HG.org Legal Resources

International Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of International Law.

Benefits of an Investment Licence in Uganda

According to the Investment Code Act 1991, Section 15 (1 and 2), Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) shall issue to the applicant an investment...

Processing Investment Licence in Uganda

After a company has been incorporated registered (foreign company) in Uganda, it is eligible for an investment license provided its capital...

Investment Incentives in Uganda

The absolute exemption on plant and machinery only applies to plant and machinery used in the agricultural sector.

Authentication, Simplification, Granted IP Status in Latin America

The Hague Apostille Convention of 5 October 1961 was born out of the need to simplify the circulation of documents between different states and...

Economic Sanctions Against the Isalmic Republic of Iran from the Human Rights Perspective

Since the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran has always exposed to various international sanctions due to different reasons...

Arbitration - Does Signed Mean Sealed in UAE

Article 215 and 217 of the Civil Procedures Law of the UAE states that a person does not have the right to enter into an arbitration agreement...

Foreign Investment Law in China to Boost its Service Sector

  By MMLC Group
The path to reform for foreign investment regulation in China, and how that will boost the services sector.

Jurisdiction of Cyprus Courts to Recognize and Enforce Foreign Judgments and Foreign Arbitral Awards in Cyprus

In a recent decision of the District Court of Nicosia, it has been held that Cyprus Courts have jurisdiction to adjudicate on applications for...

Ekosam-Agrar GmbH Bond Terms to be Extended in Germany

Investors in Ekosem-Agrar GmbH are to vote on a four-year extension to the terms of two bonds. Creditor meetings are taking place on March 16...

The Changes in Insurance: A Prerequisite for a Stable and Efficient Insurance Market in Bulgaria

The new Insurance Code improves the legal framework and introduces the standard Community requirements to ensure legal certainty on the...

UK Competition Law Compliance Checklist

A brief overview of the main principles of competition law and what is prohibited, followed by a quick checklist of actions that businesses can...

A Short Guide to Agency Agreements in the UK and Europe

A very brief look at some of the headline issues involved when entering into Agency Agreements – both for trade within the UK and within Europe.

English Court Guidance on Anti- suit Injunctions in UK

In a recent decision of the English Commercial Court in ESSAR SHIPPING LTD –v- BANK OF CHINA LTD (2015) it has been held that an applicant to an...

Azerbaijan's Regulations on Agriculture: What Foreign Companies Need to Know

A summary of Azerbaijan's laws and regulations on agriculture. Useful to those foreign companies interested in investing in agriculture-related...

Airline Liable to Employers for Compensation for Delay - Romania

The European Court of Justice is having a larger influence on people’s lives than is popularly realised. As is often the case the Court has made...

China’s Updated High and New-Technology Enterprise Program

  By MMLC Group
On 29 January 2016, the Ministry of Finance, the State Administration of Taxation and the Ministry of Science and Technology jointly issued the...

Setting up Joint Ventures in Azerbaijan

General legal matters relating to how to set up joint ventures in Azerbaijan.

What You Should Know When Seeking to Become a Thai National

Practical points to consider when contemplating applying for Thai citizenship.

Cross-border Reorganization of Companies in the European Union

There are number of specific features in the reorganization of companies established in EU members states. What are they?

Egypt: Arbitral Award Enforcement

Procedure for Foreign Arbitral Award (or arbitration award) Enforcement in Egypt The competent court authorized to hear cases related to the...

Romania and the New Insurance Directive

After much debate and discussion the European Parliament and the Council have issued the recast Directive on Insurance Distribution.

The Registration Of Individuals & Companies In Free Zones in Jordan

Free zones in Jordan offer investors exemptions from income and social services taxes, custom duties and import duties.

Time to Pay Attention to Anti-Dumping Petitions in Taiwan

Since December 2015, U.S. steel producers have filed cases charging foreign competitors with dumping products, U. S. government has twice...

The Non-Operating Foreign Companies in Jordan

According to Jordanian Corporate law, the non-operating Foreign Company in Jordan is a Company or an entity which has its regional or...

Reinsurance & Reinsurance Investments by International Companies in Turkey

The laws and regulations governing the insurance and reinsurance practices in Turkey are quite complex, This brief aims to inform readers on...

Cyprus: The Strict Approach of the Enforcement of Arbitral Award

In the recent case of Ukrainian Vodka Company Ltd v Nemiroff International Limited, the Applicant requested an order of the Court permitting the...

How Can Your Lawyer Help Protect You in Romania

The use of lawyers in Romania has in the past has often been limited to using them for legal advisory and court work. Most clients should...

Legal Aspects of Marketing of Organic Products in Ukraine

The Ukrainian land is the most fertile in the European Union, the development of agro-industries are a significant and also market of organic...

Vessels Registration in Egypt

Vessels Registration under the Egyptian law Egypt enjoys strategic and distinguished location between the two seas, Mediterranean and the Red...

How to Clarify the Exact Scope of Goods and Services after Registration of an European Trademark

This article aims to inform proprietors of Community trademarks with the opportunity to file a declaration under Article 28, Paragraph 8 of...

What Tax Will You Pay On Company Incorporation in Romania

One of the current most challenging issues on the incorporation of a company in Romania is the immediate tax impact on the company and its...

Amendments to the Tax Legislation of Cyprus

New laws have recently been enacted in Cyprus, effecting important changes to the Income Tax Law and Capital Gains Tax Law. In addition, a...

Boundaries of Allowed and Forbidden in Parallel Import in Israel

Parallel import in Israel is a growing and expanding phenomenon. Many brands are imported not only by official/exclusive importers, but by other...

Ukraine vs Russia - The Beginning of Legal Wars

The legal war of Ukraine against Russia was announced in 2014 but in the second half of 2015 took the unwrapped and massive character. On...

Israel Import Taxes: New Voluntary Disclosure Procedure

On September 7, 2014, the Israel Tax Authority published a new procedure for voluntary disclosure of previously unreported income and assets, as...

Ukrainian Asset Securitization - What Is It?

Asset securitization is the development and implementation of a set of legal measures aimed at the preservation of property. This practice has...

Restrictions for Imported Products by Establishing a Register for Eligible Factories in Egypt

The Ministry of Commerce and Industry issued a decision to establish a register at the General Authority for Control on Exports and Imports for...

Implementation of the OECD Common Reporting Standard in the Cayman Islands

On 16 October 2015, the Cayman Islands Tax Information Authority (International Tax Compliance) (Common Reporting Standard) Regulations, 2015...

Cayman Islands Limited Liability Companies Bill

It is proposed that a new law (the “Law”) be enacted, to permit the formation of a new type of vehicle in the Cayman Islands – a Cayman Islands...

Execution of Decisions of Non-Resident Individuals and Legal Entities in the Ukraine

What can non-residents (individuals and legal entities), who have received judgments in their jurisdictions, and such decisions should be...

Doing Business in Cote d’Ivoire: New Steps for a More Attractive Business Climate

On regional level, Cote d’Ivoire belongs to three major regional entities: The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), The...

Senegal Business Environment: From a Local and a Regional Perspective

Senegal belongs to two major regional entities: ECOWAS and WAEMU. ECOWAS is an association of 16 West African entities aiming at having one...

Doing Business in Cameroon: Key Issues to Be Aware Of

Cameroon is described as the largest economy of Central Africa because of its demographics (20 million), with an area of 475,442 km², and a...

Common Reporting Standard Enters into Effect for Investment Funds in the Cayman Islands on January 1, 2016

What is CRS? The Common Reporting Standard (CRS) will impact Cayman Islands domiciled investment funds with effect from 1 January 2016. The CRS...

Identification of Systemically Important Institutions among Cyprus Investment Firms

Directive 2013/36/EU on the prudential supervision of credit institutions and investment firms requires what the directive defines as...

The Colombian Patent and Trademark Office: Steps Towards the Future

Revolutionary changes will be implemented in the administrative software that is in charge of the distinctive signs in the Superintendence of...

Ukraine Is a Huge Market for International Crewing Companies

Most of the sailors use the services of specialized personnel intermediary (“crewing”) agencies. Ukrainian market is interested in coming of...

Provisions of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement

Provisions of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement concerning the creation of a free trade zone will become effective on 1 January 2016. The...

De-Registration of a Cayman Islands Exempted Company and Transfer by Way of Continuation

Under the Companies Law (as Revised) (the "Companies Law") of the Cayman Islands, the Registrar of Companies (the "Registrar") will de-register...

Midnight Arbitration Clause v. 8:00 a.m. Clause in Dubai

In the past, contractual dispute resolution provisions were commonly known as ‘midnight’ clauses because commercial lawyers only come to discuss...

The Layman’s Guide to the European Institutions

Ever since the horror that was the Second World War, Europe has reorganized itself into a democratic union of states, which has proved to be...

Import Duties in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Indirect Taxation Authority is responsible for the collection of all customs duties.

Licensing Requirements of Dubai Lawyers

  By HG.org
Since 2011, the Dubai government has required lawyers to be licensed by it in order to lawfully provide legal services. There are strict...

Arbitration in Bosnia and Herzegovina

In the Foreign Trade Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as an institution whose main role is to represent and protect the interests of...

China’s “One Belt One Road” Provides Catalyst for Hong Kong Taxation Reform

According to the China central government’s 13th five-year plan, it has showed its full support for Hong Kong to participate in the nation's...

Public Private Partnership in Egypt

Public private partnership in a simple definition is a long term contract between the private sector and the public sector. In the 70s and 80s...

How Overseas Buyers Claim for Quality Responsibility against China Sellers?

For overseas buyers it is very important to inspect goods after delivery. The inspection should prompt and contribute to official report. With...

EU Court of Justice Invalidates US-EU Safe Harbor Arrangement

On October 6, 2015, the Court of Justice of the European Union handed down judgment in Case C-362/14, Maximillian Schrems v. Data Protection...

China Jurisdiction and Choice of Law Over Contracts Involving Foreign Interests

There are so many contracts entered into everyday by overseas businessmen with China partners. If the contract does not choose jurisdiction and...

Law, Life, and Society: Thai Businesses with Foreign Owners

There are restrictions to Non-Thais from opening most types of businesses.

Which supplier is More Reliable in China? – From the Eyes of a Chinese Lawyer

How to choose a reliable Chinese supplier in international trade business, for foreign merchants.

The Endgame: Enforcing a US Judgement in the UKT

British-American trade is worth $214 billion, and is continuing to grow despite challenging economic conditions. Often disputes arise, and as a...

New Tax Incentives to Attract Investors in Cyprus

The government of Cyprus has announced new amendments in the island’s tax system in order to attract foreign investment and increase Cyprus’...

Foreign Infusions into Charter Capital of the Company in Ukraine: Benefits and Guarantees

“Foreign Invested Enterprise” in Ukraine, what should we know about benefits and guarantees.

The Acquisition of Property in Spain by Non-Resident Foreigners

More and more non-resident foreign nationals, attracted by the good economic climate, decide to buy a property in Spain. The drop in real estate...

Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Cayman Islands

The Foreign Judgments Reciprocal Enforcement Law (1996 Revision) (the “Law”) allows a judgment creditor to apply for the judgment to be...

Can I Sue a Foreign Doctor for Malpractice in an American Court?

  By HG.org
Medical tourism is on the rise for Americans. Many Americans seek the substantial savings they can obtain by getting various medical treatments,...

Get Protection and Security for Your Investments in Colombia

A legal framework that guarantees stability to international business is always desirable for any investor or company in any sector of the...

Trademark Fees Will Increase in Argentina

The Trademark Direction of the National Institute of Industrial Property in Argentina decreed that the trademark fees will rise from October of...

Legal Aspects of Real Estate Purchase of Foreign-Capital Companies in Turkey

Due to Turkey’s rapidly financial growth and increasing population, real estate market has been developing for last five years.

Cuba Enacts New Foreign Investment Law

The Law clearly provides that foreign investment is regulated within a framework of the law, sovereignty, independence and mutual benefit, in...

Liability for Collisions under UAE Maritime Law

Hosting one of the world’s largest ports, Dubai has rapidly expanded to become a leading maritime hub. As an expected consequence of the growth...

Can a Lawyer Help with Extradition?

  By HG.org
Extradition is the process in which one country or state that has possession of a criminal suspect hands him or her over to another country or...

Public Procurement Disputes in Romania

For both local Romanian investors and also foreign investors interested in obtaining public contracts in Romania it is very important to be...

New Amendments to Investment Law No. 8 in Egypt

Egypt in its accelerated movement towards economic reform has been emphasizing the importance of real estate development projects and large...

Free Zones in Egypt: The New Start

Egypt started its free zones programs in the 70s; during this period the country’s policy was directed at attracting and retaining foreign...

Risk Allocation in Treaty Obligations

The specificity of commercial relationship shows that at the stage of execution of the obligation against the will of any of the parties may be...

Recent Legal Amendments on Real Estate Acquisitions by Foreigners in Turkey

Some significant amendments for real-estate acquisitions by foreigners introduced by a new Law. The most notable amendment in the Law is...

How to Protect and Save Assets that Remained in Crimea

As a result of the illegal annexation of the Crimea by the Russian Federation, many owners of the property and assets in the Crimea have gotten...

China's New National Security Law

  By MMLC Group
Developments in China's national security regulation, and contrasts the position with that existing in Australia and the USA as of 29 July 2015.

The Latest Development and Tax Issues of Islamic Bond Market in Hong Kong

Islamic finance is one of the fastest growing sectors in the international financial market. Given the strategic importance and influence of the...

Registration and Licensing of Motor Vehicles Amendment Regulations in Malta

Before the introduction of the Registration and Licensing of Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Regulations, published on the 5th of June 2015, if an...

Egypt: Amendments to the Investment Law

There were many debates over the investment law in the Cabinet of Ministers before the Presidential Decree 17/2015 amended some provisions of...

Validity of Foreign Court Decisions in Turkey

Increase in international trade, people living abroad for various reasons and the disappearance of borders by time has resulted that the legal...

EU Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive

Public opinion became familiar with the term ‘bank resolution’ during the Cyprus banking crisis of 2013. The legal model that had been used in...

Debt Collection in Italy

How the debt collection works in Italy.

Asset Tracing in Cyprus

Even in cases in which the identity of the wrongdoer or the whereabouts of the misappropriated property is unknown, there are tools available...

Hong Kong is an Ideal Place for Investment despite the Unbounded EC Tax Haven Blacklist

Hong Kong was named among the thirty uncooperative tax jurisdictions in the European Commission’s (“EC”) tax haven blacklist released on June...

International and Domestic Law

With globalization and recent reshaping of the global landscape the paradigm shifted, and the international law moved away from its classical...

Recent Amendments and Modernisation of the Companies Act in Cyprus

The Law amending the Companies Act, CAP 113, Number 4, of 2015 has been passed by the Cyprus parliament. It provides for significant changes to...

Lawyer Tariff in Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina there are two lawyer tariffs in effect, for the territory of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina applies the Lawyer...

Enforcing Child Support in US Courts When the Child Lives Overseas

  By HG.org
In the modern, global world, it is not uncommon for people to migrate from one country to another. Unfortunately, doing so can complicate family...

When Buying from Foreign Sources, What Can You Do if the Seller Does Not Send Your Product?

  By HG.org
Buyers large and small have begun purchasing from foreign sources. Sites like alibaba.com have revolutionized the international market for...

The Unified Judiciary Law of GCC

In 34th Session of the Supreme Council of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) the council agreed that The Unified...

Shipping Contracts: Affirming the Contract

A recent High Court judgment in the UK highlights the difficulties that can arise when unexpected problems strike. In the case of MSC...

Compulsory Marine Liability Insurance

If you are involved in the maritime and shipping industry, you will be only too familiar with the wealth of legislation and regulation with...

When to Retain an Attorney for a Missing Child in California and for What Purposes

Each year, nearly 1.3 million children are reported missing. Fortunately, most missing children are returned home in a short period of time. In...

Efficacy and Validity in International Law

Compliance and its relation to validity is one of the central points in the discussions related to the international law. H Kelsen stated that...

Singapore The Island Nation with Global Significance

Singapore is a hub for international arbitration. Learn more about the city-state and what to do to prepare for an upcoming arbitration.

Does America Have to Follow International Laws?

  By HG.org
Attorneys often experience a passionate client coming into their office and insisting that they have a case based on something they read about...


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