Taxation Law Articles
Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Taxation.
In light of increased recent interest in incorporating corporations in Hong Kong and in Singapore, we have summarized briefly hereunder the procedures and the advantages of such corporations, as follows:
The new year of 2015 also marks the implementation of the Cyprus – Lithuania Double Tax Treaty (DTT), which was initially signed in June, 2013.
Business expenses are the associated costs of carrying on a business. Such expenses are typically deductible if a business is operated to make a profit.
Foreign companies wishing to open a branch in Ecuador, should be incorporated in their country of origin as a trading company, may be of limited liability or a Inc and consider the following issues.
They are frequently in the news, passing out fliers about not paying taxes, and conducting meetings in local hotels and restaurants about not being beholden to the government. Often referred to as “sovereign citizens,” these groups believe that they have found loopholes that exclude them from following laws by which they do not wish to abide. But, are sovereign citizen groups right, or is their interpretation of the law off base?
Firstly, is important to understand the cause of money laundry crime. Usually, is related to drugs traffic, terrorism, trafficking of humans, others international crimes. In 1989, the group of seven (G-7), composed in those days by Italy, United Kingdom, France, Canada, United States, West Germany and Japan, create Financial Action Task Force (FATF).
The Cyprus International Trust is a powerful asset protection tool because it effectively removes the assets from a less favorable jurisdiction, and places the ownership of the assets in the Trust.
Lease services often lead to uncertainty from a VAT perspective. Some services which seem like lease at first glance do not meet the criteria “lease” for VAT purposes. The improper classification can lead to surprises: on the one hand the lessor’s deduction right can be challenged, on the other hand a seemingly VAT-exempt transaction could trigger VAT liability. A recent ECJ decision will set standards for these situations.
Turkey aims to encourage production and export activities, fasten the entrance of foreign capital and technology in Turkey and develop the international trading activities through the grant of incentives to the investors. In the light of that, the local and foreign investors have equal access to the investment incentives system in Turkey.
Information about the tax liabilities of foreign investors in Turkey.
Proposed Price Changes for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices in National and Foreign Currency in the Ukraine
On March 13, 2015 on the web-site of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine the draft of the Regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine was published, which is consider to change the Regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On reference pricing for medicinal products and medical devices procured by the state and local budgets”, dated 02.07.2014 N 240, in the aspect of the declaring currency of wholesale and selling price (hereafter as the Draft of Regulation).
As the world seems to develop faster and faster, a new gadget has been placed to the disposal of the foreigners and non-resident persons in Estonia, namely the digital identity card also known as e-residency.
Cyprus and Barbados announced earlier this month, that they are to begin negotiating a double taxation treaty to strengthen economic relations between them.
Switzerland has perhaps had its day as a tax haven. According to media reports, Swiss investigators are supporting German tax investigators in searching several banks.
Deforestation Tax in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Problematic of Tax Liability of Mining Titleholders
For some time, mining companies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are facing the National Forest Fund, (“Fonds Forestier National”), a technical and financial public establishment set up by the law N° 011/2002 of 29 August 2002 relating to the Forestry Code (“Forestry Code”) for the payment of the “deforestation tax” as a result of the deforestation made by them concerning the mining areas covered by their mining titles.
The choice for the appropriate legal structure to transact business in the United States (“U.S.”) depends on a combination of factors relevant to a specific activity or sector, as well as on the needs and goals of the investor.
The Hungarian government just recently finalised the new rules for the controversial EKAER system.
The Cyprus Ministry of Finance officially announced on 09 March 2015 that the Republic of Cyprus and the Kingdom of Bahrain signed a Treaty for the Avoidance of Double Taxation on Income and on Capital.
A Cyprus company can be registered within two working days provided the pertinent documentation is submitted to the Registrar of Companies.
It is possible to evade taxes even in the absence of intention. In these cases, an amended tax return is preferable to a voluntary declaration.
Wealthy Florida residents who are married or planning to get married might want to consider creating a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement before they consult their financial advisor to plan their tax strategy for the coming years.
Software developer companies fall under a very favourable corporate income taxation in Hungary. Moreover, their income is local business tax exempt. Surprisingly, however, most of such companies are not aware of their beneficial status, losing billions of forints as a consequence.
It's not a secret that Ukraine is still one of the market dark horses in context of entrepreneurship. Not many of large companies venture to base their businesses here despite of the wide range of potentially profitable areas for investment. The events of winter and spring of 2014 scared even those who worked steadily for our economy for years. However, now due to the current European course, there are good prospects for the climate improvement in this area
Cyprus features the most efficient tonnage tax scheme in the EU, approved by the European Commission.
Legal action can be taken even against the assessment notice of a tax office. Those who get involved in a tax dispute normally require plenty of stamina and competent legal representation.
Due to a number of important Supreme Court decisions in the 21st century, married same-sex spouses are entitled to a number of benefits that were previously outside their reach. While domestic partners may be entitled to some benefits, married spouses are typically eligible for more benefits. Marriage is a factor in many federal benefits.
For millions of Americans, the holiday season is about giving and charity, and few stop to consider the state of their personal finances and taxes. But, the end of the year is also the end of a tax period for individuals, meaning that come December 31, they cannot make any more changes that will help reduce the taxes they will have to pay in a few months.
Beginning in 2015, the general rate will be 24% instead of the current rate of 24.75%.
Those who have dabbled with tax laws much at all are probably familiar with the general mantra that any money received may be taxable income. They may also be familiar with the idea that payments over a certain amount or in certain types of relationships (like employer/employee) often require that the payer ensure taxes are taken out before the balance is given to the payee. But what about gifts? Is there any tax liability for giving a gift?
By LPA Law Firm
Foreigners who wish to reside in Albania on a long-term basis (in any case more than three months within each six-month period) are issued a residence permit.
Tax implications on certain immigrants and non-immigrants.
The recently adopted tax law changes significantly expand the definition of related parties. As of 2015 not only those companies will qualify as related parties which are connected in their ownership chain, but also those with an overlap in their management. As a result, the number of transactions where parties have to apply arm’s length pricing will increase. The new definition may, however, cause uncertainties as well.
Perhaps you are one of the fortunate few who has achieved a level of wealth where you are legitimately concerned that the ebb and flow of the U.S. economy could have a dramatic effect on your personal finances. Or, perhaps, you have heard that there are ways to avoid certain taxes if you keep your money offshore.
If you own a property in Spain and you are non resident at tax purposes here, you are obliged to present and pay the Non Resident Tax Return, which must be filed and presented before the 31st of December each year.
Everyone has seen a few cents on the ground, likely dropped while someone pulled a ring of keys from their pocket. While we would probably not think twice about picking up a penny, what if it was a bank envelope full of $100 bills? It may seem like a dream come true, but there are certain legal obligations when one finds misplaced money.
As the real estate market in the U.S. has made a strong indication of recovery, some outside of the United States have begun to look again at American real estate investments as a possibility. This leads some to wonder, though, whether it is even possible for a foreigner to buy real estate in the U.S.? If so, are there any special laws to be aware of or taxes that must be paid?
When an executor or fiduciary is compensated for his or her work, this is considered taxable income. As such, there are specific requirements related to reporting this income on his or her taxes.
When the business faces a cash flow problem, many business owners use the payroll taxes collected but not yet turned over to the IRS.
It is becoming increasingly difficult for tax evaders to remain undetected due to the automatic exchange of information between EU member states, particularly as Switzerland has signalled its willingness to cooperate.
Unpaid Income Tax Establishes Liability of the Managing Director of a German Limited Liability Company
In terms of the overall responsibility, a managing director is also liable for the income tax of employed workers that is not paid to the tax office.
North Rhine-Westphalia’s (NRW) Minister of Finance, Walter Borjans, announced in the Rheinischen Post Online that NRW will continue purchasing CDs with data on suspected tax evaders.
The number of amended tax returns in cases of tax evasion continues to rise. According to media reports, it doubled in the first half of the year 2014 compared with the same period of the previous year.
In the case of inheritance, there is a risk of becoming guilty of tax evasion, particularly if the estate could include illicit earnings.
Turkish parliament has enecated the Law No: 6552 that has been promulgated as of September 11, 2014 and provides restructuring for unpaid tax debts and administrative penalties.
One of the most common questions often asked of corporate attorneys by small business owners who are just setting up their first company is how to write off expenses. Usually, two of the most important expenses these people want to write off are meals and entertainment expenses.
Tax evasion has represented a lucrative, albeit criminal, business not only for tax evaders but also some banks. An amended tax return can present a path to legality.
Tax evasion is a criminal offence which not only entails heavy financial penalties, but also custodial sentences. By submitting an amended tax return, you can obtain an exemption from punishment.
If you have already been sued, it is probably too late to do anything to protect your assets. But, if you are a planner and looking to protect your assets before you have a problem, this article is for you.
All states have their own inheritance laws. In succession cases involving a foreign element, the question arises as to which inheritance law is applicable. In many cases, this is a complex matter.
The German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) is currently dealing with inheritance and gift tax. The focus is the question of whether tax benefits for businesses are justified.
Nasty surprises can be a risk in the case of inheritance, particularly if an estate includes untaxed illicit earnings. Heirs must be careful.
Legal Notice 269 of 2014 has amended the Malta Retirement Programme Rules which were originally promulgated in 2012.
Congratulations on your decision to start a new business. The question you may be asking, though, is what kind of business you should form? What is the difference between a corporation, an LLC, and a partnership? Why form one and not another?
By virtue of two legal notices published on the 8th of July, the High Net Worth Individuals Rules (HNWI Rules) have now been amended to reflect the Global Residence Programme threshold, both in terms of tax and property value (be it purchase or lease), and a new special tax status is presented.
In the event of inheritance, the state generally cashes in on inheritance tax, yet money can also be saved with respect to this tax.
Recently, on 18 July 2014 Order no. 1847 was issued by the President of the National Agency for Fiscal Administration to cover the approval of the application and the forms to be used by inactive taxpayers.
Cyprus provides an established, stable and solid legislative framework under which Cyprus companies can be formed for intermediary or ultimate holding purposes within corporate groups, in project finance, cross-border transactions or even investment management contexts.
By Loeb Smith
The Cayman Islands (“Cayman”) continue to be the leading offshore jurisdiction for the establishment of both hedge funds and private equity funds. Typically, private equity funds are structured in Cayman as exempted limited partnerships (“ELPs”) and the introduction of the Exempted Limited Partnership Law, 2014 (the “New ELP Law”), which came into force on 2nd July 2014, will enhance the attractiveness of Cayman as the leading offshore jurisdiction for private equity funds.
By MMLC Group
This article looks at the reasons behind the newly announced reduction in VAT for biological products by the Chinese government.
Following the signature of the intergovernmental agreement (“IGA”) between Malta and the US on the 16th December, 2013 whereby the latter agreed to implement Foreign Account Tax Compliance provisions (commonly known as FATCA) in Malta, the Inland Revenue Department (“IRD”) has issued draft FATCA Regulations and Guidelines implementing the said intergovernmental agreement.
In 2008, when it was revealed that wealthy individuals around the world were utilizing accounts and trusts in Liechtenstein to evade taxes, the United States initiated a coordinated effort with foreign governments to combat tax evasion through the use of offshore trusts and accounts. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) has since launched criminal investigations of several foreign banks, many of which are ongoing.
The Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat) and the European Commission's Directorate-General for Taxation and Customs Union has issued a detailed statistical and economic analysis of the tax systems of the Member States of the European Union, which presents an overview of the tax system in each of the 30 countries covered (EU countries, Iceland and Norway), the revenue trends and the main recent policy changes.
Tax Liability in Joint Stock (“Anonim Şirket”) Companies As it has been known, administration and representation of joint stock companies are carried out by board of directors of the company.
U.S. taxpayers hiding assets abroad should take note of the Internal Revenue Service’s plan to sharply increase penalties for such acts, while those who unintentionally fail to disclose offshore accounts will experience much more leniency.
The form for the submission for tax purposes of part-time, self-employed individuals has been amended by virtue of Legal Notice 186 of 2014 [Part-Time (Forms of Self-Employed) (Amendment) Rules, 2014], therefore replacing the previous form in toto.
Corporation taxes came into force on April 2012, which applies to all legal entities that are duly registered in the Costa Rican Public Registry (e.g. “S.A.”, “LTDA”, among others), as well for those corporations that are in the process of being registered or that will be registered in the future.
Extra! Extra! Read All About It! IRS Commissioner Announces That Changes Are In the Offing For OVDP 2012
On June 3, 2014 the new IRS Commissioner, John A. Koskinen, gave a speech before the International Business - OECD International Tax Conference. His speech covered the history of the offshore enforcement initiative since the UBS debacle in 2009. His remarks acknowledge what most professionals in the tax community have recognized since the inception: that OVDP needs more tweaking in order to meet the overall goals of enforcement and fairness.
In a case that has raised eyebrows in the tax community, a jury in the Southern District of Florida has sustained the IRS’s assessment of multiple willful FBAR penalties against an American business man and bank director.
What is an installment agreement? An installment agreement is an option for those who cannot pay their entire tax bills by the due date. It allows taxpayers to pay the amount due over a period of time
In case you have a secret account in Switzerland with a Swiss bank, if you are a US person, if you have received a letter from a Swiss bank demanding to waive your rights to have bank secrecy, is a good idea if you start to act proactively. You can qualify for the OVDP or you file a late FBAR. It is worth to analyse this complex topic on a case-by-case basis.
With FATCA set to take effect on July 1, financial institutions around the world have been lobbying to delay implementation of the law, citing concerns about costs and potential disruptions to global markets.
Since the IRS announced the 2009 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) over five years ago, our firm has been assisting taxpayers submit accurate and complete disclosures in accordance with the program guidelines and procedures. The evolution of the OVDP through the 2011 and 2012 programs has brought a longer look-back period, steeper penalties, and more insight into IRS positions and procedures at different points in the program.
FBAR and FATCA are two important abbreviations for those who have overseas financial interests. Failure to file the FBAR report, in view of the IRS’s continuing application of FATCA, can get you into what old military veterans used to call FUBAR.
Tax cases are document-intensive cases. As any white-collar criminal defense attorney knows all too well, summonses and grand jury subpoenas routinely seek documents. And there is a good reason why. If the government cannot get the requested documents, it often cannot make a case. It is for this reason that the seminal issue in document production cases is whether the taxpayer has a Fifth Amendment privilege with respect to documents that he possesses.
Below are the rules governing taxation of foreign nationals.
Some of the legal issues that a person starting business in Azerbaijan would need to consider. This article covers corporate registration, tax and employment aspects of starting and operating business in Azerbaijan.
By LPA Law Firm
Foreign nationals are entitled to take up economic activities in Albania as self-employed persons, and to set up undertakings, in particular companies, which they effectively control. Foreign companies can also do business in Albania through setting up subsidiaries and branches.
In real estate transactions in Spain it still happens more often than not that acquired objects or extensions have to be dismantled because renovations or extensions were not properly authorised or the authorisation was not registered with the different agencies involved. Subsequent permits are possible in some cases, but they do require a special process and incur substantial expenses.
United States v. Tweel is the most famous example of a motion to suppress in a tax case. In Tweel, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held that it constitutes trickery, fraud, and deceit for the IRS to conduct a criminal investigation under the guise of a civil examination. Because of how fact-sensitive the holding of this case is, a recitation of the facts is necessary.
A Cyprus Investment Firm (CIF) is one of the most useful tools in the European Union (and Internationally) if you intend to provide and perform investment services and activities either within Cyprus or abroad on a professional basis on certain financial instruments.
Law That May Reduce Tax Evasion Goes Into Effect On July 1 The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) became law in the United States in 2010, but the clock is still ticking on its implementation. The clock will stop ticking on July 1, 2014.
Of the professionals that you can turn to for help with IRS problems, tax attorneys can most effectively help you sort through legal issues. Hiring such an expert is the most efficient way of getting on the right track. Here are seven reasons that make them valuable and indispensable.
Contrary to popular belief, the IRS doesn’t want to throw you in jail. Criminal investigations consume a lot of resources, take time, and are expensive. For most taxpayers, a criminal investigation isn’t a first step, but rather the last step in a lengthy process to get you to resolve your tax debt. In other words, it’s rare that an agent will show up on your doorstep one day with cuffs in hand.
The PFIC regime was not introduced until 1986. Prior to 1986, U.S. taxation of foreign corporations was strictly tied to control of the corporation held by U.S. persons. This allowed not only the foreign mutual fund to avoid U.S. taxation, but also U.S. persons who invested in the fund. How so?
It should come as no surprise that the IRS has authority to assess FBAR civil penalties. However, what might come as a surprise is that an FBAR violation doesn’t automatically mean that a penalty will be asserted. Why not?
United States citizens, residents and other persons must annually report their direct or indirect financial interest in, or signature authority over, a financial account that is maintained with a financial institution located in a foreign country if, for any calendar year, the aggregate value of all foreign accounts exceeded $ 10,000 at any time during the year.
Law enforcement and financial regulators everywhere are on the lookout for money laundering. Big corporations and financial institutions hire compliance experts, and those experts cooperate fully rather than face huge fines and penalties.
Sometimes the problem with “food for thought” is that it can almost choke you with its stark simplicity. Take our tax system, for example. The federal government prints our money, regulates the places where we keep it and has vast powers to take it away from us if we don’t give them their cut.
In 2010 President Obama signed P.L. 111-147, the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act. The purpose of the law is in its eponymous title, but the IRS got into the act with the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) provisions.
Ordinarily, the United States taxes U.S. citizens and resident aliens on their worldwide income, even when they live and work abroad for an extended period of time. To provide some relief, a U.S. citizen or resident who meets certain requirements can elect to exclude from U.S. taxation a limited amount of foreign earned income plus a housing cost amount. A double tax benefit is not allowed, however, and a taxpayer cannot claim a credit for foreign income taxes related to excluded income.
Due process is, according to Black’s Law Dictionary, “a course of legal proceedings … which have been established … for the enforcement and protection of private rights.” Anyone facing an IRS federal tax lien or levy has already experienced the preliminary due process following the IRS determination that more taxes are owed.
Criminals are utilizing their Internet connection to file false tax returns that help them steal refunds from the innocent. In 2013, fraudulent returns saw almost $4 billion sent into the hands of scam artists. Making things worse is the fact that the Internal Revenue Service is having a hard time stopping the fraud from happening in the first place.
Customs duties can be examined within the scope of two types of taxes which are expenditure tax and excise (Indirect) tax. Customs duty can be described as an expenditure tax. Expenditure taxes are for the services and goods produced sold or consumed. Customs duties are type of excise (indirect) tax as well because taxpayers reflect custom duties to consumer by including the tax into the prices of the goods to be sold. Taxable event, time and who to bear are not certain.
The European Commission has put forward certain amendments to key EU corporate tax legislation, in order to significantly reduce tax avoidance in Europe. The proposal will address deficiencies in the Parent-Subsidiary Directive, which may allow the operation of structures that will benefit from reduced taxation.
As well as the company establishment, an investor may take decision for termination of his/her company or a company's termination conditions stated in the laws may occur such that start of a liquidation process becomes unavoidable for the company.
Fighting The Post-Bankruptcy Survival Of Federal Tax Liens On Property Excluded From The Bankruptcy Estate
The federal tax collection system is founded on the concept of voluntary compliance. The United States government expects taxpayers to compute and timely pay all taxes owed. Most taxpayers fulfill this obligation. However, a minority refuse to comply. Those falling within the latter category are subject to forced collection and various penalties.
Greek government instated a procedure to obtain permanent residence permits, which can be renewed every five years, for third-country citizens who own real estate in Greece of minimum value €250.000, adopting a friendlier stance towards those who wish to own real estate property in Greece.
Our practical guide to real estate in Greece covers the entire spectrum of legal and tax issues which arise in practice when purchasing, managing, utilizing, developing and reselling property in Greece. It is addressed to both Greek nationals and foreign citizens of other European and non-EU countries who have a practical interest in legal and tax matters in Greece, with the aim of facilitating entrepreneurship and more generally the access of foreigners to the Greek market.
While reading can aid in learning, there is no substitute for doing. Reading about what steps should be taken to solve a tax problem is no different than reading about how to ride a bicycle. In the same way that the only way to learn how to ride a bicycle is by experiencing it firsthand – i.e., by physically getting on it (and perhaps falling off it more than once) – the only way to become proficient at solving tax problems is by trudging through a multitude of hypotheticals.
As part of an initiative to become more energy efficient, the South African Government has decided to incentivise reductions in energy usage. Coming into operation on 1 November the recently introduced section 12L of the Income Tax Act, No 58 of 1962 (‘the Act’) provides for a tax deduction calculated by a set formula pertaining to the amount of energy saved for any person that is carrying on a trade during any year of assessment ending before 1 January 2020.