Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Environmental and Natural Resources.

A Perspective on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Regulations in The Turkish Market

The Draft of New Natural Gas Market Law provides incentives not only regarding the natural gas, but also regarding the LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) import and LNG terminal establishment.

Moratorium on Ukrainian Land Not a Problem

Ukraine is the biggest country in Europe. It borders with Russia, Belorussia, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland. It has on area of 603,700 km2 which is approximately equal to 5.7%territory of Europe or 0.44%of globe.

An Alternative Financing for Renewable Energy Project in Turkey: ESCO Financial Modelling

Since the motivation of being energy hub between Middle East and Europe , energy resources diversification is adopted by Turkish policymakers. Herein, Turkish government commenced to regulate renewable energy sector with new legislations and incentives.

Future Projection of Turkey Gas Market: Comparison with Germany Gas Market Structure

The natural gas market structure in Germany as an example. The liberalization of natural gas market in Germany has begun in 2006 with new legislation, through which the German Power Supply Agency (Bundesnetzagentur) has been instructed to control the natural gas market.

Akkuyu as First Nuclear Power Plant Project of Turkey

Due to increase of energy demand, consumption and especially external energy dependence of Turkey, the requirement of new energy resources has come to the fore. Since the primary energy resources such as natural gas and petroleum are exhaustible, nuclear energy has been a preferred energy resource in the world.

Natural Gas Projects in Turkey: Tuz Golu Project as a Pioneer

Turkey intends to increase its natural gas storage capacity through natural gas storage projects. At present, the Natural Gas Storage Project in Tuz Gölü which is operated by project partners from Turkey and China is in progress and its completion is planned until 2018.

New projection for natural gas supply of Turkey: TANAP Project

The part of the natural gas increases progressively in Turkish energy market due to its advantages, such that it has been subject to large projects.

Promising Market for Hedging the Risk in Energy: Turkish Electricity Derivatives Market

The most significant characteristic behaviour of an emerging market is displaying volatility in electricity market. As a consequence of market price risks on electricity markets, market players keen on hedging risk by applying financial derivatives.

New Draft on Natural Gas Market in Turkey: Expected Judicial Amendments and Market Dynamics

Turkey's extensive energy vision brought new developments on electricity, natural gas and renewable markets. The mainstream of Turkish policy makers is regulating the natural gas market with the objective to create competitive market conditions and pricing mechanism. The new draft on Natural Gas Market Law which is occupying the agenda since last year, will precisely act a prominent role on reconfiguring the market.

Incentives for Waste-to-Energy Plants in Turkey

In order to assess waste products, expand the utilization of renewable energy sources for generating electrical energy and benefit from these resources in a secure, economic and qualified manner with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Renewable Energy Law and Law on Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources for the Purpose of Generating Electrical Energy (“the Law”) has been recently amended in Turkey.

Which is Safer: Tap or Bottled Water?

  By HG.org
Each year, millions of Americans consume billions of gallons of water. The boom in the bottled water industry was fueled, in part, by beliefs that bottled water was cleaner and more heavily regulated than tap water. But then a backlash by others in the media showed that much bottle water was simply tap water in a bottle. So, is one form of water more heavily regulated and safer than the other?

Is it Legal to Raise Wild Animals or Keep Them as Pets?

  By HG.org
Anyone who has grown up near a park, nature preserve, or in a rural setting probably came across a wild animal that he or she wished to adopt. Whether it was a baby duckling, a squirrel, a raccoon, or even a bear cub, there are laws affecting raising wild animals.

Nebraska Department of Agriculture Laws and Regulations

Legal cases involving agriculture, cattle, dairy herds, poultry, and other herds may revolve around various issues which can range from disease, genetics, and environmental concerns to water rights, crop injuries, personal injuries to persons working in these fields, and more

Lack Of Complete Diversity Of Citizenship Of Members Of Equine LLCs Requires Dismissal Of Federal Action

The issue of diversity of citizenship is of particular interest to equine ownership and contract disputes, because many equine-related entities are organized as limited liability companies (LLCs). The citizenship of LLCs is subject to a different rule than the citizenship of corporations, a distinction that may escape the attention of attorneys.

New Advantages in Energy with the New Regulation: Unlicensed Electrical Energy Production - Turkey

As of 02.10.2013, everyone will be able to produce his/her own electrical energy in certain amounts. Due to the Regulation on Electrical Energy Production without License which has been entered on 02.10.2013 into force, every residence may produce a certain amount of its electricity and sell the surplus.

New Regulation in Renewable Energy: Regulation on Support and Certification of Renewable Energy Resources - Turkey

Renewable energy resources support mechanism is operated for support of renewable energy production in Turkey as price-purchase guarantee. Accordingly, the state provides a purchase guarantee for renewable energy producers.

Untested Nature of Carbon Capture May Present Loophole for Coal and Electric Industry

  By HG.org
The Obama administration has been cracking down on environmental regulations, particularly with regard to global warming. Faced with this increased pressure, the coal and electric industries are applying a new legal strategy they believe will allow them to take advantage of a loophole and prevent most EPA enforcement measures.

Insight into Turkey's Energy Market and New Energy Exchange EPIAS

Turkey proved its aspiration with the liberalization of electricity market for being an energy hub in the heart of Europe and Middle East territory. According to Türk Eletrik İletim Anonim Şirketi (TEİAŞ) 2012 report, the electricity demand in Turkey will arise within the range of 398-434 billion kWh in the light of historical perspective in 2023.

Failing to Disclose Environmental Defects in Property Sales

  By HG.org
Have you purchased a piece of land only to discover after the sale that there was pollution on the property? Are you thinking of selling a house and wondering how much you need to disclose? Understanding the laws related to environmental disclosures can mean the difference between a costly lawsuit and a smooth transaction.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries. With a population of more than 14 million of whom more than 80% live on activities directly or indirectly related to land, the country of upright people, like other Sahel countries, is confronted to emerging environmental problems.

Gabon: The Council of Ministers Adopts a Draft Law Regulating the Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

Key Legislation and Regulatory Structure in the Angolan Oil and Gas Sector

  By FCB&A
This article offers an overview of the key legislation and regulatory structure governing the oil and gas sector in Angola and was written as part of a publication on the oil and gas sector for Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer.

A Q&A Guide to Electricity Regulation in Bulgaria

This Q&A guide gives a high level overview of the domestic electricity market in Bulgaria, including domestic electricity companies, electricity generation and renewable energy, transmission, distribution, supply and tax issues. It covers the regulatory structure; foreign ownership; import of electricity; authorisation and operating requirements; trading between generators and suppliers; rates and conditions of sale and proposals for reform.

Update on Foreign Investment in Ukrainian Agricultural Land

The moratorium on alienation of Ukrainian farm land has long prevented meaningful foreign investment into the Ukrainian agricultural sector. To somehow obtain access to agricultural land, instead of outright ownership foreign investors had to register Ukrainian companies that entered into lease agreements with landowners, most with a “right to buy” option if and when the moratorium will be lifted.

The DR Congo New Agricultural Law N° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 Is Currently Being Amended and Supplemented

On December 24, 2011, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (“DRC”) enacted a new agricultural Law, n° 11/022, (the “Law”) that sets broad guidelines for the agricultural sector. Since its entry into force on June 24, 2012, the Law has been a source of concern for foreign businesses operating in the agricultural sector because of its ownership clause which restricts foreigners’ access to farmlands.

Overview on Mining Law in Burkina Faso and Current Trends

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West-Africa and surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the southeast; Togo and Ghana to the south and Ivory Coast to the southwest. Burkina Faso is rich in natural resources and is emerging as one of the most attractive mining destinations in Africa especially for gold exploration and exploitation.

The Ownership of a Mine after Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights - Democratic Republic of Congo

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for Permanent Quarry Exploitation, collectively referred to («mining and quarry rights») is principally to grant to their titleholders the right to mine natural or artificial deposits located above or below the concerned mining perimeter.

Adoption of a New Legislation for a Better Industrial Environment in the DRC

Before the social movements of plunder and anti-plunder of 1990s, wars and other civil revolts, the Republic Democratic of the Congo, (“DRC”) was among the most industrialized countries of Central Africa.


Forty-two years of the Kaddafi regime’s apathetic attitude and incoherent economic development strategies left Libya as one of the least developed of the oil producing countries.

Law "On Gas and Gas Supply" - The State Strengthens its Positions in Kazakhstan

On 9 January 2012, the President of Kazakhstan signed the Law "On Gas and Gas Supply", which has no analogue in the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, since earlier this sector was governed by the subsoil laws and a range of governmental resolutions. In this Article, we would like to inform on the important legal changes, which may affect activities of companies working in the gas industry.

Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building - Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
Local Government of DKI Jakarta has issued the Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building (“Governor Regulation No.38/2012“) the regulation regulates the implementation of the concept of energy efficiency and environmentally buildings. Green building means a building that is responsible against environment and resource efficiency since the planning, construction, utilization, maintenance, until deconstruction (Article 1 number 11 of Governor Regulation No.38/2012).

Kazakhstan is Due to Adopt a New Law "On the Main Pipeline"

In keeping with GRATA Law Firm’s policy of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that may affect their business, we would like to draw your attention to recent changes in Kazakh legislation in connection with the adoption of the new draft law entitled "On the Main Pipeline".

Shale Gas in Texas

Shale formations are an invaluable resource when it comes to natural gas and oil. The side effects of drilling in these shale deposits, however, can be costly. Shale is a type of rock which is made out of mud, clay, and fragments of other minerals. Shale is characterized by the thin layers make up the rock, meaning it can easily splinter and flake.

Transferring Quarry and Mining Rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]

The mining code of the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] provides for a possibility of leasing and assigning mining and quarry rights. Since mining and quarry rights, as expressed in mining and quarry permits, are real and exclusive property rights, it is possible to lease and assign these rights, although under the restrictions set out in the Mining Code.

Environmental Audit, One of the Conditions for Mining Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Mining is a key sector and continues to grow in several part of the world including in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Legislation for mining may require an environmental impact assessment to be carried out before a mine is developed, and that a mine be developed and operated in an environmentally sound manner with the least impact on the environment. This paper gives insights of the environmental audit for mining operations in the DRC.

Recent Developments in Oil-and-Gas and Energy Sectors in Ukraine

On the way to the European integration, and by virtue of the determined Ukrainian policy towards energy independence, the Ukrainian Government is taking significant steps to improve Ukrainian energy sector. Currently, important changes are being introduced in the oil-and-gas industry. This has already encouraged global oil-and-gas companies such as Exxon Mobil, Shell, Chevron, and Eni to commence investment activity in Ukraine.

New Incentive Scheme of Turkey

Turkish Cabinet has announced a new decree on 15th June 2012, numbered 2012/3305 and published on official gazette of 19th June 2012.

Photovoltaic Investments in Greece

The photovoltaic market in Greece offers great opportunities for investors, as it is expected to rise significantly within the coming years. Greece has grown to be one of the major investment destinations for solar energy production in the European Union; it is the southernmost country of EU, with almost 300 days of sunshine per year, and thus a massive potential for photovoltaic investments.

Environmental Laws and How They Can Protect You and Your Property

Environment laws protect our natural resources by regulating businesses that have the potential to impact them. Due to the importance of these laws, the Environmental Protection Agency was formed as a federal agency whose main task is to control and decrease pollution by researching potential hazards, monitoring companies that may cause environmental harm, setting standards of practice to minimize environmental impact and enforcing punishments for those who violate environmental regulations.

Ukraine’s Foreign Investors and the Lifting of Farmland Moratorium

Ukraine has long been called “the bread-basket of Europe,” and for one excellent reason: its fertile, black soil. The estimated value of this treasure is anywhere between 40 and 80 billion dollars. The only problem with investing in such an obviously profitable business was an artificial bureaucratic/legislative barrier commonly known as the “moratorium on alienation of farm land” (the “Moratorium”).

Kazakhstan: New Local Content Approach

General overview of Kazakhstan in World Mineral Industry. - Kazakhstan ranks second only to Russia among the countries of the CIS in its quantity of mineral production. It is endowed with large reserves of a wide range of metallic ores, industrial minerals, and fuels, and its metallurgical sector is a major producer of a large number of metals from domestic and imported raw materials.

Texas Supreme Court Hands Down Decision On Texas Water Rights

According to legal reports, the Texas Supreme Court has recently passed down a landmark decision on water rights in the lone star state. Reportedly, the crux of the decision is that landowners own the water which is beneath their property. Sources say that after two years of litigation and speculation as to what the court might do, a decision was handed down on February 24, 2012.

Oregon Dog Bite Injury Claims

If you've been bitten by someone else's dog, and you are considering filing an injury claim against the dog's owner, you need to understand Oregon dog bite laws and how to prove negligence. Dog bites can be serious injuries, and cause both physical and emotional harm. But a dog bite victim will have trouble getting compensation unless he or she can prove the dog's owner had reason to believe the dog was dangerous.

Environmental Inspections

Environmental inspections: practical recommendations for subsoil users on supporting and appealing environmental inspections (as amended by the Law of the RoK ‘On state control and supervision in the Republic of Kazakhstan’ dated 06 January 2011).

Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Use of Renewable Energy Sources

In line with GRATA Law Firm’s practice of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that might influence their business, we would like to draw your attention to the recently enacted Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 'On Supporting the Use of Renewable Energy Sources' aimed at the creation of legal framework for the use of renewable energy sources in Kazakhstan.

Flaring, Disposition and Processing of Associated Gas in the Course of Oil Operations: Legal Provisions

Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 'On Subsoil and Subsoil Use': a head for the processing of associated and natural gas. One of the most serious environmental and economic problems connected with oil operations in Kazakhstan is the refusal to flare associated and natural gas in fields and the transition to its processing. Even in the recent past, gas flaring has been a part of the process of oil companies in Kazakhstan and occurred in almost all fields.

Kazakhstan Introduces Legislation on Climate Change

In line with GRATA Law Firm’s practice of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that might influence their business, we would like to draw your attention to prospective changes in Kazakh legislation in connection with the new draft Law “On Amendments and Additions to Certain Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan Relating to Environmental Issues”, aimed at engagement of Kazakh companies to implementation of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms.

Termination of Contract by a Subsoil User

Reasons for termination of a contract by a subsoil user. In practice, though rather seldom, there are such cases when due to certain reasons a contractor (subsoil user) decides to terminate the subsoil use contract. Such a situation may arise, for instance, in the following cases:

The Use of Renewable Energy Sources in Kazakhstan - Basic State Support Mechanisms

Energy sector of Kazakhstan is currently operating under difficult conditions when there is a gradual depletion of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, production of which is an expensive business), on the one hand, and developing and growing of the world entered policy of the eco-friendly power production with the use of renewable energy sources, on the other hand.

Exploitation of Hydrocarbon Resources in Cyprus

Geostrategic and financial interests regarding gas exploration and exploitation

EU Labor Law in Offshore Gas Drilling Operations

EU labor law in offshore gas-drilling operations has been recently challenged in the case of Salemink v. Raad van bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut werknemersverzekeringen, in the judgment of the Court’s Grand Chamber in January, 17, 2012.

Does California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard Discriminate Against Fuel Producers in Other States?

As part of their efforts to prevent the injurious consequences of high greenhouse gas emissions, legislators in California passed regulations requiring producers, refiners, and importers of diesel and gasoline to reduce their carbon footprint by 10 percent over a decade. In late December, a federal judge issued an injunction preventing California from enforcing its rules on the grounds that California's regulations were in violation of the Commerce Clause in the United States Constitution.

Texas Fracking Disclosure Law Will Help Analyze Water Concerns

Texas fracking disclosure law goes into effect February 1, 2012. According to reports, on February 1, 2011, Texas drilling operators will be required to begin reporting many of the chemicals used in a process known as hydraulic fracturing. Industry sources say hydraulic fracturing is a process in which a mixture of water and chemicals is shot into the earth in order to recover excess oil and gas.

Local Content Requirements for the Development of an Electric Power Infrastructure Project

To improve domestic production in Indonesia, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia (“GOI”) has issued regulations on the local content requirements for the procurement of goods and services in all government projects including electric power plants.

Joint Implementation Projects in Ukraine: Tips for Prospective Investors

On 4 February 2004, Ukraine ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This gave Ukraine an opportunity to engage in various types of projects purported at reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (the “GHG emissions”), in particular and especially joint implementation projects (the “JI projects”).

“Green” (“Feed-In”) Tariff in Ukraine

The “green” tariff for electricity (also known in many other jurisdictions as the “feed-in” tariff) was introduced in Ukraine relatively recently – only in 2008. Since that time it has evolved substantially and now appears to be quite mature in terms of the legislative base.

Do You Need an Arizona Dog Bite Attorney?

Being bitten by a dog can leave not only physical scars, but psychological scars as well. An experienced Arizona dog bit attorney knows that once an individual has been bitten or attacked by what they perceive to be a vicious dog, they will likely never feel the same about 'mans' best friend' again.

Renewable Energy: Turkey’s Hope for Energy Independence

Turkey is currently an energy-dependent country, with approximately 70% of its energy being supplied from imported sources. More investment in renewable energy has thus become vital for Turkey.

The Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This article shares the views on the Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo including Employment, Business Taxation, Environment, Physical Planning, Health & Safety, Consumer Protection, Competition Policy & Law, Monetary Policy, Foreign Exchange and Foreign Investors, Public Procurement, Intellectual Property, Investment Protection and Dispute Settlement.

Access and Admission of Foreign Investors in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This articles discusses the Investment Legislation and its Reasoning; Foreign Investment Establishment, Registering and Licensing Processes; Registering a company; Establishing a Bank; Investing in the Mining Sector; Mining Prospecting; Mining Exploration; Investing in the Forestry, Gold and Diamond Sectors; Foreign Employment & Residence and; Foreign Investor Access to Land and Property Rights within the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Which Parties Could be Held Responsible for Listeria-Tainted Cantaloupes?

A listeria outbreak linked to cantaloupes has affected people throughout the United States and spread to California. California has long provided broad protections to consumers who have suffered the personally injurious consequences of food borne illness, but the new case raises interesting questions concerning which parties could be held responsible for the outbreak, explains an attorney.

What Were Some of the Issues Concerning Litigation over Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether?

Over the years, as high levels of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) were discovered in water supplies throughout California and other states and the environmental and personally injurious health risks of the chemical studied, several lawsuits were filed against the oil companies responsible for the contamination. However, multiple legal issues concerning liability arose throughout the course of the litigation, explains an attorney.

Offshore Oil Drilling, Gas Exploration and Production on Activities in the EU

Introduction - Environmentally sustainable management at an international level requires reliable information on the natural environment, as well as sharing of knowledge on the social, economic, legal and political systems. Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep sea floor are of increasing international concern.

Petroleum Market Law and Its Implementations

Petroleum Market Law numbered 5015 has been enacted at December 4, 2003, within the efforts performed to institutionalize the market economy and improve the competitive environment in order to update the current legal regulations in the petroleum and petroleum product industry and regulate the markets.

Renewable Energy Credits: Representations and Warranties Every Buyer Should Ask for

When buying renewable energy credits (RECs), purchasers should make sure to negotiate a short but critical set of REC-focused representations and warranties. These representations and warranties are promises regarding the REC itself or the seller’s ownership of the REC.

The Connecting Europe Facility Regulation

The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Regulation and its impact on Cyprus Republic. The European Commission adopted on October 2011, a plan with a huge budgetary importance of around 50 billion euro aiming at improving EU’s transport, energy and networks.

Why Is the Department of Animal Services Seldom Held Liable for Dog Bites?

California law imposes a strict liability rule in dog bite cases, which means that an owner is always liable for any personal injury caused by his or her dog, even in situations where a dog has not bitten before, explains a lawyer. While owners may be held liable for their dogs under California's dog bite statute, as well as under negligence rules and the negligence per se doctrine, holding animal control responsible for a dog attack becomes a much more complicated proposition.

China's Construction Laws

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the main regulators and laws involved in carrying out construction projects in China. It also provides some useful tips for project owners to keep in mind when dealing with construction projects in China.

Criminal Liability for Animal Cruelty Was Vague Until Now

Under California Penal Code § 597, one can be charged with either felony or misdemeanor animal cruelty or neglect. There is no standard jury instruction on this offense, so in each trial, counsel must devise their own instruction, which can lead to confusion. Nowhere was this epitomized more clearly than in the case of Manuchehr Rizati.

Energy Market: New Legislation on Wholesale Traders in the EU

New legislation to present abuses to the disclosure of deals. New rules were adopted September 14, 2011 by the European Parliament to prevent abuses in wholesale energy trading for the final protection of consumers. According to the legislation, wholesale trading will be monitored independently across the EU, in order to enable Member States to prevent and punish anti-competitive behaviors.

EU Environment Policy: Results and Next Steps

Following the implementation of the 6th Environment Action Program (EAP), which was adopted on 22 July 2002 and provided the framework of EU’S Environment legislation and extended the Natura 2000 network, the European Commission adopted on 31 August 2011 the final assessment of the 6th EAP (2002-2012).

Energy Development Perspectives for the Republic of Cyprus

Based on Eurostat’s researches, the Republic of Cyprus disposes a very promising feedback from the energy saving and the renewable energy schemes, as more and more people apply for the available funding.

Law Practice Optimization and the Green Campaign: A Paperless Environment in the Law Firm for the 21st Century

Legal Practice Optimization or Law Practice Optimization (LPO) is the answer of the legal technology industry to the challenge the world faces for an eco-friendly work environment. It may be relatively new to many but this innovative way of managing the workplace is the first step any lawyer should take if they are keen to ensure the existence of a healthy planet for their children.

Proposed Bill Aiming to Exempt Ill Dogs from Rabies Vaccination

In the State of California, every dog owner is legally required to have their pet vaccinated regardless of the animal’s health condition. Certain animal rights advocates and an assemblyman think that the present animal regulation laws in California are not pro-animal at all.

Energy Efficient Ukraine: Is There a Light at the End of the Tunnel?

  By Integrites
Much was said and written about the need for Ukraine to re-structure its energy sector and implement the best European practices in its energy policy. However, very few actual steps were taken to modernize the regulatory framework and make energy regulations compliant with the EU legislation.

A General Overview on Natural Gas Market Law in Turkey

Recently, many local and international investors request to obtain more information as regards Turkish Natural Gas Market Law. The main aim of this article is to ensure a brief overview on Natural Gas Market Law in Turkey and accordingly to inform the readers concerning essentials of the legal structures such as the sources of natural gas market law, the type of natural gas market licenses, administrative procedures, administrative fines and sanctions and competition.

Oil Market Law in Turkey

“A general overview on Oil Market Law in Turkey” by Att. Arzu Ongur Ergan

EU Energy Policy and Targets - Energy Efficiency Plan

In March 2011, the European Commission adopted a plan for saving more energy through concrete measures. Energy efficiency is a key tool to strengthen Europe’s competitiveness and reduce energy dependence, as well as the level of emissions. The measures proposed aim at creating substantial benefits for businesses and public authorities.

First Approved EU Sustainability Schemes for Biofuels

On 19 July 2011, the European Commission issued a list of the first sustainable voluntary schemes for biofuels recognized directly in the 27 EU Member States. According to the Energy Commissioner, Günther Oettinger, the EU has to secure the entire biofuels production and supply with the highest sustainability standards in the world under a transparent and reliable system.

Carbon Capture and Storage - Changes to the Danish Subsoil Act

On 30 May 2011 the Danish parliament adopted the proposal for amending the Subsoil Act to implement the applicable EU rules on CCS that were passed by the EU in December 2008 . The article describes the new provisions that entered into force on 1 June 2011.

Administrative and Technical Requirements of the Construction of Strata Title - Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
In densely populated urban areas, where available land is very limited, it is necessary to develop residential in the form of strata title to provide a complete, balanced, and harmony with its surroundings.

Save Yourself the Hassle: Call BEFORE You Dig

Digging even a few inches in the wrong spot may impact your health and wallet.

Animal Attacks: A Potential Cure to Symptomatic Rabies

Animal attacks are classified as personal injuries; hence, liability can be apportioned to those who failed to take control of the animals they are supposed to take care of.

Legal System for Foreign Investments in Saudi Arabia in the Field of solar power

It is not recommended to think, ...that the idea of using solar power for mechanical operations is recent. (1)

How to Invest in Mining Sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

The Democratic Republic of Congo has a name chiefly for its mining potentialities which make it a real “geological scandal”. It possesses an extremely varied range of minerals which offers enormous possibilities of exploitation faced with an exploding global demand – case of demand of Asian emerging countries. All kinds of minerals are found here: diamond, gold, colombo tantalite, copper, cobalt, tin, iron, petroleum, methane gas, manganese, coal, bauxite, asphalt schist, and so on.

Recent Bankruptcy Court Decision May Illuminate Whether Electricity Will Be Considered a Good

I give the experimentalist’s answer to the very fundamental but very familiar query: “What is electricity?” His answer is naïve, but simple and definite. He admits at once that as to the ultimate nature of electricity he knows nothing. –Robert Millikan, American Nobel Laureate in Physics

California AB 32 Cap and Trade Law and Foreign Offset Credit Programs under Air Resources Board Regulations

Foreign Carbon Offsets under California’s AB 32 Cap and Trade Law by Memorandum of Understanding with Developing Countries and Least Developed Countries under Proposed Regulations from California's Air Resources Board.

EU Quality Policy Regarding Geographical Indications and Traditional Specialities

Since 1992, the European Union has operated three programs of product designations in order to promote and protect the names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. They fall into two categories: those linked to a territory and those relating to a particular production method.

China's Seed Industry

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the major legal issues associated with China's seed industry, as well as provides a snapshot of the main Chinese entities and government departments that are involved in the seed industry.

Nigerian Mining Industry: Opportunities for Foreign Investors

Nigeria is endowed with numerous mineral resources such as talc, iron ore, bitumen, gold, rock salt, gypsum, lead/zinc, coal, gemstones, kaolin, tantalite, bentonite and baryte located in different parts of the country in commercial quantity

Production Sharing Contract in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector

Nigeria had in the past years engaged in Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) for the exploration of her petroleum resources.

A Dog Importer Will Compensate the "Let Animals Live” Movement - Israel

Recently, the court obliged an importer of puppies from Uzbekistan to pay over 100,000 NIS to the "Let Animals Live" (Tnu L'Chayot Lichyot) foundation, for various expenses that the foundation bore after the puppies were imported to Israel.

PRC Renewable Energy Law (Amendment of 2009)

The amendment of the PRC Renewable Energy Law (the “Amendment”) has been adopted on December 26th, 2009, and shall come into effect as of April 1st, 2010.

Establishment of Tianjin Climate Exchange

On September 25 2008, Tianjin Climate Exchange (TCX) was set up in the Tianjin Binhai New Area, which is a joint venture between Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), the municipal government of Tianjin and the asset management unit of Petro China.

Incentives under the Long-Awaited Renewable Energy Law - Turkey

On 29 December 2010, the Turkish Parliament finally passed the long-awaited Law Amending the Law on Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources for the Purpose of Generating Electrical Energy (the “Amended RES Law”). The Amended RES Law was enacted to incentivize more investment in this field. Despite criticism, the extent to which the Amended RES Law will be successful in achieving this purpose is yet to be tested.

New Regulation Affecting Solar Thermoelectric and Wind Power Installations in Spain

On December 9th, 2010 came into force the new Royal Decree (RD 1614/2010) which governs and modifies certain aspects of electricity generation activities in Spain which use solar thermoelectric and wind power technologies; this law's aim is to contribute to the economic sustainability of the system.

Ongoing Arbitration for Mobil Oil over Venezuelan Assets

Mobil Corporation's claims in international arbitration against Venezuela's national oil company raises issues common to all commercial transactions that cross borders.

Mining Duties, Royalties and Taxes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Mainly, the mining industry comes under the control of is the Mining Code and the ancillary Mining Regulation. This legislature is in general application throughout the entire country and offers some tax advantages and incentives available to private parties that perform mining activities.

Energy Regulations in Bulgaria and Turkey: a Comparative Study

The main aim of this brief article is to give a bird view on energy laws of Turkey and Bulgaria in a comparative manner.

Why Is Renewable Energy Support Necessary? - Estonia

The Minister of Economic Affairs and Communication stated recently that support for renewable energy should be reduced. It is commendable that politicians are thinking about ways to reduce the price of electricity. But before going to all the trouble of amending laws, decisions should be carefully analyzed.

Find a Local Lawyer