 2017     By AB LexMall & Associates
Relevant statutory guidelines for operating a Forex Bureau under Ghanaian law are found in the Foreign Exchange Act 2006 (Act 723).

The Term “Centre” Potentially Misleading in Germany

  March 1, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
A ruling of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Frankfurt [Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt] shows that difficulties can arise if there is a desire at...

Construction Disputes: When Is It Time to Litigate?

  February 27, 2017     By Michael L. Feinstein, P.A.
When a dispute over payment or performance interferes with a construction project or the use of a piece of real estate, all parties involved...

Non-Disclosure Agreements for Startups

  February 27, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Protecting intellectual property is important for a startup business, but private business information should also remain within the business....

Is Your Startup Ready to Talk to Angel Investors?

  February 27, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
Startup businesses need to have their financial, regulatory, organizational, and intellectual property ducks in a row before planning for any...

Difficulties in Factory Registration in Egypt

  February 27, 2017     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
The new ministerial decrees 991/2015 and 43/2016 issued by the Minister of Trade introduced new measures concerning the registration and...

Private Investigator on Cellphone Spyware

  February 27, 2017     By HG.org
There are all types of various private investigator tools that can help track information, including cellphone spyware. These tools may help...

Notarized Agreement Decisive in Germany, Not The Draft Agreement

  February 24, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
In cases of doubt, it is the notarized agreement that counts and not a draft contract whose content deviates from the former. That was the...

What Legal Entity to Form for Your Business?

  February 23, 2017     By Rodriques Law, PLLC
A key decision you will have to make is whether to operate your business as a limited partnership, limited liability company or corporation.

The Anti-Corruption Law and Compliance Programs in Brazil

  February 23, 2017     By M F Ejchel
The Anti-Corruption Act has been approved as a result of the international commitments made by Brazil to confront and fight major local...

Labour Leasing through Members of a Sisterhood in the EU

  February 23, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The members of a sisterhood may also fall within the ambit of the regulations pertaining to what is termed labour leasing or temporary...

Liability Claims Against GmbH Managing Directors

  February 23, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The managing director of a GmbH, a type of German private limited company, is exposed to considerable liability risks. Legal advice ought to be...

Moving Your Business Forward with a Cross-Border Merger in the EU

  February 23, 2017     By Giambrone Law
During the course of 2016 there were approximately 144 mergers and acquisitions (M&As) of UK businesses by foreign companies and around 104...

Equity Shares as Bonus or Compensation for Private Startup Companies

  February 23, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
A new trend in the gig economy is to offer unusual forms of compensation for work. Private companies, as well as publically traded companies,...

Nondisclosure Agreements For Technology Companies

  February 23, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
While intellectual property laws present a significant amount of protection to individuals and companies, some “creations” are not capable of...

What To Do When Business Partners Do Not Agree

  February 23, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Partnerships are one type of business entity available to California entrepreneurs. A partnership can be formed at any time when two or more...

A Brand New Law On Movable Pledge Especially For SMEs To Enjoy - Turkey

  February 22, 2017     By Serap Zuvin Law Offices
Recently, on January 1, 2017, the Law on Movable Pledge in Commercial Transactions[1] (“Law”) entered into force and prevailed the Law on...

Types of Changes that Warrant Hiring a Business Lawyer

  February 17, 2017     By HG.org
The changes for business are both big and small and may warrant the need for a hiring a business lawyer before long. These changes are due to...

Incorporation Assistance from a Business Lawyer

  February 17, 2017     By HG.org
Starting up an incorporated business often requires filing articles of incorporation, also called a charter. Some persons believe this is enough...

Legal Steps to Closing a Business and How a Business Lawyer Can Help

  February 17, 2017     By HG.org
Closing a business is hard work, and the processes are often difficult for the owners or managers. Many steps are often necessary with various...

Tips from a Business Lawyer Before Launching a Startup

  February 17, 2017     By HG.org
Launching a business is often difficult and may be fraught with obstacles in the legal world, in the community the company will physically...

Removal and Dismissal of a GmbH Managing Director in Germany

  February 16, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
If a GmbH, a type of German private limited company, wishes to part company with a manging director, simply dismissing him won’t cut it. The...

Affordable Care Act: The Employer Shared Responsibility Provision and Seasonal Workers

  February 16, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
The reporting requirements for the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will remain in effect for the 2017 reporting period, which covers 2016. Any...

German Company Officially Removed from Commercial Register Due to Lack of Assets

  February 14, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
It is possible for the removal of a company from the commercial register to be instigated by the competent authorities due to a lack of assets....

Can You Break a Real Estate Contract in Queensland, Australia?

  February 14, 2017     By Carter Capner Law
There are legitimate reasons why you may change your mind or why a seller may decide to back out of the deal after a purchase contract has been...

GbR Can Terminate Tenancy Agreement if There is a Need to Make Personal Use of the Property in Germany

  February 13, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
A Gesellschaft bürgerlichen Rechts (GbR) [a type of German partnership constituted under civil law] is able to terminate a tenancy agreement if...

Conducting Due Diligence for a Merger or Acquisition

  February 13, 2017     By HG.org
Mergers and acquisitions are very important for corporations when conducting business. To ensure that due diligence is accomplished, a lawyer is...

Exemption From Liability For GmbH Managing Directors in Germany

  February 10, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
The managing director of a Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH), a type of private limited company in Germany, may be faced with...

Business Partnership Agreements Best Practices

  February 9, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Running a business with friends or others who share your vision and values can be extremely rewarding.

Employee Versus Independent Contractor: Avoid 3 Hiring Mistakes Florida Businesses Often Make

  February 9, 2017     By Apfelbaum Law
The process of hiring someone to work for you can be nerve-wracking and riddled with potential traps that can have expensive legal consequences.

Fixed-term Employment Contract Pursuant to Court Settlement in Germany

  February 8, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Even in the case of fixed-term employment contracts concluded pursuant to a court settlement, employers need to ensure that the fixed term is...

What is the Value of a Verbal Agreement

  February 8, 2017     By HG.org
When making a verbal agreement, it is important to understand that these are considered as binding contracts between parties for the specific...

What Is Due Diligence - A Private Investigator's Perspective

  February 6, 2017     By HG.org
Due diligence is the reasonable inquiry into a business proposal or through the process of buying or selling something of value. Through this...

Top Ways to Prevent Fraud from a Private Investigator

  February 6, 2017     By HG.org
Private investigators do not only have to be hired after some bad conduct has occurred. Instead, they can be hired as a preventative measure....

Changes to Employment Contract in Germany

  February 6, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
If an employer wishes to make changes to assurances made in relation to occupational pension schemes and employees add their signatures to a...

Small Business Considerations for Crowdfunding Startups

  February 6, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
There are several important legal considerations for small business startups planning to use crowdfunding as a way to raise capital. The JOBS...

Guidelines for Cottage Food Businesses in Texas

  February 6, 2017     By The Posey Law Firm, PC
The rapid growth in cottage food businesses has been fueled by the presence of online commerce platforms like Etsy and the rapid expansion of...

Competition Law: Mandatory Information in Real Estate Advertising

  February 3, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Anyone who publishes real estate adverts without the requisite information relating to the energy performance certificate is in breach of...

What to Include in a California Business Contract

  February 3, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
Obligations and Non-fulfillment Clauses are Only the Start. California business contracts are deceptively complex.

European Commission Proposes New VAT Rules to Support E-Commerce and Online Businesses in the EU

  February 3, 2017     By Kinanis LLC
On 1 December 2016, the European Commission has published proposals to improve the Value Added Tax (VAT) environment for e-commerce businesses...

Defend Trade Secrets Act 2016: What Human Resource Departments Need to Know

  February 2, 2017     By Apfelbaum Law
The enactment of Defend Trade Secrets Act (the DTSA), brings a potential new changes to Florida contract law. According to this recently enacted...

Opening a Russian Subsidiary of a Foreign Company

  February 1, 2017     By Avakov Tarasov & Partners
Foreign companies, which establish their offices in Russia, usually choose limited liability companies or non-public joint stock companies to...

What is Required in a California Non-Disclosure Agreement?

  February 1, 2017     By JGPC Business & Corporate Law
When your business hires a new employee, the last thing you as a business owner want is for your new employee to learn your company’s trade...

CJEU to Rule on Holiday Entitlement Following Employee’s Death - Germany

  February 1, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Whether an employee’s holiday entitlement continues to exist after his death is still disputed. The Bundesarbeitsgericht (BAG), Germany’s...

Video Recording on Private Property in California

  February 1, 2017     By Gehres Law Group, P.C.
Over the years, clients have inquired about the legality of installing video cameras on their privately owned commercial real estate or business...

Articles of the Civil Code of Costa Rica applied to the factoring

  February 1, 2017     By ERP Lawyers & Associates
Factoring -also known as assignment of invoices or discount of invoices- is one of the most widely used financial tools in Costa Rica. This...

The Trust in Costa Rica: A Matter of Confidence

  February 1, 2017     By ERP Lawyers & Associates
When investing money, when looking for financing, and even, when you want to safeguard your heritage or own assets for the benefit of your loved...

Exceptional Notice of Dismissal for Working Hours Fraud in Germany

  January 31, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
Fraud relating to one’s working hours may constitute good cause justifying exceptional notice of dismissal. Having said that, a ruling of the...

Doing Business in Russia: Choosing a Form of Legal Presence

  January 31, 2017     By Avakov Tarasov & Partners
Russian corporate law provides several options for foreign investors planning to enter the Russian market. Depending on the general purposes of...

Egypt: Value Added Tax (VAT) Law

  January 30, 2017     By Youssry Saleh Law Firm
On 5th of September 2016, the new Value Added Tax (VAT) Law in Egypt has been promulgated and published in the Official Gazette entering into...

Enforcement of Italian Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters in England and Italy

  January 30, 2017     By KM Legal Net
If you have got an Italian or English judgment concerning civil and commercial matters but the defendant/debtor fails to comply with it and...

Property Options Australia: "Call" and "Put" Explanation

  January 27, 2017     By Carter Capner Law
One of the common alternatives for investors is a stock option.

Severance Package For GmbH Shareholder in Germany

  January 27, 2017     By GRP Rainer LLP
If a shareholder wishes to withdraw from a Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH), a type of German private limited company, this can give...

Are Forum Selection Clauses Upheld in Nevada?

Think your forum selection clause will hold up in Court? Think again.

GmbH and Establishing a Supervisory Board Later On in Germany

If a GmbH decides to set up a supervisory board at a later stage, this needs to be certified by a notary and entered into the commercial...

Rights in a California Franchise Dispute

Many small business owners choose to open a franchise for various reasons. Franchise arrangements allow a new, inexperienced business owner to...

Company Incorporation in Bangladesh by Foreign Entity

Company incorporation in Bangladesh could be a troublesome process if the right and applicable procedure is not known to one.

Legal Structure for a Medical Practice with 50/50 Shareholders

The key to the structure is this: The two physician / shareholders can either work together, or they can breakup.

10 Legal Keys to Business Success

Avoiding legal pitfalls that may be holding back your business, exposing you to increased risk, or preventing you from getting the greatest...

What are the Consequences if I do not Respect an NDA I Signed with a Company?

  By HG.org
Non-disclosure agreements are often used when signing on with a company in many situations. Though these documents are used to stop the leaking...

When to Hire an Attorney for Your California Creditor-Debtor Rights Dispute

Creditor-debtor rights disputes can place a small business in a precarious situation.

Patent Ownership is Not Based on The Date of Postmark

The Postmark Is Dead. [This] refers to the notion that a person could prove inventorship and a date of invention by documenting the idea and...

Buyers Can Refuse to Pay Purchase Price Until Defects Have Been Remedied in Germany

If the object of a sale exhibits defects, the buyer can refuse to pay the purchase price until the defects have been removed. That was the...

Minimize Product Liability Risk with a Well-Written Contract

If your company is importing products made overseas, what is your liability for a safety or quality issue that causes harm? A well-written...

Remedying Defects and Shifting the Burden of Proof in Germany

The Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany’s Federal Court of Justice, has strengthened the rights of buyers and consumers in two recent rulings in...

Commercial Contracts in Egypt

Usually within the drafting process parties may neglect that a dispute may arise in the future regarding, for example, the validity of the...

To Be or Not to Be an Employee in Romania

Romania being Romania has a different approach to directors of companies and their relationship with such companies. It is very easy for someone...

Labour Leasing: Changes to Temporary Employment in Germany

The legal provisions pertaining to labour leasing, also referred to as temporary employment or subcontracted work, are being shaken up.

GmbH Shareholder’s Fiduciary Duty in Germany

Even the best of families has arguments, and the same is true for shareholders of a GmbH. Having said that, a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht...

Company Formation in Jamaica

Before embarking on any business venture, consider the type of company you wish to form. Weighing the Pros and Cons will give you a better idea...

Intellectual Property Protection for New Product Inventions

New Product Inventions Require the Right Protection. Without the right intellectual property protections, your new product ideas and inventions...

Express Grounds for Terminating Commercial Contracts in the UK

If you want to terminate a commercial contract then the starting point is to see whether the contract includes any express right to terminate it.

Arbitration in Egypt: Myth or Reality?

The Egyptian Judicial System has traditionally been regarded as the primary and sometimes exclusive forum for the settlement of legal disputes...

The Definition and Benefits of an LLC

By becoming familiar with pros and cons of LLCs, entrepreneurs can better decide whether the LLC business entity is the right choice for their...

Why Do Small Businesses Need an Attorney?

When looking for a law firm to represent your business, look for a firm experienced in helping small business owners.

Installment Buy-in to a Medical Practice

There are two basic elements to a buy-in: the amount of the buy-in price, and the time over which the price is paid. In this article, I discuss...

Commercial Contracts: Are Oral Discussions Binding in The Bahamas?

Negotiations are a vital part of the process of agreeing the terms of a commercial contract, but when will such discussions have a binding...

California General and Limited Partnerships and LLCs - What’s Best for Your Business

Without a written partnership agreement for a business which two or more people own and operate in California, it may well be deemed to be a...

Simplifying of Contracting Pprocedures for Services Exporters in Ukraine

From January 2017 the procedure of agreement conclusion will be simplified for services exporters.

Open the Retail and Wholesale Trading Sector in Saudi Arabia for Foreign Entities to be 100% Their Ownership.

The foreign entities in Saudi Arabia are allowed to have 100% ownership in retail and wholesale trading sectors.

Band Agreements, Band Entities, Band Trademarks and Copyrights

In order to avoid disputes later, a band needs a band agreement which states how the band will divide their profits and which provides how...

Cyprus Investment Firms (CIFs): Directors’ Liabilities in Case of an Offense

The Board of Directors of a CIF shall consist of at least two executive Directors and two independent non-executive Directors. The majority of...

Are You Making the Right Contract Decisions?

How well does your current contract management or contract administration process work? Do you know when your contracts expire or if they...

Brand Protection in Kenya as Relates to Trademarks

The competitive business environment in which many businesses operate requires them to constantly explore new ways to enhance their competitive...

Chose the right Business Entity in Ghana

  By Swiftlaw
In Ghana , depending on the type of business you are involved in and there are 6 main business entities you can chose from. The body responsible...

Buy-in to a Business

There are two basic elements for when a new shareholder buys into a business: the amount of the buy-in price, and the time over which the price...

Bulgaria: Costs and Advantages of Business Incorporation

A legal entity in Bulgaria may be used as a suitable vehicle for different purposes, including for outsourcing business development, for real...

Pre-Sale Due Diligence as a Part of Normal Business Operations

Owners of small and mid-sized businesses can spend nearly all of their time running their business, and leave little time to plan the strategy...

ADR Services that Work Best

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) forms can be quite helpful for business owners who find themselves ensnared in legal disputes and conflicts...

Five Ways to Manage Business Startup Legal Expenses

Money: without sufficient amounts of it, your new business idea is not likely to get very far. When starting a business or project, it is...

Subsidiary Company or Registration of a Branch or Overseas Company in Jamaica

International or Foreign Companies are normally interested in establishing companies with limited liability in Jamaica. The Foreign Investors...

Trademark Selection and Response to Trademark Office Actions

Trademarks help consumers to make informed decisions about goods and services that they purchase. Selection of branding for a business should...

The U.S. Supreme Court Clarifies the Definition of Insider Trading – A Big Win for Prosecutors

For the first time since 1983 when the Supreme Court issued its decision in Dirks v. SEC, the Supreme Court yesterday clarified what “personal...

Changes in the Registration Procedure Concerning Notarization in Ukraine

In the course of the reform in the state registration system at 6 October 2016 was adopted the Law of Ukraine «On the Amendments to Certain...

Representative Office Registration in China

Setting up a representative office in China is an option that is becoming more and more popular for foreign companies that would like a presence...

Legal Insight - Payment of Dividends by a Cayman Islands Company

  By Loeb Smith
Cayman Islands holding companies, operating companies, and investment funds structured as companies pay dividends and make other distributions...

Literary Agency and Publishing Contracts: What Attorneys and Writers Need to Know

A writer who signs a literary agency agreement or a book publishing contract without having it reviewed and negotiated by a literary rights or...

Can State Law Trump Your Franchise Agreement?

Before entering into a franchise agreement, it is absolutely essential for prospective franchisees to have the terms reviewed and negotiated by...

Director of Limited Company in Germany Subject to Similar Liability as GmbH Managing Director

As in the case of a managing director of a German Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH) [private limited company], the director of a...


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