HG.org Legal Resources

Litigation Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Litigation.


How Do I File a Response to a Summons if I Am Residing in Another State?

  By HG.org
When someone receives a summons, it is usually to indicate that they are being named as a defendant in a lawsuit. If the person fails to respond in a proper manner within the specified timeframe, the plaintiff may be able to receive a default judgment against the defendant in which they receive the relief asked of the court. Particular complexities can arise if the defendant resides in another state.

Spoliation in Georgia

The changes made by the Georgia Supreme Court in June of 2015 in regards to spoliation in the State of Georgia.

Judgment in UAE Maritime Arbitration Matter

Even if a Bill of Lading does not expressly contain an arbitration clause it might refer disputes to arbitration through the charter-party which may include an arbitration clause. The reference to arbitration shall be clear and unambiguous.

Arbitration: Annulment Covers Everything in UAE

In case of annulment of contract containing an arbitration clause the annulment shall extend to all clauses of the contract including the arbitration clause.

UAE Arbitration: The Right To Waive

The waiver of a right to refer a dispute to arbitration could be express or implied. However such a waiver has to be clear and unambiguous so as to avoid doubts about the intent of the party to wave the right.

Shipping: Benefit from Sale Reducing Claim for Repudiation

How do benefits arising from actions to mitigate loss affect the calculation of damages for repudiation of a time charter? At top Bahamas law firm ParrisWhittaker our expert shipping lawyers have many years of experience with advising shipping and maritime clients on all aspects of claims for damages, including issues that might affect the calculation of the sum owed.

Arbitration: A Challenging Issue in the UAE

By force of law an Arbitrator(s) has to suspend the arbitration proceedings with immediate effect if a party to an arbitration process challenges the arbitrator while or during the arbitration processes are going on, until a resolution has been made on the challenge which was has been raised by such party by an authority or court of law which has the right to rule on such a point.

Arbitration - Does Signed Mean Sealed in UAE

Article 215 and 217 of the Civil Procedures Law of the UAE states that a person does not have the right to enter into an arbitration agreement if the signatory does not have the authority to bind the person it is representing through a private power of attorney to sign such a contract to arbitrate.

Notices of Intent to Lien Property in Georgia

Some states require that potential lien claimants serve a Notice of Intent to Lien on of the real estate where the lien will be placed prior to the filing of the lien. Georgia does not have this prerequisite, however, so a Georgia lien claimant may exercise an option to serve the project owner with prior notice.

Is It Important to Hire an Attorney with Specialized Experienced Handling Specific Case Types?

The decision regarding whether or not to hire an attorney – and whom to hire if so – is one of the biggest that an individual who is considering filing a civil action will ever make. When considering whom to hire, clients will often mull over an attorney’s rates, case history, or like-ability. But what clients sometimes overlook, yet what is very important, is hiring an attorney with specialized experience handling specific case types.

Annulment of Award Possible if Procedures in Arbitration Contract or Terms of Reference Are Not Followed in UAE

A party to an arbitration contract has the right to request an annulment of an arbitration award if the arbitrator did not follow the procedures contained in the Arbitration Contract or the agreed Terms of Reference.

Annulment of Award Possible of an Arbitration Agreement in Dubai

It is possible to request annulment of arbitration award if it was based on invalid terms of reference or an agreement which has expired by time prescription as per article 216/A of the civil procedure law.

Are Resale Price Maintenance Agreements Legal Under the Antitrust Laws?

The legality of resale price maintenance agreements under US antitrust law.

Do I Have a Lanham Claim Against My Competitor for False Advertising?

The elements that a party must prove to prevail on a Lanham Act Claim for False Advertising.

The Colgate Doctrine and Other Alternatives to Resale-Price-Maintenance Agreements

Resale-price-maintenance agreements (or vertical price-fixing) are still illegal under the law of certain states. This article discusses alternatives to resale-price maintenance agreements that are less likely to violate the antitrust laws.

Dubai Court of Appeal Ratifies an Arbitral Award

Motei & Associates was instructed by the Respondent in recent legal proceedings between two parties (details for which must remain confidential) before the Dubai Courts in relation to the ratification of an arbitral award issued by the Dubai International Arbitration Centre (DIAC).

Time Limit to Bring a Case for Wrongful Death

  By HG.org
A wrongful death occurs when one person’s negligence or intentional acts takes away the life of another, resulting in damages to a surviving family member. A wrongful death may occur because of an automotive accident, workplace accident, homicide, medical malpractice or any other manner in which the law holds one party responsible for the death. However, the plaintiff only has a certain amount of time in which to file a claim.

Franchise Warning Signs You Should Never Ignore

If you are considering buying a franchise, there are several warning signs you should not ignore. Of the more than 3,000 franchises available for investment today, a majority of them provide wonderful opportunities for entrepreneurs. However, there are also some bad apples that should be avoided. So how can you tell the difference?

Non-Traded REITs: Great for Brokers, Not for Clients

FINRA, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, filed a complaint against VFG Securities, Inc., a small broker-dealer that allegedly generated almost 95% of its annual revenue from selling non-publicly traded REITs and other illiquid investments to its clients.

Transitioning Broker Alert - FINRA Adopts New Comp Disclosure Rule

The Securities and Exchange Commission approved last week a new rule proposed by FINRA, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, which requires brokers departing one broker dealer for another, to send “educational information” to clients about their move to another firm and the financial compensation and incentives they will receive from the new firm for making the move.

4 Common Divorce Mediation Questions

These questions are commonly asked during a divorce mediation.

Acquiring Recorded Conversations with a Business

  By HG.org
Many businesses record phone calls that come into the business as a matter of practice. This may be to keep a record for future use, for training purposes or to protect the business’ interests. However, if a customer wants a copy of the conversation, he or she may have difficulty acquiring it.

How to Prove Negligence at a Hospital or Nursing Home

  By HG.org
Hospitals, nursing homes and other medical providers owe patients a greater degree of care than one person owes another. This is because they are entrusted with the medical treatment of individuals. When a nursing home or hospital is negligent, the victim may pursue a medical malpractice against it.

Determining the Cause of Dog Bites and How to Prevent Them

  By HG.org
When a dog bites someone, it is easy to blame the dog. However, the dog likely does not have any financial resources from which the victim can be compensated. Therefore, the law imputes responsibility on the dog’s owner.

Filing a Personal Injury Claim in Time

  By HG.org
Each state has enacted a statute of limitations for personal injury cases. This statute specifies the time in which a claim must be filed in order for the victim to move forward with his or her case. A personal injury lawyer can advise clients on the necessity of filing a claim and the appropriate timing to file their claim.

Potential Defendants in California Dog Bite Accident Cases

  By HG.org
Unlike other states that use a “one bite” rule for dog bites, California imposes a strict liability statute that holds dog owners responsible for the injuries their dogs cause. However, there may be other potential defendants based on the circumstances involved in the case.

Corporate Governance in Egypt

The nineties of the twentieth century had a quick and violent developments which affected the structure of the global economy, the effects of the globalization of financial markets emerged, and financial markets collapsed in Southeast Asia and Latin America.

How to Serve Papers on Someone in Illinois

  By HG.org
Every state has its own unique set of rules regarding the process of serving legal papers on others. These are defined under the applicable rules of civil procedure.

Hiring Licensed Contractors

Most of us have never hired someone to do construction work of any sort, so when the need arises to hire a contractor to make repairs or improvements on our residential or commercial property, we don’t know where to start. Beware: these are dangerous waters!

FINRA Investigations Under Rule 8210

It is every registered person’s nightmare. You receive a letter from a FINRA office notifying you that you are the subject of a FINRA investigation.

New Guidelines on Contempt by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh

Contempt of Court is a serious offense. A person can be said to be in contempt for being disobedient to or disrespectful towards any Court of law. The justice system is one of the most important pillars of a democracy and people failing to respect a Court, its process, directions, orders or decrees may have serious consequences in the long run if the practice spreads among the population.

Alternative Forms of Dispute Resolution

  By HG.org
When a legal dispute arises, many individuals believe that litigation is the only way out. However, there are a number of ways that legal conflicts can be resolved without resorting to litigation, including negotiation, arbitration and mediation.

To Settle or Sue

  By HG.org
When a person is involved in an accident, he or she may be confused about what happens next. Based on tort principles, a person who sustains an injury that is caused by the negligence of another is entitled to compensation for the damages that he or she suffers as a result of that party’s negligence.

What Can I do About a Late Contractor?

  By HG.org
When a person hires someone else to provide goods or services to him or her, the terms of the contract dictate when the work is to be performed or the goods to be provided. However, situations can occur in which the contractor is not providing timely delivery, and the customer may pursue legal action to enforce his or her rights.

Egypt: Arbitral Award Enforcement

Procedure for Foreign Arbitral Award (or arbitration award) Enforcement in Egypt The competent court authorized to hear cases related to the enforcement of a foreign arbitration court: Chief Court of Appeal of Cairo is the competent authority, unless otherwise agreed upon between the parties.

Stopping Distances for Commercial Vehicles

  By HG.org
Due to the potential for serious damage, the trucking industry is highly regulated. Truck drivers must follow a complete set of rules regarding the amount of miles that they can drive in a day, the number of hours a day that the truck driver can travel and when they must take breaks. The large nature of commercial vehicles makes them a potentially dangerous object on the roadways. As such, truck drivers must take their stopping distances into consideration.

The High Court Division's Recent Judgment on Pecuniary Jurisdiction in Bangladesh

In the recent judgment (First Miscellaneous Appeal 218 of 2014), the High Court Division of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh gave its verdict on an important issue which did not get as much attention as it deserves, most probably because, it in a way, only codified the previous stances of the Court in few past cases.

China Contracts - Dispute Resolution Options

  By MMLC Group
In China, emphasis is placed on the law and a functional legal system to further economic development. Therefore, there are many dispute resolution choices for contractual disputes in order to create a business-friendly environment, including market-friendly regulations and institutions capable of enforcing the regulations effectively and efficiently.

The Ownership & Participation of Non-Jordanian in the Jordanian Companies

Maritime transport and auxiliary services, including: Passenger and freight transportation excluding transportation over ships owned by non- Jordanians. Maritime survey and inspection. Maritime freight forwarding. Shipping agents’ services. Ships chandlers, Ships brokers.

Contempt of Court: A Valuable Tool in Judgment Enforcement

Once you have won a case against a debtor, you are left with a judgment enforcement scenario- where you will need to somehow collect the judgment that you have hard-won in litigation. When the court orders a monetary award, the debtor must pay the amount of the judgment. However “must pay the judgment” is a matter of opinion - because failure of the debtor to do so will only result in the debtors assets being levied, wages being garnished, etc.

What Is Bad Faith in Insurance Cases?

  By HG.org
The relationship between an insurance company and insured is governed by the insurance contract. However, if the insurance company fails to pay out on a valid claim, the insurance company risks being liable for bad faith. In order for an insured individual to prevail against his or her own insurance company, there are certain legal elements that the insured must prove.

Morgan Stanley Pays $2.6 Billion Penalty

The U.S. Justice Department announced last week that Morgan Stanley will pay a $2.6 billion penalty to resolve claims...

Proposed Amendment to Legislation- Setting up the Industrial Tribunal in Malta

The Maltese Government has recently requested the Attorney General to consult the social partners within the Malta Council for Economic and Social Development (MCESD), and prepare legal amendments aimed at strengthening the guarantees of independence and impartiality of the Industrial Tribunal.

Professional Liability for Real Estate Agents in Ontario, Canada

Lawsuits against real estate agents may be based on a number of different claims. Such claims may include allegations of misrepresentation, negligence, lack of disclosure, secret profits, conflict of interest, etc. As such, it’s important for both the real estate agent and the client to understand what the law expects of real estate agents.

The Digital Death Knell of Court Reporting

Technology has changed the world for the general populace, and now it has threatened to change the landscape of legal practice.

Independent Contractor or Employee – A Question for San Diego Employers

A recent Supreme Court decision has changed the way the IRS and California tax agencies and the Division of Labor Standards, or Labor Commissioner view the classification of independent contractors. California believes miisclassification of employees as independent contractors has cost California more than $7 billion in payroll tax revenue.

Avoiding Ownership Disputes

Many clients contact business litigation attorneys when it is too late to avoid a dispute. When that happens, the costs and stress of litigation can mount. Here are some relatively simple and cost-effective measures to help you avoid an ownership dispute down the road.

Dispute Resolution Recent Trends: Closer Look at Participatory Procedure in Kazakhstan

On 1 January 2016, Kazakhstan introduced an innovation – the participatory procedure for dispute settlement. In this review, we take a closer look at this procedure and its features.

Insurance Litigation in Saudi Arabia

Insurance Litigation will be dealt with Insurance Dispute Committee and Appeal Committee.

Set of Rules and Judiciary Principles Issued by The Saudi Board of Grievance

The Board of Grievance has issued a set of rules and judiciary principles, in 10 volumes, including 4298 pages, 6 volumes thereof are administrative Judiciary Rules and Principles, other 2 are concerned with the commercial judiciary, and the other 2 are for criminal justice

Law Terms: What Is Negligence?

Negligence is the failure on the part of an individual or group to act in a fashion that would reasonably prevent injury being inflicted on any other individual or group.

Wearable Technology and Personal Injury Cases: Evidence and Ethics

Wearable technology has gone from calculator watch to Apple Watch in the last few decades. Now we can tweet from our T-shirts, view the world through Google Glass, and keep track of our health and habits second by second with a Fitbit – and these wearable tech trends are only predicted to continue growing and advancing.

Lawsuits Pending after Volkswagen Officials Cheat EPA Emissions Tests

For years, the American public has bought Volkswagens in large part due to their excellent fuel efficiency, low emissions, and environmental friendliness. Unfortunately, not only do these vehicles emit higher amounts of pollutants, but they actually expel volumes of nitrogen oxides more than 40 times greater than allowable limits in the United States.

Executing Foreign Judgments Inside Saudi Arabia

Over the last two decades, the globe has experienced exceptional growth in world trade. This growth is due in part to regulations and oversight in the international the business sector, resulting in reduced risk in the world’s free market economies. The WTO and GATT’s rules and regulations have been a contributing factor in increasing global trade as well.

Forming Appeal Committee for Banking Disputes in Saudi Arabia

The Royal Decree Number: – (24/A), dated in 18/02/1437H, was issued stipulating to form the 1st Court of the Banking Disputes Committee, and the 1st Court of the Appeal Committee of Banking Disputes and Violations, according to (Secondly) and ( Fifthly) paragraphs of the Royal Decree number 37441, dated in 11/08/1433H.

The Do's and Don’ts of Independent Medical Examinations (IME) in Canada

If you have been injured and advance an insurance claim, there is a good chance that your insurer will ask you to attend a medical examination with a doctor or specialist of their choosing. These exams are known as IMEs (Independent Medical Examinations).

General Damages for Pain and Suffering: What is the Maximum You Can be Awarded in Canada?

If you are badly injured, you may wish to file a lawsuit with the goal of getting financial compensation for your pain, suffering and other expenses you now have as a result of your injury.

Current Patent Structure in India: A Boon or Bane for the Pharmaceutical Sector

A detailed analysis on cases that outlines the importance of compulsory license in India and clear the myths surrounding it.

Nerve Damage Lawsuits Filed against Makers of Levaquin and Other FQ Antibiotic Drugs

The FDA has warned that patients taking antibiotic drugs known as fluoroquinolones (or FQ antibiotics) may be at risk of developing a serious type of nerve damage known as peripheral neuropathy. Patients taking FQ antibiotics such as Levaquin, Cipro, Avelox, Noroxin, Floxin, and Factive may be at risk of developing serious and potentially permanent nerve damage in the extremities.

Ukraine vs Russia - The Beginning of Legal Wars

The legal war of Ukraine against Russia was announced in 2014 but in the second half of 2015 took the unwrapped and massive character. On October 21, 2015, Ukraine sent the claim to the World Trade Organization against the Russian Federation, which put forward the issue for the imposition of Russian limitations on the supply of rail cars, switch equipment for railways and other products in the industry, because of which revenues of Ukrainian companies have fallen to 96%. What should we wait?

Breach of Fiduciary Duty

Introduction: When People You Have a Right to Trust Cheat You Ours is a world of contractual relationships, written and oral. We hire people to help us, and we hire people to act on our behalf. We enter into business associations, like becoming partners and shareholders of partnerships and corporations.

Failure to Warn in Product Liability Cases

When a consumer uses a product that causes them harm or injury, the manufacturer, retailer or distributor of that product can be held liable if they failed to warn the consumer of the potential for injury.

Former EPA Official: VW Plea Of Ignorance Over Dieselgate Emissions Scandal "Doesn't Pass The Laugh Test"

A former EPA official says that Volkswagen’s claims that executives at the company were unaware of the emissions cheating that led to the Dieselgate scandal “just doesn’t pass the laugh test”. Volkswagen recalled 11 million VW and Audi diesel-powered vehicles worldwide after admitting that it had installed a "defeat device" that hid the high emissions levels of these vehicles from regulators.

Lawsuit Claims Popular Hair Care Product Causes Hair Loss

More than 200 consumers across 40 states have joined together to file a class action lawsuit against the maker of a popular hair care brand. They are claiming WEN Hair Care products caused them to suffer extreme hair loss and damage to their scalps.

How to Enforce an EU Judgement within the European Union

Council Regulation No. 44/2001 contains the rules applicable to enforce a civil or commercial judgement in another European member state. However, Spain, with no bilateral agreements, follows the Hague Convention.

Execution of Decisions of Non-Resident Individuals and Legal Entities in the Ukraine

What can non-residents (individuals and legal entities), who have received judgments in their jurisdictions, and such decisions should be enforced in the territory of Ukraine, do?

Six Key Matters About the Hong Kong Competition Ordinance

Six key matters about the Hong Kong Competition Ordinance.

Fraud Claims in Business Contract Disputes

Few things are more important to a business, small or large, than its contracts. Business law, to a large extent, IS contract law. But in business litigation, when parties are often fighting over failed contracts, contract law has a handmaiden, and her name is “Fraud”. Experienced business litigation lawyers know that, when suing for compensation for breach of contract, the addition of fraud claims can make their client’s case much stronger. The following fact scenario will help illustrate:

FLSA: Bonuses and Calculating Overtime Pay

There are many nuances in the FLSA on which many employers are not well versed, violations of which can lead to very significant penalties. This articles speaks specifically to the FLSA: Bonuses and Calculating Overtime Pay to help employers avoid such penalties.

Filing a Lawsuit to Secure a Prompt & Enforceable Settlement

While it’s true that litigation can be an extremely expensive means of dispute resolution, and that prompt, voluntary settlements are almost always preferable to extended litigation, it is also true, paradoxically, that filing a lawsuit can be the best way to settle a dispute promptly and effectively. This is so for two reasons.

How to Reduce Your Litigation Costs

It is never a happy circumstance when a business gets involved in a lawsuit. As most business owners know, even when they have a strong case, litigation will likely be expensive, time-consuming, stressful and uncertain. But it is important to understand that by creating and preserving evidence for your business litigation attorney, you can greatly improve your chances of success and reduce your litigation costs.

Owners of VW, Audi, Porsche "TDI Clean Diesel" Models May Qualify to File a Lawsuit over Emissions Fraud

Volkswagen admitted it fraudulently misled consumers about the emissions of its "TDI Clean Diesel" models through a defeat device that made the cars appear to emit lower levels of greenhouse gases than they actually did. Volkswagen recalled 11 million Volkswagen and Audi models in connection with the Dieselgate emissions cheating scandal. Hundreds of VW, Audi, and Porsche diesel owners have filed lawsuits against the German automaker over the company's lies and the lost value of their vehicles.

Commercial Contracts in the UK: Damages Where There are Concurrent Causes of Action

What is the correct approach to calculating damages where a breach of contract claim is accompanied by a claim for negligence?

Georgia's Registration Process for Out-of-State Contractors

It is common for a contractor in one state to participate on a project in another state. Unfortunately, each state has its own rules and regulations for letting out-of-state contractors work within its borders. For those contractors and subcontractors who are bidding on or working on Georgia projects, there are registration requirements with the Georgia Department of Revenue. This article provides useful information to construction professionals seeking working in Georgia.

What a Child Won’t Tell: Recognizing the Signs of Sex Abuse in Children

Each year, U.S. police departments receive as many as 80,000 reports of sexual abuse against children. However, the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry reports that this number is an underestimate. Many children who are abused are afraid to tell anyone what has happened.

Derivative Claims in the Cayman Islands

  By Loeb Smith
What is a derivative action? A derivative action is one commenced by one or more minority shareholders on behalf of a company of which they are member in respect of loss or damage which that company has suffered. Such a claim can only be brought in certain circumstances and amounts to an exception to the rule that a company, as a separate legal person, should sue and be sued in its own name (often referred to as the rule in Foss v Harbottle (1843), 2 Hare 461; 67 E.R 189).

Patent Linkage System and Its Relevance for Generic Drugs Registration in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan

Issues related to the protection of the rights of brand-name drug patent holders in connection with generic drugs registration by other manufacturers.

What Is a Contingency Fee?

  By HG.org
A contingency is a designated amount of money that a client agrees to pay a lawyer conditioned – or contingent on – the lawyer providing a favorable outcome of the case. If the lawyer wins a lawsuit or is provided with a settlement, the lawyer receives the agreed upon fee from this award. Special rules may apply when a contingency fee agreement can be entered into and what it involves.

VW Scandal and D&O Liability

Manipulated emissions test data, irregularities in CO2 emissions: The VW scandal raises a number of questions. In particular, questions regarding accountability and management liability (D&O liability).

UK Commercial Contracts: When Will Penalty Clauses Be Enforceable?

Businesses with commercial contracts imposing pre-determined financial or other penalties in the event of a breach may find they are unenforceable, following landmark rulings in two similar cases.

When Dogs Attack in Thailand: Torts, Crimes, and Property

When someone takes possession of an animal, that person can become legally liable for torts caused by the animal. And while most pet owners treat their cats or dogs like their children, in the eyes of the law, they are only property.

Volkswagen’s “Customer Goodwill Package” Is Poor At Best

Volkswagen owners who have been victims of the diesel engine scandal are giving the option of a Customer Goodwill Package that is questionable.

Midnight Arbitration Clause v. 8:00 a.m. Clause in Dubai

In the past, contractual dispute resolution provisions were commonly known as ‘midnight’ clauses because commercial lawyers only come to discuss them in the closing stages of contract negotiations. Nowadays, taking into account the complications which may arise from badly drafted arbitration clause, they are better referred to as the 8 o’clock in the morning clauses.

What Is a Constructive Trust?

  By HG.org
A trust is a mechanism in which one person can transfer ownership of certain properties during his or her life of after death. A trust is subject to the provisions an instructions in the trust document. However, some trust are formed based on the conduct of the parties and their intentions as opposed to the official wording of a trust document. Constructive trust are formed as a remedy to prevent unfair results.

Disputes Between a California General Contractor and a Subcontractor

The nature of the relationship between a California general contractor and a subcontractor is legally quite complex. The general contractor awards a sub-contract based upon a bid, or extensive experience with a particular subcontractor. It is not unusual for work to begin on a jobsite under a subcontract prior to any physical agreement being drafted or signed.

Commercial Contracts in the Bahamas: The Relevance of the Parties’ Bargaining Power

Does an imbalance of bargaining power between two commercial parties effect the potential enforceability of the contract? Yes, the Court of Appeal in the UK has said, with major implications for commercial organisations in The Bahamas.

Use of E-mails as Evidence in Ukrainian Courts

Ukrainian legislation does not establish a clear field of application and the use of electronic documents and e-mails in the business and common activities. Even professional lawyers do not have a clear answer for this question, because of that judges in court consider use of electronic communications (e-mail) as evidence arbitrarily. What do Laws of Ukraine say about electronic documents and e-mails?

HIV and STD Liability

Given the most recent very public admission by Charlie Sheen, it might be helpful to explain the legal ramifications. HIV is an STD (a Sexually Transmitted Disease). Herpes, Gonorrhea, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), Syphilis, and Hepatitis are also all STDs. In California, and in many other states, it is a crime to willfully infect another person with an STD.

Commercial Contracts: Interpreting Indemnity Clauses - Grand Bahama

Indemnity clauses are commonly incorporated in commercial contracts, and the courts’ approach in interpreting them provides useful clarity for businesses and lawyers. The commercial lawyers at top Bahamas law firm ParrisWhittaker are highly experienced in advising business organisations on commercial contract issues including how terms are to be interpreted.

Model Rules for Post Employment Non-Compete Clause in Taiwan

Taiwanese Ministry of Labor published model rules for Labor Relationship on October 5th, 2015. When an employer would like to protect the business interests and an employee would like to know his/her rights after an employment contract is terminated, this article explains the new model rules which both the employers and the employees should pay attention to.

Commercial Contracts: The Duty of Good Faith

The duty of good faith in commercial contracts is limited and must accord with business common sense, the courts have ruled.

UK Shareholder Litigation Claim for Unfair Prejudice

The rights of shareholders are not limited to rights in a shareholders agreement. Shareholders also have statutory rights including rights as a consequence of suffering unfair prejudice. In such instances a shareholder can bring a litigation petition.

UK Litigation Settlement Agreement and Release

It is important to consider settling a Litigation claim at any stage in the proceedings. Litigation claims can be settled using a Settlement Agreement and you need to determine what terms should be included in the agreement.

What Can I Do If Someone Is Lying to the Court?

  By HG.org
Witnesses including parties to the case provide testimony to the court that the judge and jury consider. When witnesses testify to the court, they do so under oath. They also do so under the risk of facing criminal charges if they lie to the court. There are steps that another person can take whether a party or an observer to inform the court of lies.

Compensation for Grief in Pennsylvania

When an individual dies due to the negligence or wrongful act of another person or a group of people, certain family members of the deceased can recover damages in Pennsylvania courts.

Determining Liability in a Truck Accident

The process of determining liability following a truck accident can be much more complicated than in other accident cases.

Proving Liability

Proving your case when it comes to negligence in a defective product can be a tough task.

How Far Is Too Far – Issues in the Law on Harassment in Hong Kong

On 3 June 2015, the development of the tort of harassment in Hong Kong took another turn when the High Court in Lin Man Yuan v Kin Ming Holdings International Ltd and Anor recognized that there is such an action for harassment in Hong Kong.

UK Litigation Claim – Pre-action Protocol

In the UK prior to issuing a Litigation claim you should follow the relevant Pre-action Protocol. If you issue Litigation proceedings without following the Protocol then your Claim may be suspended pending compliance and/ or there could be an adverse Costs Order.

Volkswagen and Audi ‘Clean Diesel’ Owners See Decline in Vehicle Value Following VW Emissions Recall Scandal

Used sale prices for Volkswagen and Audi "TDI Clean Diesel" models have fallen sharply in the wake of VW's admission that it lied to consumers about the performance and emissions levels of these vehicles. Volkswagen announced that it would recall about 11 million VW and Audi diesel vehicles following the disclosure that the German automaker had installed a "defeat device" on these models in order to hide their high pollution levels.


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