Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Environmental and Natural Resources.

New Exploitation Environmental License: New Requirement for Mining Operators in the DRC

The emergence of various environmental issues and their negative impacts on the quality of life, including the reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements engaging countries to develop ancillary national laws, policies, plans and programs to regulate and supervise human activities and to mitigate their impact on the environment, constitutes the common heritage for all human beings.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Ratification of the Cooperation Agreement of September 9, 2010 Between Congo-Brazzaville and Angola

The Republic of Congo (“Congo-Brazzaville”) has authorized the ratification of the cooperation agreement of September 9, 2010, with the Republic of Angola in the area of mining and geology, by Law No. 17-2013 of August 13th, 2013.

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Mining Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

The California Coastal Commission Reviews Fracking Along the California Coast

Whether the California Coastal Commission Eventually Regulates Fracking On the Outer Continental Shelf Will Have More to Do with Federalism than Science

2013 Turkey Energy Report

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health and safety of employees and other persons affected by the South African mining industry has been amended. The current amendment is related to Chapter 11 of the Regulations in terms of act. The exit certificate in section 17 must include details regarding a least the following: particulars of mine, particulars of employees and exit medical summary.

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects, including reduction in biodiversity, soil, air and water pollution, has urged the International Community to adopt multilateral environmental agreements.

Burkina Faso: The Council of Ministers Adopts the Draft of New Mining Code

On October 2, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Burkina Faso adopted a draft of new mining code. This draft which was in discussion since 2012, aims to amend and replace the Law No. 031-2003/AN of May 8, 2003 on the Mining Code in Burkina Faso.

Agricultural Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of 342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Forest Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a surface of ​​342,000 km2 with a population of approximately four (4) million.

Inga Falls - Hydro Power - Congo

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga power project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Electricity Market Liberalization in Turkey: EU Directives and Harmonization

As is known, the Turkish energy sector has been in a liberalization process for a long time and compared to other energy markets, the electricity market is in the fore especially regarding the legislation. Recently, the eligible customer limit in electricity market has been decreased to 4500 kWh from 5000 kWh per year within the Resolution of the Energy Market Regulatory Board in January 2014.

Legal Outlook of Turkish Gas Market

With rapidly growing economy, Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world. Turkey has been experiencing rapid demand growth in all segments of the energy sector for decades.

Implications of the Carbon Tax on South Africa’s transition into a greener economy

As developing countries, such as South Africa, transition into more industrialized countries, they face numerous problems relating to their social, economic and political development. Despite South Africa’s incorporation of ideas such as state equality, principles of non-aggression and non-intervention, in which it aims to earn its seat in the framework of International Law; there is no doubt that South Africa is still searching for its respective place in the global economy.

Hydro Power Harnesses the Power Potential of the Congo River - Inga Falls

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80 billion hydro power project- “Inga Power Project” which will start in October 2015 is set to harness the power potential of the Congo River, sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest waterway.

Energy Sector in Turkey and the Central Importance of EPİAŞ

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

Energy regulation (electricity and gas) in Albania

Albania performs reasonably well overall with respect to the quality of its energy (electricity and natural gas) sector. The recent EBRD energy law reform dimensions assessment has shown with regards to the country’s electricity legislation that private sector participation and market framework are the key weaknesses, with regulatory independence being the key strength.

Hydroelectricity Power in Turkey

Turkey is rapidly becoming a very important market player in its own territory with ambitious targets in energy sector.

A Test for Turkish Electricity Market: Fraud-Based Manipulation

Turkish electricity market is rapidly transforming a competitive open market by consistent privatization and liberalization policies of Turkish government.

An Overview On Turkish Petroleum Market

As is known, the petroleum explorations have come to the fore in Turkey within the discovery of new oil wells. Even if its oil production does not meet the oil demand, Turkey has been working also on reforms in oil market like in other energy sub-sectors.

Energy Privatizations as a Part of Energy Market Liberalization - Turkey

Apart from the legal reforms and establishment of an energy exchange, privatizations are one of the energy market liberalization stages.

What Are the Laws Regarding Animal Testing?

  By HG.org
In the United States, a number of products like pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and detergents are first tested on animals to determine what their effects are likely to be on humans. This has raised a number legal and ethical concerns among consumers. So, what are the laws regarding animal testing?

Recent Legal Reforms in Energy and Market Expectations

For the purpose of meeting the energy gap of Turkey and of increasing of the energy production, adequate legal reforms have been made regularly by taking the market requirements and market situation.

Key Process-Plant Specific Clauses in Process-Plant EPC Contracts - Turkey

Mostly, EPC Contracts will not provide for the handover of the facility to the project company until all commissioning and reliability trialing has been successfully completed.

Electricity and Natural Gas Correlation in Turkey: Fragility in Trading and Pricing Mechanism

Turkey has a very high foreign-source dependency in energy sector by 75% whereas natural gas dependency mounts to 98%.

Incentives on Renewables in Turkey

As many other countries, Turkey also intends to increase the rate of renewable energy resources to 30 % in its power generation until 20231. In accordance with this, adequate legislative amendments and legal reforms in energy have been made since 2010 which provide diverse incentives to investors. Recently, the Council of Ministers passed a resolution concerning investments and domestic production in renewable energy.

Future Energy Market Opportunities for Investment Funds in Turkey

The most promising sector in Turkey. Government's diversified energy policies will pioneer many energy areas.

A Perspective on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Regulations in The Turkish Market

The Draft of New Natural Gas Market Law provides incentives not only regarding the natural gas, but also regarding the LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) import and LNG terminal establishment.

Moratorium on Ukrainian Land Not a Problem

Ukraine is the biggest country in Europe. It borders with Russia, Belorussia, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland. It has on area of 603,700 km2 which is approximately equal to 5.7%territory of Europe or 0.44%of globe.

An Alternative Financing for Renewable Energy Project in Turkey: ESCO Financial Modelling

Since the motivation of being energy hub between Middle East and Europe , energy resources diversification is adopted by Turkish policymakers. Herein, Turkish government commenced to regulate renewable energy sector with new legislations and incentives.

Future Projection of Turkey Gas Market: Comparison with Germany Gas Market Structure

The natural gas market structure in Germany as an example. The liberalization of natural gas market in Germany has begun in 2006 with new legislation, through which the German Power Supply Agency (Bundesnetzagentur) has been instructed to control the natural gas market.

Akkuyu as First Nuclear Power Plant Project of Turkey

Due to increase of energy demand, consumption and especially external energy dependence of Turkey, the requirement of new energy resources has come to the fore. Since the primary energy resources such as natural gas and petroleum are exhaustible, nuclear energy has been a preferred energy resource in the world.

Natural Gas Projects in Turkey: Tuz Golu Project as a Pioneer

Turkey intends to increase its natural gas storage capacity through natural gas storage projects. At present, the Natural Gas Storage Project in Tuz Gölü which is operated by project partners from Turkey and China is in progress and its completion is planned until 2018.

New projection for natural gas supply of Turkey: TANAP Project

The part of the natural gas increases progressively in Turkish energy market due to its advantages, such that it has been subject to large projects.

Promising Market for Hedging the Risk in Energy: Turkish Electricity Derivatives Market

The most significant characteristic behaviour of an emerging market is displaying volatility in electricity market. As a consequence of market price risks on electricity markets, market players keen on hedging risk by applying financial derivatives.

New Draft on Natural Gas Market in Turkey: Expected Judicial Amendments and Market Dynamics

Turkey's extensive energy vision brought new developments on electricity, natural gas and renewable markets. The mainstream of Turkish policy makers is regulating the natural gas market with the objective to create competitive market conditions and pricing mechanism. The new draft on Natural Gas Market Law which is occupying the agenda since last year, will precisely act a prominent role on reconfiguring the market.

Incentives for Waste-to-Energy Plants in Turkey

In order to assess waste products, expand the utilization of renewable energy sources for generating electrical energy and benefit from these resources in a secure, economic and qualified manner with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Renewable Energy Law and Law on Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources for the Purpose of Generating Electrical Energy (“the Law”) has been recently amended in Turkey.

Which is Safer: Tap or Bottled Water?

  By HG.org
Each year, millions of Americans consume billions of gallons of water. The boom in the bottled water industry was fueled, in part, by beliefs that bottled water was cleaner and more heavily regulated than tap water. But then a backlash by others in the media showed that much bottle water was simply tap water in a bottle. So, is one form of water more heavily regulated and safer than the other?

Is it Legal to Raise Wild Animals or Keep Them as Pets?

  By HG.org
Anyone who has grown up near a park, nature preserve, or in a rural setting probably came across a wild animal that he or she wished to adopt. Whether it was a baby duckling, a squirrel, a raccoon, or even a bear cub, there are laws affecting raising wild animals.

Nebraska Department of Agriculture Laws and Regulations

Legal cases involving agriculture, cattle, dairy herds, poultry, and other herds may revolve around various issues which can range from disease, genetics, and environmental concerns to water rights, crop injuries, personal injuries to persons working in these fields, and more

Lack Of Complete Diversity Of Citizenship Of Members Of Equine LLCs Requires Dismissal Of Federal Action

The issue of diversity of citizenship is of particular interest to equine ownership and contract disputes, because many equine-related entities are organized as limited liability companies (LLCs). The citizenship of LLCs is subject to a different rule than the citizenship of corporations, a distinction that may escape the attention of attorneys.

New Advantages in Energy with the New Regulation: Unlicensed Electrical Energy Production - Turkey

As of 02.10.2013, everyone will be able to produce his/her own electrical energy in certain amounts. Due to the Regulation on Electrical Energy Production without License which has been entered on 02.10.2013 into force, every residence may produce a certain amount of its electricity and sell the surplus.

New Regulation in Renewable Energy: Regulation on Support and Certification of Renewable Energy Resources - Turkey

Renewable energy resources support mechanism is operated for support of renewable energy production in Turkey as price-purchase guarantee. Accordingly, the state provides a purchase guarantee for renewable energy producers.

Untested Nature of Carbon Capture May Present Loophole for Coal and Electric Industry

  By HG.org
The Obama administration has been cracking down on environmental regulations, particularly with regard to global warming. Faced with this increased pressure, the coal and electric industries are applying a new legal strategy they believe will allow them to take advantage of a loophole and prevent most EPA enforcement measures.

Insight into Turkey's Energy Market and New Energy Exchange EPIAS

Turkey proved its aspiration with the liberalization of electricity market for being an energy hub in the heart of Europe and Middle East territory. According to Türk Eletrik İletim Anonim Şirketi (TEİAŞ) 2012 report, the electricity demand in Turkey will arise within the range of 398-434 billion kWh in the light of historical perspective in 2023.

Failing to Disclose Environmental Defects in Property Sales

  By HG.org
Have you purchased a piece of land only to discover after the sale that there was pollution on the property? Are you thinking of selling a house and wondering how much you need to disclose? Understanding the laws related to environmental disclosures can mean the difference between a costly lawsuit and a smooth transaction.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries. With a population of more than 14 million of whom more than 80% live on activities directly or indirectly related to land, the country of upright people, like other Sahel countries, is confronted to emerging environmental problems.

Gabon: The Council of Ministers Adopts a Draft Law Regulating the Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

Key Legislation and Regulatory Structure in the Angolan Oil and Gas Sector

  By FCB
This article offers an overview of the key legislation and regulatory structure governing the oil and gas sector in Angola and was written as part of a publication on the oil and gas sector for Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer.

A Q&A Guide to Electricity Regulation in Bulgaria

This Q&A guide gives a high level overview of the domestic electricity market in Bulgaria, including domestic electricity companies, electricity generation and renewable energy, transmission, distribution, supply and tax issues. It covers the regulatory structure; foreign ownership; import of electricity; authorisation and operating requirements; trading between generators and suppliers; rates and conditions of sale and proposals for reform.

Update on Foreign Investment in Ukrainian Agricultural Land

The moratorium on alienation of Ukrainian farm land has long prevented meaningful foreign investment into the Ukrainian agricultural sector. To somehow obtain access to agricultural land, instead of outright ownership foreign investors had to register Ukrainian companies that entered into lease agreements with landowners, most with a “right to buy” option if and when the moratorium will be lifted.

The DR Congo New Agricultural Law N° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 Is Currently Being Amended and Supplemented

On December 24, 2011, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (“DRC”) enacted a new agricultural Law, n° 11/022, (the “Law”) that sets broad guidelines for the agricultural sector. Since its entry into force on June 24, 2012, the Law has been a source of concern for foreign businesses operating in the agricultural sector because of its ownership clause which restricts foreigners’ access to farmlands.

Overview on Mining Law in Burkina Faso and Current Trends

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West-Africa and surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the southeast; Togo and Ghana to the south and Ivory Coast to the southwest. Burkina Faso is rich in natural resources and is emerging as one of the most attractive mining destinations in Africa especially for gold exploration and exploitation.

The Ownership of a Mine after Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights - Democratic Republic of Congo

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for Permanent Quarry Exploitation, collectively referred to («mining and quarry rights») is principally to grant to their titleholders the right to mine natural or artificial deposits located above or below the concerned mining perimeter.

Adoption of a New Legislation for a Better Industrial Environment in the DRC

Before the social movements of plunder and anti-plunder of 1990s, wars and other civil revolts, the Republic Democratic of the Congo, (“DRC”) was among the most industrialized countries of Central Africa.


Forty-two years of the Kaddafi regime’s apathetic attitude and incoherent economic development strategies left Libya as one of the least developed of the oil producing countries.

Law "On Gas and Gas Supply" - The State Strengthens its Positions in Kazakhstan

On 9 January 2012, the President of Kazakhstan signed the Law "On Gas and Gas Supply", which has no analogue in the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, since earlier this sector was governed by the subsoil laws and a range of governmental resolutions. In this Article, we would like to inform on the important legal changes, which may affect activities of companies working in the gas industry.

Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building - Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
Local Government of DKI Jakarta has issued the Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building (“Governor Regulation No.38/2012“) the regulation regulates the implementation of the concept of energy efficiency and environmentally buildings. Green building means a building that is responsible against environment and resource efficiency since the planning, construction, utilization, maintenance, until deconstruction (Article 1 number 11 of Governor Regulation No.38/2012).

Kazakhstan is Due to Adopt a New Law "On the Main Pipeline"

In keeping with GRATA Law Firm’s policy of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that may affect their business, we would like to draw your attention to recent changes in Kazakh legislation in connection with the adoption of the new draft law entitled "On the Main Pipeline".

Shale Gas in Texas

Shale formations are an invaluable resource when it comes to natural gas and oil. The side effects of drilling in these shale deposits, however, can be costly. Shale is a type of rock which is made out of mud, clay, and fragments of other minerals. Shale is characterized by the thin layers make up the rock, meaning it can easily splinter and flake.

Transferring Quarry and Mining Rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]

The mining code of the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] provides for a possibility of leasing and assigning mining and quarry rights. Since mining and quarry rights, as expressed in mining and quarry permits, are real and exclusive property rights, it is possible to lease and assign these rights, although under the restrictions set out in the Mining Code.

Environmental Audit, One of the Conditions for Mining Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Mining is a key sector and continues to grow in several part of the world including in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Legislation for mining may require an environmental impact assessment to be carried out before a mine is developed, and that a mine be developed and operated in an environmentally sound manner with the least impact on the environment. This paper gives insights of the environmental audit for mining operations in the DRC.

Recent Developments in Oil-and-Gas and Energy Sectors in Ukraine

On the way to the European integration, and by virtue of the determined Ukrainian policy towards energy independence, the Ukrainian Government is taking significant steps to improve Ukrainian energy sector. Currently, important changes are being introduced in the oil-and-gas industry. This has already encouraged global oil-and-gas companies such as Exxon Mobil, Shell, Chevron, and Eni to commence investment activity in Ukraine.

New Incentive Scheme of Turkey

Turkish Cabinet has announced a new decree on 15th June 2012, numbered 2012/3305 and published on official gazette of 19th June 2012.

Photovoltaic Investments in Greece

The photovoltaic market in Greece offers great opportunities for investors, as it is expected to rise significantly within the coming years. Greece has grown to be one of the major investment destinations for solar energy production in the European Union; it is the southernmost country of EU, with almost 300 days of sunshine per year, and thus a massive potential for photovoltaic investments.

Environmental Laws and How They Can Protect You and Your Property

Environment laws protect our natural resources by regulating businesses that have the potential to impact them. Due to the importance of these laws, the Environmental Protection Agency was formed as a federal agency whose main task is to control and decrease pollution by researching potential hazards, monitoring companies that may cause environmental harm, setting standards of practice to minimize environmental impact and enforcing punishments for those who violate environmental regulations.

Ukraine’s Foreign Investors and the Lifting of Farmland Moratorium

Ukraine has long been called “the bread-basket of Europe,” and for one excellent reason: its fertile, black soil. The estimated value of this treasure is anywhere between 40 and 80 billion dollars. The only problem with investing in such an obviously profitable business was an artificial bureaucratic/legislative barrier commonly known as the “moratorium on alienation of farm land” (the “Moratorium”).

Kazakhstan: New Local Content Approach

General overview of Kazakhstan in World Mineral Industry. - Kazakhstan ranks second only to Russia among the countries of the CIS in its quantity of mineral production. It is endowed with large reserves of a wide range of metallic ores, industrial minerals, and fuels, and its metallurgical sector is a major producer of a large number of metals from domestic and imported raw materials.

Texas Supreme Court Hands Down Decision On Texas Water Rights

According to legal reports, the Texas Supreme Court has recently passed down a landmark decision on water rights in the lone star state. Reportedly, the crux of the decision is that landowners own the water which is beneath their property. Sources say that after two years of litigation and speculation as to what the court might do, a decision was handed down on February 24, 2012.

Oregon Dog Bite Injury Claims

If you've been bitten by someone else's dog, and you are considering filing an injury claim against the dog's owner, you need to understand Oregon dog bite laws and how to prove negligence. Dog bites can be serious injuries, and cause both physical and emotional harm. But a dog bite victim will have trouble getting compensation unless he or she can prove the dog's owner had reason to believe the dog was dangerous.

Environmental Inspections

Environmental inspections: practical recommendations for subsoil users on supporting and appealing environmental inspections (as amended by the Law of the RoK ‘On state control and supervision in the Republic of Kazakhstan’ dated 06 January 2011).

Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Use of Renewable Energy Sources

In line with GRATA Law Firm’s practice of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that might influence their business, we would like to draw your attention to the recently enacted Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 'On Supporting the Use of Renewable Energy Sources' aimed at the creation of legal framework for the use of renewable energy sources in Kazakhstan.

Flaring, Disposition and Processing of Associated Gas in the Course of Oil Operations: Legal Provisions

Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 'On Subsoil and Subsoil Use': a head for the processing of associated and natural gas. One of the most serious environmental and economic problems connected with oil operations in Kazakhstan is the refusal to flare associated and natural gas in fields and the transition to its processing. Even in the recent past, gas flaring has been a part of the process of oil companies in Kazakhstan and occurred in almost all fields.

Kazakhstan Introduces Legislation on Climate Change

In line with GRATA Law Firm’s practice of keeping clients informed of important legal developments that might influence their business, we would like to draw your attention to prospective changes in Kazakh legislation in connection with the new draft Law “On Amendments and Additions to Certain Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan Relating to Environmental Issues”, aimed at engagement of Kazakh companies to implementation of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms.

Termination of Contract by a Subsoil User

Reasons for termination of a contract by a subsoil user. In practice, though rather seldom, there are such cases when due to certain reasons a contractor (subsoil user) decides to terminate the subsoil use contract. Such a situation may arise, for instance, in the following cases:

The Use of Renewable Energy Sources in Kazakhstan - Basic State Support Mechanisms

Energy sector of Kazakhstan is currently operating under difficult conditions when there is a gradual depletion of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, production of which is an expensive business), on the one hand, and developing and growing of the world entered policy of the eco-friendly power production with the use of renewable energy sources, on the other hand.

Exploitation of Hydrocarbon Resources in Cyprus

Geostrategic and financial interests regarding gas exploration and exploitation

EU Labor Law in Offshore Gas Drilling Operations

EU labor law in offshore gas-drilling operations has been recently challenged in the case of Salemink v. Raad van bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut werknemersverzekeringen, in the judgment of the Court’s Grand Chamber in January, 17, 2012.

Does California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard Discriminate Against Fuel Producers in Other States?

As part of their efforts to prevent the injurious consequences of high greenhouse gas emissions, legislators in California passed regulations requiring producers, refiners, and importers of diesel and gasoline to reduce their carbon footprint by 10 percent over a decade. In late December, a federal judge issued an injunction preventing California from enforcing its rules on the grounds that California's regulations were in violation of the Commerce Clause in the United States Constitution.

Texas Fracking Disclosure Law Will Help Analyze Water Concerns

Texas fracking disclosure law goes into effect February 1, 2012. According to reports, on February 1, 2011, Texas drilling operators will be required to begin reporting many of the chemicals used in a process known as hydraulic fracturing. Industry sources say hydraulic fracturing is a process in which a mixture of water and chemicals is shot into the earth in order to recover excess oil and gas.

Local Content Requirements for the Development of an Electric Power Infrastructure Project

To improve domestic production in Indonesia, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia (“GOI”) has issued regulations on the local content requirements for the procurement of goods and services in all government projects including electric power plants.

Joint Implementation Projects in Ukraine: Tips for Prospective Investors

On 4 February 2004, Ukraine ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This gave Ukraine an opportunity to engage in various types of projects purported at reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (the “GHG emissions”), in particular and especially joint implementation projects (the “JI projects”).

“Green” (“Feed-In”) Tariff in Ukraine

The “green” tariff for electricity (also known in many other jurisdictions as the “feed-in” tariff) was introduced in Ukraine relatively recently – only in 2008. Since that time it has evolved substantially and now appears to be quite mature in terms of the legislative base.

Do You Need an Arizona Dog Bite Attorney?

Being bitten by a dog can leave not only physical scars, but psychological scars as well. An experienced Arizona dog bit attorney knows that once an individual has been bitten or attacked by what they perceive to be a vicious dog, they will likely never feel the same about 'mans' best friend' again.

Renewable Energy: Turkey’s Hope for Energy Independence

Turkey is currently an energy-dependent country, with approximately 70% of its energy being supplied from imported sources. More investment in renewable energy has thus become vital for Turkey.

The Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This article shares the views on the Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo including Employment, Business Taxation, Environment, Physical Planning, Health & Safety, Consumer Protection, Competition Policy & Law, Monetary Policy, Foreign Exchange and Foreign Investors, Public Procurement, Intellectual Property, Investment Protection and Dispute Settlement.

Access and Admission of Foreign Investors in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This articles discusses the Investment Legislation and its Reasoning; Foreign Investment Establishment, Registering and Licensing Processes; Registering a company; Establishing a Bank; Investing in the Mining Sector; Mining Prospecting; Mining Exploration; Investing in the Forestry, Gold and Diamond Sectors; Foreign Employment & Residence and; Foreign Investor Access to Land and Property Rights within the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Which Parties Could be Held Responsible for Listeria-Tainted Cantaloupes?

A listeria outbreak linked to cantaloupes has affected people throughout the United States and spread to California. California has long provided broad protections to consumers who have suffered the personally injurious consequences of food borne illness, but the new case raises interesting questions concerning which parties could be held responsible for the outbreak, explains an attorney.

What Were Some of the Issues Concerning Litigation over Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether?

Over the years, as high levels of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) were discovered in water supplies throughout California and other states and the environmental and personally injurious health risks of the chemical studied, several lawsuits were filed against the oil companies responsible for the contamination. However, multiple legal issues concerning liability arose throughout the course of the litigation, explains an attorney.

Offshore Oil Drilling, Gas Exploration and Production on Activities in the EU

Introduction - Environmentally sustainable management at an international level requires reliable information on the natural environment, as well as sharing of knowledge on the social, economic, legal and political systems. Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep sea floor are of increasing international concern.

Petroleum Market Law and Its Implementations

Petroleum Market Law numbered 5015 has been enacted at December 4, 2003, within the efforts performed to institutionalize the market economy and improve the competitive environment in order to update the current legal regulations in the petroleum and petroleum product industry and regulate the markets.

Renewable Energy Credits: Representations and Warranties Every Buyer Should Ask for

When buying renewable energy credits (RECs), purchasers should make sure to negotiate a short but critical set of REC-focused representations and warranties. These representations and warranties are promises regarding the REC itself or the seller’s ownership of the REC.

The Connecting Europe Facility Regulation

The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Regulation and its impact on Cyprus Republic. The European Commission adopted on October 2011, a plan with a huge budgetary importance of around 50 billion euro aiming at improving EU’s transport, energy and networks.

Why Is the Department of Animal Services Seldom Held Liable for Dog Bites?

California law imposes a strict liability rule in dog bite cases, which means that an owner is always liable for any personal injury caused by his or her dog, even in situations where a dog has not bitten before, explains a lawyer. While owners may be held liable for their dogs under California's dog bite statute, as well as under negligence rules and the negligence per se doctrine, holding animal control responsible for a dog attack becomes a much more complicated proposition.

China's Construction Laws

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the main regulators and laws involved in carrying out construction projects in China. It also provides some useful tips for project owners to keep in mind when dealing with construction projects in China.

Criminal Liability for Animal Cruelty Was Vague Until Now

Under California Penal Code § 597, one can be charged with either felony or misdemeanor animal cruelty or neglect. There is no standard jury instruction on this offense, so in each trial, counsel must devise their own instruction, which can lead to confusion. Nowhere was this epitomized more clearly than in the case of Manuchehr Rizati.

Energy Market: New Legislation on Wholesale Traders in the EU

New legislation to present abuses to the disclosure of deals. New rules were adopted September 14, 2011 by the European Parliament to prevent abuses in wholesale energy trading for the final protection of consumers. According to the legislation, wholesale trading will be monitored independently across the EU, in order to enable Member States to prevent and punish anti-competitive behaviors.

EU Environment Policy: Results and Next Steps

Following the implementation of the 6th Environment Action Program (EAP), which was adopted on 22 July 2002 and provided the framework of EU’S Environment legislation and extended the Natura 2000 network, the European Commission adopted on 31 August 2011 the final assessment of the 6th EAP (2002-2012).

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