Taxation Law Articles
Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Taxation.
Legal Notice 269 of 2014 has amended the Malta Retirement Programme Rules which were originally promulgated in 2012.
By virtue of two legal notices published on the 8th of July, the High Net Worth Individuals Rules (HNWI Rules) have now been amended to reflect the Global Residence Programme threshold, both in terms of tax and property value (be it purchase or lease), and a new special tax status is presented.
In the event of inheritance, the state generally cashes in on inheritance tax, yet money can also be saved with respect to this tax.
Recently, on 18 July 2014 Order no. 1847 was issued by the President of the National Agency for Fiscal Administration to cover the approval of the application and the forms to be used by inactive taxpayers.
Cyprus provides an established, stable and solid legislative framework under which Cyprus companies can be formed for intermediary or ultimate holding purposes within corporate groups, in project finance, cross-border transactions or even investment management contexts.
By Loeb Smith
The Cayman Islands (“Cayman”) continue to be the leading offshore jurisdiction for the establishment of both hedge funds and private equity funds. Typically, private equity funds are structured in Cayman as exempted limited partnerships (“ELPs”) and the introduction of the Exempted Limited Partnership Law, 2014 (the “New ELP Law”), which came into force on 2nd July 2014, will enhance the attractiveness of Cayman as the leading offshore jurisdiction for private equity funds.
By MMLC Group
This article looks at the reasons behind the newly announced reduction in VAT for biological products by the Chinese government.
Following the signature of the intergovernmental agreement (“IGA”) between Malta and the US on the 16th December, 2013 whereby the latter agreed to implement Foreign Account Tax Compliance provisions (commonly known as FATCA) in Malta, the Inland Revenue Department (“IRD”) has issued draft FATCA Regulations and Guidelines implementing the said intergovernmental agreement.
In 2008, when it was revealed that wealthy individuals around the world were utilizing accounts and trusts in Liechtenstein to evade taxes, the United States initiated a coordinated effort with foreign governments to combat tax evasion through the use of offshore trusts and accounts. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) has since launched criminal investigations of several foreign banks, many of which are ongoing.
The Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat) and the European Commission's Directorate-General for Taxation and Customs Union has issued a detailed statistical and economic analysis of the tax systems of the Member States of the European Union, which presents an overview of the tax system in each of the 30 countries covered (EU countries, Iceland and Norway), the revenue trends and the main recent policy changes.
Tax Liability in Joint Stock (“Anonim Şirket”) Companies As it has been known, administration and representation of joint stock companies are carried out by board of directors of the company.
U.S. taxpayers hiding assets abroad should take note of the Internal Revenue Service’s plan to sharply increase penalties for such acts, while those who unintentionally fail to disclose offshore accounts will experience much more leniency.
The form for the submission for tax purposes of part-time, self-employed individuals has been amended by virtue of Legal Notice 186 of 2014 [Part-Time (Forms of Self-Employed) (Amendment) Rules, 2014], therefore replacing the previous form in toto.
Corporation taxes came into force on April 2012, which applies to all legal entities that are duly registered in the Costa Rican Public Registry (e.g. “S.A.”, “LTDA”, among others), as well for those corporations that are in the process of being registered or that will be registered in the future.
Extra! Extra! Read All About It! IRS Commissioner Announces That Changes Are In the Offing For OVDP 2012
On June 3, 2014 the new IRS Commissioner, John A. Koskinen, gave a speech before the International Business - OECD International Tax Conference. His speech covered the history of the offshore enforcement initiative since the UBS debacle in 2009. His remarks acknowledge what most professionals in the tax community have recognized since the inception: that OVDP needs more tweaking in order to meet the overall goals of enforcement and fairness.
In a case that has raised eyebrows in the tax community, a jury in the Southern District of Florida has sustained the IRS’s assessment of multiple willful FBAR penalties against an American business man and bank director.
What is an installment agreement? An installment agreement is an option for those who cannot pay their entire tax bills by the due date. It allows taxpayers to pay the amount due over a period of time
In case you have a secret account in Switzerland with a Swiss bank, if you are a US person, if you have received a letter from a Swiss bank demanding to waive your rights to have bank secrecy, is a good idea if you start to act proactively. You can qualify for the OVDP or you file a late FBAR. It is worth to analyse this complex topic on a case-by-case basis.
With FATCA set to take effect on July 1, financial institutions around the world have been lobbying to delay implementation of the law, citing concerns about costs and potential disruptions to global markets.
Since the IRS announced the 2009 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) over five years ago, our firm has been assisting taxpayers submit accurate and complete disclosures in accordance with the program guidelines and procedures. The evolution of the OVDP through the 2011 and 2012 programs has brought a longer look-back period, steeper penalties, and more insight into IRS positions and procedures at different points in the program.
FBAR and FATCA are two important abbreviations for those who have overseas financial interests. Failure to file the FBAR report, in view of the IRS’s continuing application of FATCA, can get you into what old military veterans used to call FUBAR.
Tax cases are document-intensive cases. As any white-collar criminal defense attorney knows all too well, summonses and grand jury subpoenas routinely seek documents. And there is a good reason why. If the government cannot get the requested documents, it often cannot make a case. It is for this reason that the seminal issue in document production cases is whether the taxpayer has a Fifth Amendment privilege with respect to documents that he possesses.
Below are the rules governing taxation of foreign nationals.
Some of the legal issues that a person starting business in Azerbaijan would need to consider. This article covers corporate registration, tax and employment aspects of starting and operating business in Azerbaijan.
By LPA Law Firm
Foreign nationals are entitled to take up economic activities in Albania as self-employed persons, and to set up undertakings, in particular companies, which they effectively control. Foreign companies can also do business in Albania through setting up subsidiaries and branches.
In real estate transactions in Spain it still happens more often than not that acquired objects or extensions have to be dismantled because renovations or extensions were not properly authorised or the authorisation was not registered with the different agencies involved. Subsequent permits are possible in some cases, but they do require a special process and incur substantial expenses.
United States v. Tweel is the most famous example of a motion to suppress in a tax case. In Tweel, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held that it constitutes trickery, fraud, and deceit for the IRS to conduct a criminal investigation under the guise of a civil examination. Because of how fact-sensitive the holding of this case is, a recitation of the facts is necessary.
A Cyprus Investment Firm (CIF) is one of the most useful tools in the European Union (and Internationally) if you intend to provide and perform investment services and activities either within Cyprus or abroad on a professional basis on certain financial instruments.
Law That May Reduce Tax Evasion Goes Into Effect On July 1 The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) became law in the United States in 2010, but the clock is still ticking on its implementation. The clock will stop ticking on July 1, 2014.
Of the professionals that you can turn to for help with IRS problems, tax attorneys can most effectively help you sort through legal issues. Hiring such an expert is the most efficient way of getting on the right track. Here are seven reasons that make them valuable and indispensable.
Contrary to popular belief, the IRS doesn’t want to throw you in jail. Criminal investigations consume a lot of resources, take time, and are expensive. For most taxpayers, a criminal investigation isn’t a first step, but rather the last step in a lengthy process to get you to resolve your tax debt. In other words, it’s rare that an agent will show up on your doorstep one day with cuffs in hand.
The PFIC regime was not introduced until 1986. Prior to 1986, U.S. taxation of foreign corporations was strictly tied to control of the corporation held by U.S. persons. This allowed not only the foreign mutual fund to avoid U.S. taxation, but also U.S. persons who invested in the fund. How so?
It should come as no surprise that the IRS has authority to assess FBAR civil penalties. However, what might come as a surprise is that an FBAR violation doesn’t automatically mean that a penalty will be asserted. Why not?
United States citizens, residents and other persons must annually report their direct or indirect financial interest in, or signature authority over, a financial account that is maintained with a financial institution located in a foreign country if, for any calendar year, the aggregate value of all foreign accounts exceeded $ 10,000 at any time during the year.
Law enforcement and financial regulators everywhere are on the lookout for money laundering. Big corporations and financial institutions hire compliance experts, and those experts cooperate fully rather than face huge fines and penalties.
Sometimes the problem with “food for thought” is that it can almost choke you with its stark simplicity. Take our tax system, for example. The federal government prints our money, regulates the places where we keep it and has vast powers to take it away from us if we don’t give them their cut.
In 2010 President Obama signed P.L. 111-147, the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act. The purpose of the law is in its eponymous title, but the IRS got into the act with the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) provisions.
Ordinarily, the United States taxes U.S. citizens and resident aliens on their worldwide income, even when they live and work abroad for an extended period of time. To provide some relief, a U.S. citizen or resident who meets certain requirements can elect to exclude from U.S. taxation a limited amount of foreign earned income plus a housing cost amount. A double tax benefit is not allowed, however, and a taxpayer cannot claim a credit for foreign income taxes related to excluded income.
Due process is, according to Black’s Law Dictionary, “a course of legal proceedings … which have been established … for the enforcement and protection of private rights.” Anyone facing an IRS federal tax lien or levy has already experienced the preliminary due process following the IRS determination that more taxes are owed.
Criminals are utilizing their Internet connection to file false tax returns that help them steal refunds from the innocent. In 2013, fraudulent returns saw almost $4 billion sent into the hands of scam artists. Making things worse is the fact that the Internal Revenue Service is having a hard time stopping the fraud from happening in the first place.
Customs duties can be examined within the scope of two types of taxes which are expenditure tax and excise (Indirect) tax. Customs duty can be described as an expenditure tax. Expenditure taxes are for the services and goods produced sold or consumed. Customs duties are type of excise (indirect) tax as well because taxpayers reflect custom duties to consumer by including the tax into the prices of the goods to be sold. Taxable event, time and who to bear are not certain.
The European Commission has put forward certain amendments to key EU corporate tax legislation, in order to significantly reduce tax avoidance in Europe. The proposal will address deficiencies in the Parent-Subsidiary Directive, which may allow the operation of structures that will benefit from reduced taxation.
As well as the company establishment, an investor may take decision for termination of his/her company or a company's termination conditions stated in the laws may occur such that start of a liquidation process becomes unavoidable for the company.
Fighting The Post-Bankruptcy Survival Of Federal Tax Liens On Property Excluded From The Bankruptcy Estate
The federal tax collection system is founded on the concept of voluntary compliance. The United States government expects taxpayers to compute and timely pay all taxes owed. Most taxpayers fulfill this obligation. However, a minority refuse to comply. Those falling within the latter category are subject to forced collection and various penalties.
Greek government instated a procedure to obtain permanent residence permits, which can be renewed every five years, for third-country citizens who own real estate in Greece of minimum value €250.000, adopting a friendlier stance towards those who wish to own real estate property in Greece.
Our practical guide to real estate in Greece covers the entire spectrum of legal and tax issues which arise in practice when purchasing, managing, utilizing, developing and reselling property in Greece. It is addressed to both Greek nationals and foreign citizens of other European and non-EU countries who have a practical interest in legal and tax matters in Greece, with the aim of facilitating entrepreneurship and more generally the access of foreigners to the Greek market.
While reading can aid in learning, there is no substitute for doing. Reading about what steps should be taken to solve a tax problem is no different than reading about how to ride a bicycle. In the same way that the only way to learn how to ride a bicycle is by experiencing it firsthand – i.e., by physically getting on it (and perhaps falling off it more than once) – the only way to become proficient at solving tax problems is by trudging through a multitude of hypotheticals.
As part of an initiative to become more energy efficient, the South African Government has decided to incentivise reductions in energy usage. Coming into operation on 1 November the recently introduced section 12L of the Income Tax Act, No 58 of 1962 (‘the Act’) provides for a tax deduction calculated by a set formula pertaining to the amount of energy saved for any person that is carrying on a trade during any year of assessment ending before 1 January 2020.
Legal Notice 16 of 2014, has brought into effect amendments to the Highly Qualified Persons Rules, applicable retrospectively from year of assessment 2013.
Why Swiss Bank Clients Who Can’t Stand the Heat Are Getting Out of the Kitchen.
Nary a day goes by that a client doesn’t ask me the question, “Why am I being charged criminally with failing to file my tax returns? Lots of people get behind on their taxes and fail to file their returns for a few years, but they are not prosecuted. Why me?”
Recently, I received a panicked call from a client being detained at a major metropolitan airport. The client, a nonresident U.S. taxpayer, owed money to the Internal Revenue Service. Upon investigation, I learned who was responsible for detaining him: none other than the IRS. Under what authority? A two-year-old program designed to target nonresident delinquent taxpayers who travel to and from the United States.
New Jersey Notice of Federal Tax Change Requirements
Congress enacted section 6050I to attack and unearth the underground economy. As enforced, however, section 6050I has been used as a weapon in the IRS’s criminal arsenal.
The purpose of the personal income tax is to make Hungarian tax residents liable to tax on all their personal income irrespective of where the income is sourced and in which form it is realized. The personal income tax laws, therefore, create a net around the individuals and any item of income can only get through the net if it has been taxed.
The Internal Revenue Service takes great pleasure in auditing individuals who own their own small businesses. Why target these “moms and pops?” For the simple reason that they often deal in cash and keep two sets of books. Add in possible sales tax violations and before you know it auditors from the state revenue department have joined in the action.
Rescued From the Brink of Insanity: Practical Advice for Making the Decision to Opt Out of the OVDI - Part II
Hypotheticals demonstrating when opting out is detrimental to the taxpayer.
Rescued From the Brink of Insanity: Practical Advice for Making the Decision to Opt Out of the OVDI - Part I
Opting Out: The solution for the non-willful OVDI taxpayer? Hypotheticals demonstrating when opting out is in the best interests of the taxpayer.
Argentina: Tax Havens - Publication of the List of Cooperative Jurisdictions for Tax Transparency Purposes
The National Tax Authority (“AFIP”) published today in its “web” site the list of countries, jurisdictions, territories, states and special tax regimes which qualify as cooperative for tax transparency purposes (the “Cooperative Jurisdiction List”).
The unprecedented level of economic growth in Turkey during the last decade have created an economy with a GDP person of USD$ 10.000, an inflation rate cut down below the double digits, a purchasing power more than quadrupled, capacity utilization ratio of 75.6%, a government budget deficit below the Maastricht criteria of 3% and a public debt to GDP reduced down to 36% of the GDP.
In line with its high economic growth and its transformation in to an economic hub in its region, Turkey is recently investing alot to transform itself in to a center of high tech and R&D.
I. INTRODUCTION Turkey has been trying to take the strong measures against tax havens and monies left to these countries, but the measures still seem not enough. In order to understand this, foreign investors’ tendency and applicability of Turkish laws should be examined.
Today, in global cash flow around the world made multinational companies to think more on tax benefits and cost effectiveness before they invest in a country.
The problem of taxation of permanent representative offices of non-residents (including multinational pharmaceutical companies) has recently gained considerable importance, not least of all due to the attempts on behalf of the tax authorities to make such permanent representative offices pay the taxes in Ukraine. Such attempts of the tax authorities have several times been backed up by the courts, thus the debate to define the “tax nature” of representative offices has become a pressing issue.
Beginning in 2011, the IRS started cracking down on taxpayers who did not file gift tax returns after making gifts that required reporting.
Paying tax is painful. But reading about it shouldn't be.
Whether real estate is being acquired entirely new in the context of property acquisition or if it was already in the partnership’s possession is an important fact.
Italy’s Parliament approved a controversial law on Friday forcing tech giants like Google to sell advertising online only through Italian intermediaries, provoking anger from digital economy experts.
A rather detailed introduction of the legal aspects of outbound investment from China to foreign countries based upon the legal reality of China before 2012, which is undergoing further major changes in China at the moment.
For millions of Americans, the holiday season is about giving and charity, and few stop to consider the state of their personal finances and taxes. But, the end of the year is also the end of a tax period for individuals, meaning that come December 31, they cannot make any more changes that will help reduce the taxes they will have to pay in a few months.
New Jersey is one of only a few states that impose both an inheritance tax and a state estate tax. The inheritance tax applies when someone who lived in New Jersey, or owned property there, leaves property to someone who isn’t a close relative. The tax rate depends on how closely the inheritors and deceased person were related.
New Jersey collects both an inheritance tax and its own estate tax, separate from the federal estate tax.
Those who have dabbled with tax laws much at all are probably familiar with the general mantra that any money received may be taxable income. They may also be familiar with the idea that payments over a certain amount or in certain types of relationships (like employer/employee) often require that the payer ensure taxes are taken out before the balance is given to the payee. But what about gifts? Is there any tax liability for giving a gift?
In 2014, essentially all the financial institutions operating in Panama will be required to submit information to the United States (IRS) authorities, concerning “American citizen” in Panama.
Perhaps you are one of the fortunate few who has achieved a level of wealth where you are legitimately concerned that the ebb and flow of the U.S. economy could have a dramatic effect on your personal finances. Or, perhaps, you have heard that there are ways to avoid certain taxes if you keep your money offshore.
A Message from Uncle Sam to Taxpayers Who Have Undisclosed Foreign Bank Accounts: the Clock Is Ticking
OVDI: Is the IRS playing unfair? Read on...
Everyone has seen a few cents on the ground, likely dropped while someone pulled a ring of keys from their pocket. While we would probably not think twice about picking up a penny, what if it was a bank envelope full of $100 bills? It may seem like a dream come true, but there are certain legal obligations when one finds misplaced money.
As the real estate market in the U.S. has made a strong indication of recovery, some outside of the United States have begun to look again at American real estate investments as a possibility. This leads some to wonder, though, whether it is even possible for a foreigner to buy real estate in the U.S.? If so, are there any special laws to be aware of or taxes that must be paid?
A criminal investigation conducted by the IRS is different from a civil investigation. Criminal investigation of taxpayer returns or fraudulent activity is conducted by the Criminal Investigation Division of the IRS (CI). CI is the heavy artillery of the IRS arsenal.
In an “eggshell audit,” you must walk on eggshells to represent your client effectively in the civil examination without exposing the fraud, all the while honoring your duties to the tax system not to mislead the revenue agent.
To File or Not to File an Amended Return to Correct an Original Return That Has Criminal Tax Dimensions
Your client has filed a fraudulent return underreporting his tax liability. He now has misgivings. He comes to you and expresses great concern. What should you do?
All of us procrastinate. But some take things to dangerous extremes – putting off the filing of tax returns for a few years, or even many years. According to the IRS, each year some ten million people fail to file their tax returns. Nonfilers, as the IRS calls them, are skating on thin ice. They face both criminal and civil consequences. Luckily, these problems can be resolved if addressed, but they can also bring imprisonment and financial ruin if ignored.
New regulations in Turkish International Trade Law came into effect on 10.01.2013 in order to simplify customs procedures for international traders. With the new regulation, economic operators can apply for an Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) status, which is given permanently with no expiry, either to have easier access to customs simplifications or to be in a more favorable position to comply with the new security requirements.
According to the California Franchise Tax Board, the state is owed more than 6.5 billion dollars in tax revenue. Some contend that implementation of a whistleblower rewards program could help to bring in some of that lost revenue.
Malta's continuous effort in extending its tax treaty network (nearly 70 treaties entered into by Malta up to the end of October 2013) is again evidenced by a new tax treaty signed with Liechtenstein.
Further to the suspension of the Permanent Residents Scheme in December 2010, the Government of Malta has put in place a scheme for special tax status aimed at attracting internationally mobile, high net worth individuals (HNWI) to become tax resident in our islands and benefit from a favorable tax rate of 15% on any income remitted into Malta.
Trusts are still alien to the Italian legal system as they are essentially based on concepts in contrast with the Italian general principles on ownership. As the Italian legal system does not have a definition of trust, the Hague Convention has provided one, together with rules to be applied by Italian judges in the presence of conflicts in case of assets in trust located in Italy.
The value added tax (VAT), is a type of indirect turnover based tax that is levied during the final phase of the purchaser of the goods and is included in the price of the purchased item or service. Being a turnover tax, VAT is levied at each stage of the production and the distribution process as well.
When persons get together to start a business, they generally share a common vision and goal for the business. However, as the journey progresses, the expectations, ambitions and even commitment of the individual shareholders tend to diverge.
When assessing the value of a property because of the duty to disclose information and pay gains in divorce proceedings, the costs incurred are not tax deductible.
It was reported in the past weeks that a “total of 320 professionals who have taken up residence in Malta are benefiting from a maximum tax rate of 15% on their €75,000-plus salaries”.
Under certain circumstances, inheritance tax charged in another country cannot be deducted or considered as a liability against the capital assets of a German testator.
One of the most common questions often asked of corporate attorneys by small business owners who are just setting up their first company is how to write off expenses. Usually, two of the most important expenses these people want to write off are meals and entertainment expenses.
If inheritance tax paid in a foreign country is not meant to be deductible in Germany, it is disregarded when the German inheritance tax is calculated.
In 2012, with the dreaded “Fiscal Cliff” looming, many were worried about the inaction that would cause the estate tax exemption level to fall to $1 million. However, in the first two days of the new year, Congress finally passed the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA) which makes permanent the $5 million exemption as well as portability.
The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA) extended and made permanent (i.e., until Congress changes its mind) a number of key estate tax provisions. This includes a $5 million ($5.25 including inflation) estate tax exemption and portability of a deceased spouse’s exemption to the surviving spouse. The result of this means that married couples can shelter up to $10.5 million of their estate from federal taxes.
The Supreme Court’s recent decision to allow same-sex couples to receive marriage benefits raised several questions that left many lawmakers, financial institutions and individuals anxious for answers. Now, finally, the IRS has issued guidance in Revenue Ruling 2013-17. A Revenue Ruling is the IRS’s interpretation of the law.
Due to disparities that must be calculated, investors in shipping funds may have to wait a long time before benefiting from expected tax savings.
If you have already been sued, it is probably too late to do anything to protect your assets. But, if you are a planner and looking to protect your assets before you have a problem, this article is for you.