HG.org Legal Resources

Litigation Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Litigation.


Construction Disputes: When Is It Time to Litigate?

When a dispute over payment or performance interferes with a construction project or the use of a piece of real estate, all parties involved...

Copyright Protection for Architectural Works & Other Designs

What Does Copyright Protect? Copyright law protects original works that are fixed in a “tangible medium of expression.”

Trademark Protection for Architectural Works & Other Designs

Trademarks can play a vital role in protecting architectural features in buildings, including the design of nonfunctional exterior and interior...

The Importance of Litigation Holds

Your company has been served with a lawsuit. What do you do? One of the very first things a company must to do protect itself during litigation,...

When Can You Sue a School for Your Child’s Injuries?

  By HG.org
Injuries occur at school that leave the victims traumatized in multiple ways that could lead to long-term damage. These children could be hurt...

Elements of a Copyright Infringement Claim

A copyright infringement action requires a plaintiff to prove (1) ownership of a valid copyright, and (2) actionable copying by the defendant of...

Defenses to Allegations of Copyright Infringement

There are numerous defenses available to a copyright infringement defendant.

Law 20, 243 Extends IP Benefits for Performing Artists, Directors and Scriptwriters in Chile

Sometimes artists are not aware of their Intellectual Property rights, and this means that they do not protect their creations, performances or...

If I Signed a Waiver, Did I Just Sign Away All My Rights to Sue?

  By HG.org
When certain circumstances occur, a waiver must be signed to proceed with a situation. These could be for employment, disclosed secrets and...

How to Effectively Question an Expert Witness

  By HG.org
When an expert witness has been obtained for a trial or case, he or she is questioned about his or her expertise. This knowledge of the relevant...

What You Need to Know About Qualifying an Expert Witness During Voir Dire

  By HG.org
When an expert witness is necessary for a case, he or she is usually qualified by experience in a specific field of study or research, knowledge...

Discovery Matters with Non-Testifying Expert Witnesses

  By HG.org
While there are many experts hired for a case used within the walls of a courtroom, there are some that have been retained to provide assistance...

Navigating Standard Expert Witness Challenges

  By HG.org
Standards were set for expert testimony to be provided and admissible for court in the case of Daubert. After this, the challenges associated...

Medical Expert Witness How a Traumatic Brain Injury Changes Your Life

  By HG.org
Traumatic brain injuries affect victims in severe and serious ways even when the initial injury is mild, moderate, severe and life-threatening.

New Jersey Marriage Contract FAQs

What Is a Marriage Contract in NJ ? When two people decide to get married, this is a contract to the state as much as it is a commitment to...

How The Bifurcated Trial System Can Favor Defendants And Hurt A Plaintiff's Case

[It has been] discussed how a century-old rule barring mention of liability insurance may actually create bias in a jury, favoring a defendant....

Disputing a New York Mechanic's Lien

Mechanic's liens can cause headaches for property owners across the State of New York, especially when they do not know how to challenge the...

Adjacent (Neighboring) Property Construction in New York City

When building in the tight confines of New York City is is often necessary to work with your neighbor to allow the construction to be safely...

Five Common Cases Private Investigators Handle

  By HG.org
Private investigators serve an important role. They often handle cases that are not taken care of by other professionals but that serve an...

Private Investigation: E-Discovery of Phone and Electronic Devices

  By HG.org
In some legal cases, a need may arise for the use of e-discovery. This mechanism can help make records from electronic devices and...

When Doctors Are Actually “Hired Guns” in Canada

Would an insurance company be so driven to deny benefits to an injured person that they would spend more on medical assessments than on actual...

When Can I Sue for Verbal Assault?

  By HG.org
There are instances that occur with frequency where someone is traumatized by the verbal actions of another. These could include name-calling,...

Considerations in Settling a California Dispute

[There are] advantages of filing a lawsuit, even where you know from the outset that the other party will likely agree to settle, so you can use...

Bad Faith Insurance Practices and How to Spot Them - Should I Hire a Lawyer?

  By HG.org
Personal injury claims are often processed by insurance carriers for negotiating settlements when certain incidents occur. This means that the...

How Does an Architectural Expert Witness Find a Building Defective?

  By HG.org
When there is a possible case where a building has been erected with defective areas or designs, it may be necessary to hire an architectural...

Using a Private Investigator to Locate Hidden Assets

  By HG.org
When a person believes that another is hiding assets that he or she may have an interest in, he or she may hire a private investigator to help...

What Is Due Diligence - A Private Investigator's Perspective

  By HG.org
Due diligence is the reasonable inquiry into a business proposal or through the process of buying or selling something of value. Through this...

Determining Liability in a Roof Fall Accident

  By HG.org
Accidents involving roof disasters are among some of the most injurious to the victims. They may experience intense pain, broken bones, harm to...

TransUnion Bid to Decertify FCRA Classes

A California court recently denied a request to decertify a pending class action lawsuit against TransUnion LLC that accuses the credit...

Waiver of Unknown Claims under California Code §1542

In settlement agreements, one or more parties may waive their right to pursue recourse against other parties to the agreement in return for some...

Enforcement of Italian Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters in England and Italy

If you have got an Italian or English judgment concerning civil and commercial matters but the defendant/debtor fails to comply with it and...

Are Forum Selection Clauses Upheld in Nevada?

Think your forum selection clause will hold up in Court? Think again.

IVC Filters and Product Liability Cases

  By HG.org
Litigation has risen due to faulty IVC filters. Many patients have had these inserted and receive injury due to defects and issues with these...

What is the Biggest Mistake that District Courts Make in Antitrust Cases?

This articles describes how federal trial courts sometimes confuse the pleading standards for antitrust cases.

10 Legal Keys to Business Success

Avoiding legal pitfalls that may be holding back your business, exposing you to increased risk, or preventing you from getting the greatest...

"DUI Less Safe" Georgia - What is the "DUI Less Safe" Penalty?

A person arrested in Georgia for DUI-alcohol is initially arrested for DUI less safe. This is the most common type of DUI GA charge for driving...

Class Action Lawsuits against Audi over CO2 Emissions Cheating

Audi is facing class action lawsuits over allegations of CO2 emissions cheating on its 2012-2016 A6, A8, Q5, Q7, S4, S5, S6, and S7 model with a...

How Social Media Posts can Sink Your Personal Injury Case

  By HG.org
With the accessibility of the internet in the electronic age, it is easy for both pursuing and opposing legal teams to examine social media...

What Are Lawsuit Settlement Loans?

  By HG.org
Lawsuits take money and a great deal of time to complete. When the suit is so long and complicated, there are many bills that demand payment...

Winning Mediation Strategies

Next to trial, mediation can be the most crucial day of litigating your case. That’s why it's important to spend time and effort having the case...

5 Most Notable Supreme Court Rulings in 2016

2016 has come and gone, leaving us with some major rulings by the Supreme Court of the United States on many current issues including...

What Bicyclists Should Do in Hit-and-Run Accidents

In the case of a hit and run accident, what is a bicyclist to do? There are several important things to keep in mind at all times. One of those...

What Is a Motion to Compel Mediation?

Most judges require mediation before a contested family law hearing or a trial because it is so successful. Most mediations result in a mediated...

Commercial Contracts: Are Oral Discussions Binding in The Bahamas?

Negotiations are a vital part of the process of agreeing the terms of a commercial contract, but when will such discussions have a binding...

How to Neutralize the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus [DUI Eye Test]

Field sobriety tests were created to help police officers make better DUI arrests. Studies in 1977 and 1981, sponsored by NHTSA, posted...

Key Statutes Controlling DUI Laws in Georgia: Implied Consent

Georgia has had very tough DUI laws for over half a century. In recent years, after several highly publicized boating under the influence deaths...

The History of Drug Laws in America and the enactment of Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Laws

Drug laws in America were enacted in 125 years ago, as international awareness of the perils of addiction and its health and social costs. Drunk...

From America's First Federal Drug Law to President Richard Nixon's War on Drugs

America's History of Drug Regulation from Teddy Roosevelt to Richard Nixon reveals Misguided Attempts to Prevent Marijuana Usage have resulted...

How President Ronald Reagan helped launch DUI Defense as a Criminal Law Sub-Speciality

How Drunk Driving Defense went from relative obscurity to become a Criminal Law Specialty for Criminal Defense Attorneys in One Decade

Oath before the Saudi Courts

Two types of oaths include the Strict Oath and the Completing Oath.

Talcum Powder Product Liability Cases

  By HG.org
Talcum powder products have been proven in many cases as harmful to both pregnant mothers and babies. The powder has several health concerns...

Cyprus Investment Firms (CIFs): Directors’ Liabilities in Case of an Offense

The Board of Directors of a CIF shall consist of at least two executive Directors and two independent non-executive Directors. The majority of...

Cyprus Court Orders: Freezing, Discovery and Search Orders

Interim injunctions in Cyprus- in simple words an interim injunction is the temporary order given by a court of law which tells someone either...

Brand Protection in Kenya as Relates to Trademarks

The competitive business environment in which many businesses operate requires them to constantly explore new ways to enhance their competitive...

ADR Services that Work Best

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) forms can be quite helpful for business owners who find themselves ensnared in legal disputes and conflicts...

Adopting a Child from Bangladesh

While Bangladesh does not legally recognize adoption and is not a party to the Hague Convention, the law allows its citizens (at least one...

How Social Media Can Hurt Your Personal Injury Case

Social media has become a cornerstone of communication. Before mentioning your accident online, know how social posts can impact your personal...

Debt Collection in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Poor payment discipline in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a burning problem of a modern society faced by all legal entities, but also individuals....

Ten Steps to Take if You’ve Been the Victim of Identity Theft

Identity theft is running rampant in our country. If you are the victim of identity theft, there are some important steps to take to ensure that...

Arbitration Agreements Including Emergency Relief Provisions

There are many sorts of business disputes where “emergency relief” may be called for. One common example is where trade secrets are stolen,...

What You Should Know Before You Hire a Private Investigator

Most people do not regularly hire private investigators and seeking out a private investigator and selecting the best investigator can sometimes...

Legal Risks All Home Improvement Contractors in New Jersey Must Know

In New Jersey, almost all home improvement contractors fail to follow the numerous requirements imposed upon them by the Consumer Fraud Act and...

Fentanyl, Oxycodone, Methadone, and Other Prescription Painkillers Cause Thousands of Overdoses Each Year

The epidemic of opioid overprescription has led to thousands of cases of abuse, addiction, and overdose each year. Patients who are harmed by...

Mexico Moves Forward with New Anti-Corruption Act

Corruption is a significant risk for companies doing business in Mexico: bribery is widespread, and business registration processes, including...

Civil Partnership versus Marriage in Britain

It is probable that when the British government sanctioned marriage for same sex partners and enshrined the decision in the Marriage (Same Sex...

Proposed Changes to Winding Up to Impact Directors’ Dealings in Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) (Amendment) Ordinance 2016, which sets out proposed changes to the Companies...

The Opposition System for Trademark Registration in Mexico Comes into Force

The Senate unanimously approved the Industrial Property Law reform proposal (Ley de la Propiedad Industrial) in which the trademark opposition...

What Mediation Can Do for You in Your Family Law Case

Mediation is a fast-growing area that first began changing the face of litigation in Texas in the late 1980's. Along with other forms of...

How to Prepare for Divorce Mediation

Divorce mediation can be long, boring, tiresome, and emotionally draining. It can also be a tremendous relief when a mediated settlement...

Thousands of Talcum Powder Lawsuits Filed Against Johnson & Johnson by Ovarian, Uterine Cancer Victims

Johnson & Johnson faces thousands of lawsuits filed on behalf of women who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer or uterine cancer after using the...

Class Actions in Israel- Overview and Contemporary Trends

The Israeli Class Action Law came into force in 2006, and formally regulates the proceedings applying to class actions in Israel. This type of...

Complaints of Serious Complications With the Use of ESSURE® Likely to Result In Litigation

ESSURE® complications may lead to litigation.

FDA Orders Black Box Warning About Overdose Risks for Patients Taking Opioid Painkillers and Benzodiazepines

The Food and Drug Administration issued a warning that patients taking opioid painkillers together with a class of anti-anxiety medications...

Enforcement and Registration of Judgements in Romania

The court system in Romania is still to many a confusing impenetrable system. In the past the rules and regulations seem to have a mind of their...

The Ship Arrest Concept

According to the provisions of the International Convention on the Arrest of Sea-Going Ships, signed at Brussels 10 May 1952, capture means the...

Sleeping on the Job in Malaysia - Is it Misconduct?

Can you terminate an employee for sleeping on the job?

Formation of a Business Contract in England - Offer, Invitation to Treat and Acceptance

Contracts often become the centre of commercial disputes. The five necessary key components of a legally enforceable contract are offer,...

Rules Regarding Evidence Spoliation

  By HG.org
At civil trials, both parties may present evidence and testimony to prove their side of the story. In many cases, the most effective way to...

California’s “Good Faith Settlement” Law: An Example from a Recent Case

Lawsuits are expensive, as we all know, and as experienced business law litigators, we frequently find ourselves advising our business clients...

Invest in Ukraine: Protection of Foreign Investment

One of the means for protection of foreign investment is the conclusion of international agreements on promotion and protection of investment.

Liabilities in Maritime Law: A case and comparative approach with Ecuador

A comparative analysis which provides the idea on the impact of international conventions and the implementation of different kind of...

You Can Stop Trademark Infringement

You have gone through the painstaking process of starting a business, developing a brand for your business, namely, your business’ trademark,...

Criminal Charges vs. Civil Complaints

  By HG.org
Criminal law and civil law are two different types of law that vary based on their purpose, potential punishments and the process in which cases...

Why Outsource Your Legal Service of Process?

Law firms have increasingly begun to address the explosion of costly high-volume litigation matters by teaming with a dedicated legal...

Are Pennsylvania Judges and Court Administrators Required to Provide Interpreters?

The number of United States residents who are deemed to be Limited English Proficient (LEP) has substantially increased in the recent decades. A...

When Do I Need a Califronia Insurance Coverage Attorney?

Individuals and business interests in San Diego are often denied coverage under valid insurance policies. The first question to be answered...

What Constitutes Insurance Bad Faith in California?

What constitutes insurance “bad faith” in California? What can a policy holder do to hold an insurance company responsible and accountable for...

Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey under the New York Convention

Although arbitration is considered as a reasonable form of alternative dispute resolution, foreign arbitral awards are subject to an enforcement...

Social Media with a Side of Litigation

As social media continues to become further ingrained in our daily lives, businesses and individuals should consider its potential role in...

Hollywood Defamation Lawsuit Heats Up

Defamation (untrue statements that damage a reputation) is becoming more widespread as a cause of litigation, as the internet makes it...

High Stakes Privacy Breaches – HIPAA Compliance for Law Firms

Since 2013, when the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Civil Rights (OCR) issued its Final Rule implementing...

Up in the Air: The Future of TASER Usage in the Fourth Circuit

What should law enforcement officers do if faced with a “non-criminal” mentally ill man being seized for his own protection, [who is] seated on...

Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses : Court Litigation or Arbitration

Arbitration has become an increasingly popular choice for dispute resolution in Hong Kong especially for cross-border disputes involving...

Civil Lawsuits Involving Sexual Abuse

  By HG.org
Sexual abuse occurs through cases reported in the thousands each year. Some are tied together, while some crimes stand alone. Unknown in many...

How to Claim Refunds for Overcharged Import Taxes Due to Surveillance Certificate Requirements in Turkey

Ministry of Economy determines certain minimum thresholds for certain products in order to force the exporters to pay higher taxes on the...

BREXIT, EU & International Arbitration

1. The Legal Instruments Utilized on International Arbitration in the UK: A very important point that needs to be made as an introductory...

Romanian Employment Regulations

Being an employer in any jurisdiction seems to become more complicated as time goes on. I was recently reminded of this when we were advising an...

Go Realtime - Foreign Depositions

Litigation involving foreign witnesses can be challenging. Paralegals will no doubt find that their cases will require the services of both...

Workers' Compensation Files Allegedly Hacked in California

Three of the largest Workers’ Compensation insurance companies in California have been accused of hacking into over 32,000 confidential Workers’...

Loophole from Unlawful Shareholders' Resolution in Thailand

Having gained experience in providing legal advice to private companies and joint-ventures involving a Thai-based partner, it has become...


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