Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Environmental and Natural Resources.

Developing Photovoltaic Power Plant in Turkey

According to the decision of Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK) on 24 May 2012, EPDK is planning to accept photovoltaic power plant...
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Turkish Energy Market Compliance: Lacunae In Turkish Natural Gas Law

In recent years, several natural gas pipeline projects and natural gas import opportunities have come to the force in Turkey. After completion...

Legislation on Electric Energy in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa. The Republic of the Congo straddles the...

How to Establish an Energy Company in Turkey?

Company establishment in Turkey is one of the initially asked questions by an investor before start up of an investment project. Even if the...

Game Changer Discovery: Leviathan Gas Field And Turkey’s Energy Projection

Current gas field discoveries covering Leviathan and Tamar gas fields induced Israel to scrutinize applied energy strategies in Mediterranean...

How to Tackle the Problems of the Turkish Mining Industry?

Turkey's ever growing energy needs relocates the mining industry to the center stage in Turkey's energy policy. However as the mining industry...

An Overview of Hydroelectricity in Turkish Energy Market

As is known,the renewable energy resources have gained great importance in energy production in Turkey as well as in the world. By reason of the...

New Environmental Protection Law will lead China into a Cleaner Future

On April 24, 2014, the Standing Committee of China's National People's Congress (“NPC”) approved to adopt the amendment to the Environmental...

Increasing Appeal of the Turkish Energy Market:TANAP

The tender processes and construction works on TANAP Project are in progress and start of the construction of this pipeline is expected in this...

How to Penetrate the Turkish Energy Market?

The energy market is one of the most preferred markets by investors. Especially within the opening of the energy market to competition to a...

Turkish Renewable Energy Market

Turkey's high economic growth which had reached almost double digits numbers by the middle of the last decade and stands around an annual...

How Arbitrary and Nasty the Power of Eminent Domain Can Be

Seizure of the Barries' Colorado dream cabin shows how arbitrary and nasty the power of eminent domain can be.

The Coastal Commission’s support for AB 976 Shows Due Process Apathy

Every monthly meeting the California Coastal Commission releases a list of bills in the current legislative session that it is supporting. It...

New Opportunity For the Turkish Energy Market: The Eastern Mediterranean Gas Fields

The high economic growth of Turkey which has been going on for more than a decade now intensified Turkey's need for more energy. It is estimated...

Liguefied Natural Gas Market in Turkey

Currently, the importance of the Liguefied Natural Gas ("LNG") has come to the fore with the discussions concerning the probable problems in...

How Does Malaysian Law Deal With Acts of Piracy at Sea?

Piracy is a prevailing problem with no reasonable solution in sight. How safe is your ship or consignment passing through the seas surrounding...

Democratic Republic of the Congo: New Agricultural Law n° 11/022 Being Amended and Supplemented

The Democratic Republic of the Congo new agricultural law n° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 is currently being amended and supplemented.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22

“The DRC New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22 of December 24, 2011″ in Africa Law Today, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Ownership of a Mine After Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for...

Democratic Republic of Congo: Mining companies and the Value Added Tax (VAT)

In the following paragraphs, we do not have the pretention to review the legal meaning of the Ordinance-Act No 10/001 dated August 20, 2010...

Concessions in Albania / PPP in Albania

According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared...

Guinea: Enactment of Law Amending the Mining Code of 2011

New perspectives for the mining sector in Guinea: enactment of the law amending the Mining Code of 2011.

Gabon: Council of Ministers Adopts Draft Law on Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of...

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly Has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries.

Characteristics of Hydrocarbon in the Republic of Congo

The Republic of Congo is one of the hydrocarbon-producing countries in Africa. This production accounts for a larger contribution of around 75%...

Significant Changes Currently Taking Place in Electrical Power Law in the Democratic Republic of Congo

In article 48 of DRC Constitution of 18 February 2006 as amended to date, the right of access to electricity is enshrined and guaranteed to the...

Mining Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a...

Oil Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The country is bordered by Central African Republic and the Republic of Cameroon to the north, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south...

Ratification of the Cooperation Agreement of September 9, 2010 Between Congo-Brazzaville and Angola

The Republic of Congo (“Congo-Brazzaville”) has authorized the ratification of the cooperation agreement of September 9, 2010, with the Republic...

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects,...

New Exploitation Environmental License: New Requirement for Mining Operators in the DRC

The emergence of various environmental issues and their negative impacts on the quality of life, including the reduction in biodiversity, soil,...

The California Coastal Commission Reviews Fracking Along the California Coast

Whether the California Coastal Commission Eventually Regulates Fracking On the Outer Continental Shelf Will Have More to Do with Federalism than...

2013 Turkey Energy Report

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

Inga Falls - Hydro Power - Congo

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80...

Forest Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a...

Agricultural Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a...

Burkina Faso: The Council of Ministers Adopts the Draft of New Mining Code

On October 2, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Burkina Faso adopted a draft of new mining code. This draft which was in discussion since 2012,...

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects,...

South Africa: Amendment of Mine Health and Safety Act (No. 29 of 1996)

In South Africa, the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29 of 1996) as amended (“the act”), providing for the protection of the health...

Legal Outlook of Turkish Gas Market

With rapidly growing economy, Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world. Turkey has been experiencing rapid...

Electricity Market Liberalization in Turkey: EU Directives and Harmonization

As is known, the Turkish energy sector has been in a liberalization process for a long time and compared to other energy markets, the...

Hydro Power Harnesses the Power Potential of the Congo River - Inga Falls

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80...

Implications of the Carbon Tax on South Africa’s transition into a greener economy

As developing countries, such as South Africa, transition into more industrialized countries, they face numerous problems relating to their...

Energy Sector in Turkey and the Central Importance of EPİAŞ

The demand has reached to such a high extend that energy sector had turned in to one of the most important sectors that have been contributing...

Energy regulation (electricity and gas) in Albania

Albania performs reasonably well overall with respect to the quality of its energy (electricity and natural gas) sector. The recent EBRD energy...

Hydroelectricity Power in Turkey

Turkey is rapidly becoming a very important market player in its own territory with ambitious targets in energy sector.

An Overview On Turkish Petroleum Market

As is known, the petroleum explorations have come to the fore in Turkey within the discovery of new oil wells. Even if its oil production does...

A Test for Turkish Electricity Market: Fraud-Based Manipulation

Turkish electricity market is rapidly transforming a competitive open market by consistent privatization and liberalization policies of Turkish...

Energy Privatizations as a Part of Energy Market Liberalization - Turkey

Apart from the legal reforms and establishment of an energy exchange, privatizations are one of the energy market liberalization stages.

What Are the Laws Regarding Animal Testing?

  By HG.org
In the United States, a number of products like pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and detergents are first tested on animals to determine what their...

Recent Legal Reforms in Energy and Market Expectations

For the purpose of meeting the energy gap of Turkey and of increasing of the energy production, adequate legal reforms have been made regularly...

Electricity and Natural Gas Correlation in Turkey: Fragility in Trading and Pricing Mechanism

Turkey has a very high foreign-source dependency in energy sector by 75% whereas natural gas dependency mounts to 98%.

Key Process-Plant Specific Clauses in Process-Plant EPC Contracts - Turkey

Mostly, EPC Contracts will not provide for the handover of the facility to the project company until all commissioning and reliability trialing...

Incentives on Renewables in Turkey

As many other countries, Turkey also intends to increase the rate of renewable energy resources to 30 % in its power generation until 20231. In...

Future Energy Market Opportunities for Investment Funds in Turkey

The most promising sector in Turkey. Government's diversified energy policies will pioneer many energy areas.

A Perspective on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Regulations in The Turkish Market

The Draft of New Natural Gas Market Law provides incentives not only regarding the natural gas, but also regarding the LNG (Liquified Natural...

Moratorium on Ukrainian Land Not a Problem

Ukraine is the biggest country in Europe. It borders with Russia, Belorussia, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland. It has on area of...

Akkuyu as First Nuclear Power Plant Project of Turkey

Due to increase of energy demand, consumption and especially external energy dependence of Turkey, the requirement of new energy resources has...

Future Projection of Turkey Gas Market: Comparison with Germany Gas Market Structure

The natural gas market structure in Germany as an example. The liberalization of natural gas market in Germany has begun in 2006 with new...

An Alternative Financing for Renewable Energy Project in Turkey: ESCO Financial Modelling

Since the motivation of being energy hub between Middle East and Europe , energy resources diversification is adopted by Turkish policymakers....

Natural Gas Projects in Turkey: Tuz Golu Project as a Pioneer

Turkey intends to increase its natural gas storage capacity through natural gas storage projects. At present, the Natural Gas Storage Project in...

Promising Market for Hedging the Risk in Energy: Turkish Electricity Derivatives Market

The most significant characteristic behaviour of an emerging market is displaying volatility in electricity market. As a consequence of market...

New projection for natural gas supply of Turkey: TANAP Project

The part of the natural gas increases progressively in Turkish energy market due to its advantages, such that it has been subject to large...

Incentives for Waste-to-Energy Plants in Turkey

In order to assess waste products, expand the utilization of renewable energy sources for generating electrical energy and benefit from these...

New Draft on Natural Gas Market in Turkey: Expected Judicial Amendments and Market Dynamics

Turkey's extensive energy vision brought new developments on electricity, natural gas and renewable markets. The mainstream of Turkish policy...

Which is Safer: Tap or Bottled Water?

  By HG.org
Each year, millions of Americans consume billions of gallons of water. The boom in the bottled water industry was fueled, in part, by beliefs...

Is it Legal to Raise Wild Animals or Keep Them as Pets?

  By HG.org
Anyone who has grown up near a park, nature preserve, or in a rural setting probably came across a wild animal that he or she wished to adopt....

Nebraska Department of Agriculture Laws and Regulations

Legal cases involving agriculture, cattle, dairy herds, poultry, and other herds may revolve around various issues which can range from disease,...

Lack Of Complete Diversity Of Citizenship Of Members Of Equine LLCs Requires Dismissal Of Federal Action

The issue of diversity of citizenship is of particular interest to equine ownership and contract disputes, because many equine-related entities...

New Advantages in Energy with the New Regulation: Unlicensed Electrical Energy Production - Turkey

As of 02.10.2013, everyone will be able to produce his/her own electrical energy in certain amounts. Due to the Regulation on Electrical Energy...

New Regulation in Renewable Energy: Regulation on Support and Certification of Renewable Energy Resources - Turkey

Renewable energy resources support mechanism is operated for support of renewable energy production in Turkey as price-purchase guarantee....

Untested Nature of Carbon Capture May Present Loophole for Coal and Electric Industry

  By HG.org
The Obama administration has been cracking down on environmental regulations, particularly with regard to global warming. Faced with this...

Insight into Turkey's Energy Market and New Energy Exchange EPIAS

Turkey proved its aspiration with the liberalization of electricity market for being an energy hub in the heart of Europe and Middle East...

Absurd Animal Cases in Homeowners Associations

  By HG.org
Few cases are more prone to absurd happenings, bizarre government policies, or overly expensive litigation than pet cases.

Failing to Disclose Environmental Defects in Property Sales

  By HG.org
Have you purchased a piece of land only to discover after the sale that there was pollution on the property? Are you thinking of selling a house...

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries. With a population of more...

Gabon: The Council of Ministers Adopts a Draft Law Regulating the Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of...

Key Legislation and Regulatory Structure in the Angolan Oil and Gas Sector

This article offers an overview of the key legislation and regulatory structure governing the oil and gas sector in Angola and was written as...

A Q&A Guide to Electricity Regulation in Bulgaria

This Q&A guide gives a high level overview of the domestic electricity market in Bulgaria, including domestic electricity companies, electricity...

Update on Foreign Investment in Ukrainian Agricultural Land

The moratorium on alienation of Ukrainian farm land has long prevented meaningful foreign investment into the Ukrainian agricultural sector. To...

The DR Congo New Agricultural Law N° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 Is Currently Being Amended and Supplemented

On December 24, 2011, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (“DRC”) enacted a new agricultural Law, n° 11/022, (the “Law”) that sets broad...

Overview on Mining Law in Burkina Faso and Current Trends

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West-Africa and surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the...

Adoption of a New Legislation for a Better Industrial Environment in the DRC

Before the social movements of plunder and anti-plunder of 1990s, wars and other civil revolts, the Republic Democratic of the Congo, (“DRC”)...

The Ownership of a Mine after Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights - Democratic Republic of Congo

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for...

LIBYAN INVESTMENT LAW: FOREIGN OIL COMPANIES

Forty-two years of the Kaddafi regime’s apathetic attitude and incoherent economic development strategies left Libya as one of the least...

Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building - Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
Local Government of DKI Jakarta has issued the Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building (“Governor Regulation...

Shale Gas in Texas

Shale formations are an invaluable resource when it comes to natural gas and oil. The side effects of drilling in these shale deposits, however,...

Transferring Quarry and Mining Rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]

The mining code of the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] provides for a possibility of leasing and assigning mining and quarry rights. Since...

Environmental Audit, One of the Conditions for Mining Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Mining is a key sector and continues to grow in several part of the world including in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Legislation for...

Recent Developments in Oil-and-Gas and Energy Sectors in Ukraine

On the way to the European integration, and by virtue of the determined Ukrainian policy towards energy independence, the Ukrainian Government...

New Incentive Scheme of Turkey

Turkish Cabinet has announced a new decree on 15th June 2012, numbered 2012/3305 and published on official gazette of 19th June 2012.

Photovoltaic Investments in Greece

The photovoltaic market in Greece offers great opportunities for investors, as it is expected to rise significantly within the coming years....

Ukraine’s Foreign Investors and the Lifting of Farmland Moratorium

Ukraine has long been called “the bread-basket of Europe,” and for one excellent reason: its fertile, black soil. The estimated value of this...

Environmental Laws and How They Can Protect You and Your Property

Environment laws protect our natural resources by regulating businesses that have the potential to impact them. Due to the importance of these...

Texas Supreme Court Hands Down Decision On Texas Water Rights

According to legal reports, the Texas Supreme Court has recently passed down a landmark decision on water rights in the lone star state....

Oregon Dog Bite Injury Claims

If you've been bitten by someone else's dog, and you are considering filing an injury claim against the dog's owner, you need to understand...

Exploitation of Hydrocarbon Resources in Cyprus

Geostrategic and financial interests regarding gas exploration and exploitation

EU Labor Law in Offshore Gas Drilling Operations

EU labor law in offshore gas-drilling operations has been recently challenged in the case of Salemink v. Raad van bestuur van het...

Does California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard Discriminate Against Fuel Producers in Other States?

As part of their efforts to prevent the injurious consequences of high greenhouse gas emissions, legislators in California passed regulations...

Texas Fracking Disclosure Law Will Help Analyze Water Concerns

Texas fracking disclosure law goes into effect February 1, 2012. According to reports, on February 1, 2011, Texas drilling operators will be...


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