HG.org Legal Resources

International Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of International Law.


Efficacy and Validity in International Law

Compliance and its relation to validity is one of the central points in the discussions related to the international law. H Kelsen stated that ‘the efficacy of law constitutes a condition of the validity of law’[1], where efficacy refers to ‘whether law is actually observed’[2] and ‘validity whether law must be observed’[3].

Singapore The Island Nation with Global Significance

Singapore is a hub for international arbitration. Learn more about the city-state and what to do to prepare for an upcoming arbitration.

Does America Have to Follow International Laws?

  By HG.org
Attorneys often experience a passionate client coming into their office and insisting that they have a case based on something they read about happening in another country. In other instances, people will invoke rights they believe they have under treaties or international agreements like the Geneva Convention. Thus, many wonder whether American courts must follow international laws?

Compulsory Marine Liability Insurance

If you are involved in the maritime and shipping industry, you will be only too familiar with the wealth of legislation and regulation with which you are obliged to comply. When it comes to business at sea and in port, it is essential to ensure that you are fully compliant in order to protect you, your employees, your clients and your business.

Dispute Resolution in the Eurasian Economic Union

  By Integrites
On 29th of May 2014, the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan), the Russian Federation (Russia) and the Republic of Belarus (Belarus) have signed the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union.

Shipping Contracts: Affirming the Contract

A recent High Court judgment in the UK highlights the difficulties that can arise when unexpected problems strike. In the case of MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company1, the courts looked at the implications of a party who, when faced with potential repudiation, chose instead to affirm a contract and claim demurrage charges.

Fair Use or more Fair Dealing: China’s Copyright Law in Transition

The third draft of proposed amendments to the Chinese Copyright Law was released on March 31, 2012. As expected with any piece of legislation with economic import, this draft was the result of much political pushing and pulling. In the end, no one was happy. But as we live in a time of profound technological and cultural change, it’s reasonable to be unhappy some of the time with what the Copyright Law does and does not allow.

Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in China

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the New York Convention as applied in China, in particular in relation to when courts in China are able to refuse to enforce foreign arbitral awards, by reference to decided cases.

Michael Jordan and the Chinese Trademark System: Two Languages, One Superstar

Waiting too long to protect your trademark can end badly. In China, with its first to file system, foreign brands have learned the hard way to be proactive in protecting their foreign language brand names. But some have been slow in protecting the Chinese language versions of those brand names. And have seen their brand recognition pulled out from under them.

The Digital Single Market Top Priority for EU

Creating a Digital Single Market is one of the ten priorities of the EU President-elect Jean-Claude Juncker.

Shipping Contract Disputes

A recent contract dispute demonstrates the need to secure expert shipping law advice as soon as possible, particularly if the contract in question contained a jurisdiction clause, which can affect both the outcome of the case and any damages awarded.

IT-startups in Ukraine: It's Time to Start

Ukraine, as a potential country for doing business, is often discussed by foreign investors, despite the fact that the ratings of favorable legal environment of Ukraine is not too high. The main reason for the low ratings of favorable investment climate in Ukraine is corruption and overly regulated legal regulation of business.

China’s Case Acceptance Regulations: Getting into Court Gets A Little Easier

Getting in the courthouse door in China has always been problematic even for seemingly straight-forward cases. China’s Supreme People’s Court is trying to make the case filing process easier, more efficient and maybe even a little more transparent. Predictability, above all, is hopefully within reach.

UAE Banks must apply Sharia Law to Bank Accounts

Very recently Emirates Airlines together with the Chamber of Commerce in Abu Dhabi organized a conference on Asset Protection and Estate Planning held in Dubai. The Central Bank has issued regulations requiring all banks to apply Sharia Law regardless if the is a will indicating a different law.

Investing in Cyprus

Large-scale projects, privatisations and a burgeoning oil and gas sector are firmly placing Cyprus on the map as a hotspot for investment from the US, Asia, Russia and the Middle East.

An Arbitral Award has No Immediate Effect in Cyprus

A foreign judgment or an arbitral award has no immediate effect in Cyprus. A procedure must be followed in order to enforce the foreign judgment. This can be made under E.U regulations, common law and statute depending on the country issuing the judgment and/or the arbitral award.

A Methodological Approach to Negotiating International Business Disputes

The United States government has declared increased exports are the path for financial recovery. In particular, the Small Business Administration declared exports are the principal method to buttress American small business. So, how do small businesses effectively negotiate in the international market?

Foreign Companies in Ecuador

Foreign companies wishing to open a branch in Ecuador, should be incorporated in their country of origin as a trading company, may be of limited liability or a Inc and consider the following issues.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

Firstly, is important to understand the cause of money laundry crime. Usually, is related to drugs traffic, terrorism, trafficking of humans, others international crimes. In 1989, the group of seven (G-7), composed in those days by Italy, United Kingdom, France, Canada, United States, West Germany and Japan, create Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Spotlight: Concerns about Constitutionality of Turkey’s New IP/O Regime in Civil Industrial Sectors

On 06 February 2014, Turkish Parliament has enacted a 6518 Omnibus Bill, gazetted February 19th 2014, which adjoins a provision to article 3 of the Law No 4734 Public Procurement Law (“Law”) stipulating that purchase of goods and services provided to ensure innovation, local production and technology transfer under offset/industrial participation programs are not subject to Law No 4734.

The Main Advantages for Clients of Using Cayman Islands Corporate Structures

  By Loeb Smith
What is the single most important advantage that Cayman Islands corporate structures provides to clients?

Introduction to Jurisdiction of Divorce in Turkey

Divorce principles in Turkish Law related to divorce. Enforcement of a Foreign Divorce Decree in Turkey requires some standards.

Worry and Reassurance: A New Food Safety Law in China and What You Can do for Your Customers

Fake wine is nothing new in China. Even though the economic incentives for going after counterfeiters have never been greater, the fakes are still out there. But there are two things to keep in mind.

Risk Management and Prevention Strategies for Start-Ups in China

For any start-up, there are multiple legal issues involved in building your business but risk management and prevention issues can be arranged into four major risk areas.

Avoiding of Risks in Property Interests Purchase in the Ukraine

Investing to the real estate market is very profitable in Ukraine. There are a lot of foreign companies which provide their activity in Ukraine with one purpose – to buy and rent the real estate. Ukrainian state bodies designed very good legal remedies for property and owners too. But now we still have a lot of legal gaps.

Overhaul Aimed at Making all Media Equally Available throughout Europe

The European Union has recently unveiled a planned reform for the 28 Member State’s digital market aimed at boosting ecommerce and overhauling Europe’s telecoms market.

Parameters to Request the Granting of a Concession in a Maritime Zone

If a private person or a legal corporation wants to purchase a property at the beaches of Costa Rica, whether it is to build a house, hotel, resort or business, first it should be informed about the requirements to obtain a concession in the maritime zone. To have a concession means that the person doesn’t acquire the property, but obtains a permit for using it, that allows the exploitation and enjoyment of the land, according to the parameters established by the local regulatory plan.

Scammed by Someone from Another Country, What are My Legal Options?

  By HG.org
They are a routine part of our modern, online world: Internet scams are a daily annoyance for many. Often found in annoying emails, website popups, and other dark corners of the web, these digital scam artists seem to be everywhere today. And, with many of these scams operating overseas, it has left many to wonder what they can do if they fall victim to the tricks of someone from another country.

E-Residency in Estonia

As the world seems to develop faster and faster, a new gadget has been placed to the disposal of the foreigners and non-resident persons in Estonia, namely the digital identity card also known as e-residency.

Oil Contracts, What Is it all About?

Perhaps fuel could be the quickest product to come in to mind when thinking about petroleum, but the list of petroleum products is long and includes numerous materials such as propane, liquid fuels blending such as kerosene, benzene, etc…lubricants, sulfar, asphalt and many more….Petroleum contracts through the history were designed with crude oil in mind, and this ethos still dominate the structure of the contracts up to this date.

Legal Aspects of Conflicting Views on Cyprus's Exclusive Economic Zone

We explore the general legal aspects of the conflicting positions between Cyprus and Turkey relating to Cyprus’ exclusive economic zone and the exploration for natural gas. This note does not constitute nor should be relied upon as legal advice and is for general information only. Regulated legal advice and counsel can be retained by contacting our Public International Law practice.

Parallel Import to be Legalized in Russia in 2015 - Antitrust Risks

Parallel import allows import of goods not only by their owner or dealer, but also by any importer.

Enforcing the 1958 New York Convention in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of arbitral awards signed in New York on June 10, 1958, (« The New York Convention »), has been ratified in Democratic Republic of the Congo ("DRC") through Law No 13/023 dated 26 June 2013 authorizing the accession of DRC to the Convention in accordance with article 215 of the Constitution.

Ratification to the Treaty Relating to Grand Inga Hydroelectric Project in the Congo

In accordance with articles 213 paragraph 1 and 214 paragraph 1 of the Constitution of February 18, 2006 as amended to date, the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo ("DRC”) promulgated on the 21st November 2014 the Law No. 14/026 authorizing the ratification by the DRC of the Treaty relating to the Grand Inga hydroelectric project between the Republic of South Africa ("RSA") and itself.

USA: Business Structures Available for Foreign Investors

The choice for the appropriate legal structure to transact business in the United States (“U.S.”) depends on a combination of factors relevant to a specific activity or sector, as well as on the needs and goals of the investor.

The Schengen Agreement

The Schengen Agreement is very important when travelling across Europe.

Turkish Energy Market 2015

Turkey’s importance in the energy market grows as a regional transit hub given its location between the oil rich Middle East, Caspian region, and Europe. Turkey is the home of the Bosporus and Dardanelles connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.

Enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey

Explaining current provision and practice of enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey. New York Convention and Turkish Private Law and Procedure Act (Called MÖHUK in Turkey International Private Law and Procedure Act) related to enforcement of foreign arbitral awards are the main provisions governing terms of subject concerned.

Discovery and Depositions in Germany

Taking depositions in Germany can be easy with the proper planning and scheduling.

Recent Canadian Court Decisions Affecting Commercial Arbitration

More business cases are going to arbitration than ever before. Therefore, courts have to confront more procedural and legal issues arising out of arbitration cases. Judges often have to remind litigants of the deference given to arbitrators, when the parties have agreed on arbitration as their dispute resolution method. In this presentation, Igor Ellyn reviews nine of the latest cases and explains how they affect the law and practice of arbitration in Ontario and Canada.

Important Frequently Asked Questions on Vessel Arrest in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel. Let's see the important frequently asked questions on vessel arrest in Tunisia

The Applicable Procedures to Arrest a Ship in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel. Let's see the applicable procedures to arrest a ship in Tunisia.

Arrest a Vessel in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel.

Cyprus Courts Do Not Recognise Foreign Arbitration Awards when Neither Party Has its Domicile in Cyprus

The Supreme Court of Cyprus ruled on 17 February 2015, in STX OFFSHORE & SHIPPING CO. LTD v. STX (DALIAN) SHIPBUILDING CO.LTD, Civil Application No. 152/2014, that in order for a foreign arbitration award to be recognized and enforced in Cyprus either the applicant or the respondent must have its domicile in Cyprus.

When a Marriage Breaks in the United Arab Emirates

Shedding light on the application of the UAE Personal Affairs (‘Sharia’) versus foreign laws. The case of a Hindu divorce granted by the Sharia Court in the UAE to the wife with full custody of the kids as well as alimony.

The Legal Truth of E-contracts in Egypt

No doubt that the technological evolution and its wide range usage in various fields became a part of our daily lives, accompanied by this evolution,it’s usage between people in civil and commercial transactions grew significantly.,

Buying Property in Dubai

The endless opportunities that Dubai is bringing back to its real estate sector and the influx of new people relocating to Dubai have substantially increased the Dubai property demand. The basics of buying a property in Dubai are the same as anywhere else in the world: “One needs to be very careful in closing a property deal”.

Setting Up a Business in Italy

The first step a company based outside Italy has to take before starting a business in Italy is chosing the most appropriate form of incorporation. This article is a short introduction to the options available.

Recognition of Foreign Judgments by Thai Courts

The recognition of foreign judgments by Thai courts is an issue likely to be of great interest to foreigners and Thai nationals alike. Its implications have consequences over a diverse array of legal matters, ranging from the enforcement of foreign judgments against Thai-domiciled businesses operating overseas to the recognition of foreign divorce or child custody judgments against Thai spouses who have returned to live in Thailand.

Turkey’s Civil Offset/Industrial Participation Enthusiasm

Most probably many people would not know more about where offset/industrial participation discussions were moving toward before the article titled “The defence industry: Guns and Sugar” was published on The Economist’s on 25 May 2013.

Business Establishment in Ukraine

Nowadays many foreigners plan to establish their own business in other country. It can be very profitable because every country has some advantages in comparison with other countries. For example, agro-industrial and agricultural spheres in Ukraine are developed on a very high level and the profit of having business in such spheres in Ukraine can be much higher than in other countries.

Legal Aspects of Marrying Ukrainian Citizens

Nowadays, many people move to Ukraine to marry with Ukrainian citizens. A foreigner who married a person who lives in Ukraine will face a number of challenges before and after the registration of a marriage. This is not about difference between mindsets and some special culture features: in this article we will consider Ukrainian law features and different law problems related to marriage.

Overview of Business Crime in Latin America

While several Latin American countries have vowed to combat corrupt practices and have enacted legislation to formalise their intentions, meaningful change requires active enforcement as well as the political will and sacrifice to exact it.

How Does the Foreigner Validate Documents Issued in Ukraine?

The largest part of all documents confirming one or another status of the foreign person by some country will require a further legalization according to current regulations of any other country, where a foreign national plans to work and/or reside in the future.

Your Business in Ukraine: New Perspectives for the Private Sector

It's not a secret that Ukraine is still one of the market dark horses in context of entrepreneurship. Not many of large companies venture to base their businesses here despite of the wide range of potentially profitable areas for investment. The events of winter and spring of 2014 scared even those who worked steadily for our economy for years. However, now due to the current European course, there are good prospects for the climate improvement in this area

Independent Bank Guarantee in Italy

Business clients dealing with international trade frequently asked us whether an independent bank guarantee issued under the URDG 758 (the ICC Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees 2010) is valid, binding and enforceable under the Italian law or not and, if not, whether and how it can be amended in order to ensure it is valid, binding and enforceable as an independent bank guarantee under the Italian law.

Civil and Commercial Court Rulings Will Have Effectiveness in All the EU

Savings of up to €48 million thanks to new rules for cross-border judgments.

The Gateway to Europe

Despite the fact that the German market is considered to be the third biggest economy in the world, with an annual turnover of (if you mention turnover an exact figure is expected) Billions of Euros, Israeli business presence in Germany is still relatively poor. How should business be done in Germany? Which Israeli businesses succeed in Germany and in interacting with Germans, and how can the Israeli “Chuzpa” be more helpful? These are things one ought to consider.

The Cargo Transport Units Code of Practice – What Does it Mean for You?

A new Code of Practice aims to increase safety and security in the working environment in dock and on board ship – and helps shipping, cargo and haulage companies understand their liabilities and responsibilities when it comes to packing and transporting cargo.

Enforcement of UK judgments in Turkey

How to enforce UK judgments in Turkey. Uk Decrees are generally enforceable in Turkey based on high court decision.

Enforcement of US Judgments in Turkey

As a civil based law country (continental European Law) in Turkey, enforcement of foreign judgments are entitled to specific provision in International Private Act (MOHUK). It is noteworthy to mention that Turkey is not part of European Union and accordingly Brussels Convention and other relevant legislation which deal with judgement enforcement does not have any effect in Turkish Law.

Doing Business in Cuba

In January 2015 the Treasury Department issued regulations to establish banking relations and allow U.S. companies to export items for sale in Cuba without the trade barriers that have existed for decades. While some Republican leaders have criticized Obama’s actions, normal relations with Cuba are only a matter of time and the opportunities for attorneys representing American and European companies wishing to pursue commercial opportunities in Cuba have never been greater.

What Laws Affect Mail Order Brides?

  By HG.org
As the Internet makes the world a smaller and smaller place, unusual new ways of meeting people have become increasingly popular. While personal ads placed in the newspaper used to be a somewhat embarrassing way of meeting someone, the explosion of the Internet made online dating sites almost the norm for arranging romantic encounters. Similarly, the Internet has also opened the doors to international romance in the form of “mail order bride” services. But what laws affect mail order brides?

Shipping and Maritime: Costs Following Hijacking of Vessels

A vessel was hijacked in the Gulf of Aden by Somali pirates. Unfortunately for cargo owners and insurers, the High Court in the UK has ruled that additional classes of expense - including wages paid to crew, and bunkers consumed during the period of the hijack - could be recovered by ship owners from cargo interests.

Are There Laws Against Spying in the United States?

  By HG.org
Movies and television shows often glamorize the world of espionage. But, in reality, is it quite so exciting? Aside from the lack of martinis and frequent shoot outs to save the world, the reality is that espionage is a crime in the United States.

Are There Laws in the U.S. Against Importing Goods Made by Child Labor or Slaves?

  By HG.org
Ever stopped and wondered where your various household goods came from? Not just the country of origin, but who actually worked to produce it? Most products, even those from other countries, are produced by adults, and though their standard of living may be different than that of their counterparts in America, they are working of their own free will. However, some products and services, even today, are still being produced by children and forced labor.

Alternative Investment Funds in Cyprus

The Alternative Investment Funds Law of 2014 was enacted by the parliament on the 10th of July 2014 and entered into force on the 27th of July 2014.

FATCA: Cayman Islands Investment Entities Should Act Before Upcoming Registration Deadline

  By Loeb Smith
The broad scope of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“US FATCA ”) introduced by the United States (“US”) and the implementation of that broad scope of application into Cayman Islands law means that it is very important for Cayman Islands domiciled entities to each undertake an assessment of whether or not it is a Financial Institution under Cayman Islands law for the purposes of US FATCA.

Innocent Infringer Trademark Defense in Israel?

Israel's Supreme Court recently found that trademark infringement in Israel should not be attributed to an importer who did not knowingly order counterfeit goods, had no intention of buying counterfeit goods, and was the innocent victim of a scam.

Parallel Import in Israel

Israel's Supreme Court has just handed down a watershed ruling in relation to the question of parallel import in Israel. In addition to re-affirming the existing common law, which permit parallel import, the Supreme Court clarified many do's and dont's relating to this kind of activity, thereby painting a fairly clear picture of what will, and will not, be permitted in Israel.

European Securities and Markets Authority Issues Consultation Paper on Asset Segregation

The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has recently published a consultation paper on the asset segregation requirements under the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD).

What is Sharia Law and How Does it Apply in America

  By HG.org
Sharia law is the Islamic system of moral codes that govern all aspects of Muslim life. Since 9/11, a wave of anti-Sharia legislation has swept across America. But what is Sharia law, and is it really something that Americans should be concerned about? Is anti-Sharia law actually more dangerous to American freedoms than the moral code it seeks to prohibit?

How Does U.S. Law View Offshore Bank Accounts?

  By HG.org
Perhaps you are one of the fortunate few who has achieved a level of wealth where you are legitimately concerned that the ebb and flow of the U.S. economy could have a dramatic effect on your personal finances. Or, perhaps, you have heard that there are ways to avoid certain taxes if you keep your money offshore.

What Do I Have To Declare At Customs When Entering the United States?

  By HG.org
When traveling abroad, one set of laws tend to concern and confuse people more than others: customs laws. When entering the United States, certain items must be “declared” (i.e., one must alert customs officials that they are in the that person's possession). This could lead to the requirement to pay a small “duty” fee to bring the item into the country, or it may be seized and you may not be allowed to bring it into the country at all.

China - Live Animal Import and Export Regulations

  By MMLC Group
A look at the web of Chinese laws that potentially apply to the import of live animals into China.

Overseas Service Businesses Under the Thai Foreign Business Act

The Foreign Business Act of 1999 generally restricts service businesses under Category (21) of List Three, with certain explicit exemptions such as hotel management services under Category (17). Furthermore, the Ministerial Regulation Re: List of Service Businesses Exempt from Requiring a Foreign Business License of B.E. 2556 (2013) also exempts certain businesses related to securities and investment from requiring a Foreign Business License.

Can Foreigners Buy Real Estate in the United States?

  By HG.org
As the real estate market in the U.S. has made a strong indication of recovery, some outside of the United States have begun to look again at American real estate investments as a possibility. This leads some to wonder, though, whether it is even possible for a foreigner to buy real estate in the U.S.? If so, are there any special laws to be aware of or taxes that must be paid?

Investments Into Crimea

Pursuant to a treaty of accession between the Russian Federation, Crimea and Sevastopol dated March 18, 2014 Crimea and Sevastopol became integral parts of the Russian Federation as two separate new Russian regions. As such, they fall under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.

When Does the Geneva Convention Apply?

  By HG.org
Often an argument raised by inmates or others who feel they have been wronged but are not sure what rights to call upon, the Geneva Conventions are frequently misidentified as the source of a variety of “rights” one does not have. The Geneva Conventions are actually a series of agreements, not a single document, and among the most misapplied by legal novices. So when do the Geneva Conventions really apply?

Foreign Skilled Technicians and Experts Under the Board of Investment in Thailand

The Investment Promotion Act of B.E. 2520 (1977) allows three categories for foreigners to enter Thailand in addition to the standard immigration rules. Section 24 of the Act allows for foreigners to enter the country in order to survey investment opportunities. Section 25 allows foreigners who are skilled technicians or experts (and their dependents) to enter the country to work for a company that has been promoted by the Board of Investment (BOI).

An Overview of FIDIC Rules in Turkey

FIDIC, (Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs Conseils), International Federation of Consulting Engineers aims to find a resolution in construction sector. There are five different FIDIC contracts in different colors that regulates different and separate obligations and rights.

Cyprus Nominee Shareholders - Valid Trusts Arrangements or a Mere Façade?

First to be explored is the legal nature of the so called “nominee shareholder”. Nominee shareholder is a shareholder of a company holding shares nominally only, that is, only in name. In such a way the identity of the ultimate beneficial owner (“UBO”) of the shares is not disclosed.

Petitioning for a Sibling to Become a Legal Permanent Resident

  By HG.org
United States citizens can petition to have a sibling become a legal permanent resident by following specific procedures. The citizen and the beneficiary must meet certain criteria in order for the sibling to legally enter the country.

New Rules Simplify the Filing and Approval of Chinese Outbound Investment Projects

On September 6, 2014, the Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM") issued the Outbound Investment Management Rules (the "Rules"), which took effect on October 6, 2014. The Rules have replaced old MOFCOM regulations regarding Chinese outbound investment projects. On April 8 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission ("NDRC") issued a regulation regarding measures for the administrative approval and filing of outbound investment projects (the "Measures").

Acknowledgment of Divorce in the Philippines

  By HG.org
Unlike many western cultures, Philippines courts forbid divorce according to their Family Code of laws. Annulment is the only recourse a Filipino citizen has under normal circumstances. This is different than a Decree of Nullity of Marriage. This states that the marriage was invalid at its inception. It was not legal due to incorrect agreement or performance by the clergy.

What is International Law?

  By HG.org
Many have asked the question “what is international law?” It is an understandable question given the way that it is thrown around as though it is an easily identifiable thing. However, “international law” is largely a misnomer, given that it primarily refers to a body of treaty agreements and their resulting rules, regulations, and practices, and not the codification of laws passed down by a centralized government or legislative body.

Security for Cost in Turkey

Security for costs is money that a plaintiff is ordered to provide to the court as a condition of continuing with a claim or execution proceeding, and which will be applied on any costs order that may be made against the plaintiff. It provides a safeguard to the defendant in financial terms so as to ensure that he is not unduly burdened by having to bear his own costs in defending claims by plaintiffs who may be unable or unwilling to pay costs to the defendant when ordered by the court.

Recognition of a Foreign Judgment and Public Policy Requirement

Do you have court order from court of your country that you wish to seek recognition of it in Turkey, but you are concerned that it might not be recognized, because it does not contain the grounds on which the decision is built? Well, here is a good news!

Can the Shares of a Cayman Islands Company be Pledged as Security?

  By Loeb Smith
It is not possible to "pledge" registered shares under Cayman Islands law because title to the shares cannot be transferred by physical delivery. Any grant of security over registered shares that is called a "pledge" will typically be either (i) a legal mortgage or (ii) an equitable mortgage/share charge, depending on its terms. If the security purports to be something else, the chances are that it will be entirely ineffective.

Which Countries Score the Worst for Women's Rights?

  By HG.org
While American women are generally treated with little distinction from men under American law, it has not always been so. Indeed, it is still not this way in many parts of the world. A recent survey of countries ranked the legal standing of women in various nations and compiled a list of the nations with the most legal distinctions between the rights of men versus those of women.

Puerto Rican Island Residents Sue US Government for Human Rights Violations

  By HG.org
After decades of live fire exercises on the island of Vieques in Puerto Rico, the US government ceased to fire on the island in 2003. Nevertheless, the legacy of those training exercises linger on, and now a group of residents have filed a lawsuit against the US government claiming human rights violations.

Foreign Investments in the Ukraine

A brief overview about the guarantees that Ukrainian legislation provides for foreign investors and which steps should be done to enjoy them.

Divorce in Pakistan

  By HG.org
Pakistan does recognize the right for both the husband and the wife to pursue a divorce. However, there are very strict requirements that must be met before a court will grant a valid divorce.

Lessons on International and Constitutional Law Found in Current Syria Debate

  By HG.org
Whether you believe the current administration's handling of the dispute in Syria has been well handled or not, and whether you are for or against intervention, the back and forth process provides interesting insights into the processes of both international and constitutional law.

International Law Increasingly Important

Globalisation continues to advance. Trade has long since ceased to stop at national borders. This also has implications for jurisdiction.

Overview of US Import and Export Laws and Procedures

  By HG.org
In order to avoid potential problems in the clearance of your merchandise, understanding US customs laws is very important. In fact, this knowledge is key before you begin trying to import/export products, or they may be subject to delays or even seizure.

What will TTIP Bring for Turkey: Legal and Trade Related Issues

Known by its acronym TTIP, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership has the capacity to serve as a game changer in global economic balances. At its core TTIP is a free trade agreement between the United States and the European Union with the underlying objective to increase bilateral trade among two economic blocks by the removal of tariff and non tariff based obstacles before the Transatlantic trade.

When Should Blog or Forum Posts Create Liability for Defamation?

Writers often express their views on blogs or forums. With the advancement of laws, anyone who writes articles, must be cautious of consequences of doing so. This is a Malaysian perspective.

China's Supreme People's Court (SPC) Rules in Favor of ICC Arbitration in China

The recent decision by the China SPC turns on its head all that international arbitrators and contract drafters have come to believe of the China Arbitration rules, which requires all arbitration to be done by a Chinese institution, which invariable meant the application of that institution's arbitration rules.

Arrest of Ships in Accordance with Libyan Law

Libya is largely dependent on imports, consisting mainly of industrial and food commodities. Libya’s biggest trading partner is the European Union and Italy leads with 30% of Libyan imports. This significance of the Libya/EU trade-link across the Mediterranean is undisputed as the seaports of Libya are invigorating their connections to the southern European seaports.


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