International Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to International Law.




Business Strategy Series: IV. Branch/Representative Offices or Foreign Companies in the UAE

The Commercial Companies Law covers the formation and regulation of Branches and Representative Offices of foreign companies in the UAE, and stipulates that they may be 100% foreign owned provided that a local service agent is appointed.

Advantages of Using Cayman Islands Exempted Companies for Investment Purposes and Finance Transactions

  By Loeb Smith
The Cayman Islands exempted company is the corporate vehicle of choice among international investment fund managers and investors. The popularity of the exempted company is principally as a result of the Cayman Islands being rightly recognized as a stable jurisdiction for structuring international investments owing to the following features.

FIAU Annual Report 2012 - Malta

On the 15th July 2013, the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) issued a Notice for the purpose of formally notifying all Financial Services License Holders of the recent publication of the Malta Financial Intelligence Analysis Unit (FIAU) Annual Report for 2012, issued in terms of Article 42(1) of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (Chapter 373, Laws of Malta).

EC Proposal for New Investment Fund Framework - ELTIF

On the 28th June 2013, the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) issued a Circular to the Financial Services Industry on the proposal by the European Commission for the implementation of a new investment fund framework designed for investors desirous of effecting long-term investments into corporate entities and projects.

Opening Representative Offices in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Nowadays foreign investors seek to establish their legal presence in Uzbekistan in order to better explore and understand the Uzbekistan market. While considering different options, investors face certain dilemmas, e.g. whether to open a representative or branch office, or a subsidiary; as well as issues regarding economic and other risks, and so on.

Arbitration in Uzbekistan: Key Things to Know

The judicial system of Uzbekistan consists of the Constitutional Court, courts of general jurisdiction for civil and criminal cases, economic courts, and military courts. The main act regulating and establishing the procedure for organization and activity of courts is the Law on Courts (new edition) dated December 14, 2000.

Opening Pepresentative and Branch Offices of Foreign Companies in Kazakhstan

As you know, most of the national companies in a certain period of their development set themselves the task to bring out their goods, works and services to foreign markets, which may be done, including through the expansion of their actual geographical presence outside the country of incorporation of the company, or the location of the head office.

Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive – Implications for Non-EU Managers of Non-EU Funds

  By Loeb Smith
As 22 July 2013 looms ever closer, as part of our continuing legal update series on this topic, this Guidance Note seeks to consider the impact of the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (the “Directive”) for non-EU Managers who manage Cayman Islands domiciled funds.

Business Strategy Series: III. Offshore Companies in the UAE

Whether there is a need to restructure a business, to protect assets or simply develop an international presence for a business, one of the ways of doing so, is by opening an Offshore company.

Accession of the DRC to the New York Convention on Arbitration

After its adoption by the National Assembly and the Senate of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ("DRC"), the President of the Republic promulgated on June 26, 2013 the Law No. 13/023 authorizing the accession of the DRC to the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards signed in New York, on June 10th, 1958 (the "Convention").

Panama Enacts New Tourism Law: Law 431 of 2012

Almost twenty years have passed since the enactment of Law 8 of 1994, which until the end of the year 2012 regulated tourism investments and incentives in the Republic of Panama. This body of law responded to a national strategy and a master plan oriented towards promoting tourism related investments in Panama.

Suzhou Court Refuses to Enforce Arbitral Award Rendered by CIETAC Shanghai (Also Known as SHIAC)

As the CIETAC Shanghai and CIETAC Shenzhen have respectively declared to become a independent arbitration commission breaking away from the CIETAC Beijing. The effect to the contract with a arbitration term and potential disputes involving the CIETAC can be seen from recent judgments.

Incorporating a Commercial Company in the Democratic Republic of Congo under OHADA Law

There are different types of commercial companies that can exist in a member state of OHADA (the organization for the Harmonization of Business in Africa) such as the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. This article discusses the types of companies and their incorporation or establishment in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Malta Is AIFMD Ready

With approximately a month to go from the transposition deadline, Malta has announced that it is first member state to have fully transposed the Alternative Investment Fund Management Directive (“AIFMD / Directive”).

Business Strategy Series: II. Providing Brokerage Services in Commodities in the UAE

Futures and Derivatives Trading To perform as a trader (broker) of commodities in the UAE the company (a legal entity incorporated according to the UAE law or foreign company incorporated outside the UAE) needs to carry out the necessary procedures to obtain a membership from DGCX (Dubai Gold and Commodities Exchange).

Gabon: The Council of Ministers Adopts a Draft Law Regulating the Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of Gabon by introducing a new institutional, fiscal and technical framework.

GATT Code of Valuation: Transaction Value and the Role of List Prices

Importers and exporters often face harsh treatment through the hands of customs administration. Though there exists a class of traders which indulges in the acts of under invoicing,1 yet, the rejection of ‘transaction value’ on whimsical grounds is not mandated by Article VII of GATT 1994 and the implementation agreement on the application of GATT Code of Valuation.

Nationalization, Expropriation, Deprivation and the Protection of Foreign Investors in Cameroon

Among the well-known commercial risk of today, expropriation seems to stand out as the most prominent. It represents the most dreadful form of measures to investors, which might be taken against foreign direct investment by a host state.

Legal Framework for the Regulation of Foreign Investments in Cameroon

The Cameroon Government in its effort to protect foreign direct investment has adopted a legal framework made up of on the one hand of national laws and specific contractual agreement signed between Cameroon and a prospective foreign investor and on the other hand , of Inter- Governmental Bilateral Regional and Multilateral Treaties agreed to by the Government.

Malta – Redefining Collective Investment Schemes

The Investment Services Act (CHAP. 370 of the laws of Malta) currently defines collective investment schemes as arrangements which, inter alia, “operate according to the principle of risk spreading”. By virtue of this definition, the requirement of risk spreading has been imposed on all licensed collective investment schemes alike and this irrespective of the type of collective investment scheme licence.

Rejection of Haircut Appeals by the Supreme Court of Cyprus

The Supreme Court on Friday, 7 of March, delivered its long-awaited decision with regard to the appeals lodged by Laiki’s and BoC’s depositors who lost part of their money in the €10 billion bail-in plan for Cyprus. More than 3.000 appeals of uninsured depositors were filed before the Supreme Court requesting the decision to be revoked.

Settle International Trade Disputes in China

The article introduces the procedure to settle the international trade disputes in China.

Using Financial Expert Witnesses in Business Litigation

In business litigation, the quality, independence and acceptability of the expert evidence can make or break the case. This article discusses the law of Canada affecting the use of financial experts and best practices to make their evidence most effective. This presentation was prepared for a legal conference which took place in Toronto on May 30, 2013. The contents are not legal advice. Please contact the authors if you have any questions.

Legal Aspects of International Business Transactions

International Trade is expending day by day, small and big countries of the world are engaged in transfer of huge quantum of goods and services. The mutual contact between the parties, at time, creates legal problems. These problems arise from the first act of offer made by a trading partner and its acceptance by the other trading partner. The contracts created between the traders are generally binding on the parties.

Change in Belize Legislation Regarding Bearer Share Certificates

A registered agent shall at all times retain physical possession of the bearer shares certificate, whether he deals directly with the end-user customer or with a professional intermediary customer.

Industrial Property Legislation Improvements - Panama

The industrial property legislation had significant changes, as: any registered trademark must be used within the Panamanian territory, etc.

New Definition for Wholesale Activity - Panama

The Panama-USA free trade agreement has entailed the modification of several legislations.

Customs Bonded Warehouses - Ukraine

All countries try to monitor and control import-export flows that pass through their borders. While some European countries have significant experience in these activities, contemporary Ukraine is continually developing its customs control systems (and supporting legislation). Ukraine’s new Customs Code, which came into force on January 1, 2013, completely overhauled the prior legislation governing customs bonded warehouses.

Update on Foreign Investment in Ukrainian Agricultural Land

The moratorium on alienation of Ukrainian farm land has long prevented meaningful foreign investment into the Ukrainian agricultural sector. To somehow obtain access to agricultural land, instead of outright ownership foreign investors had to register Ukrainian companies that entered into lease agreements with landowners, most with a “right to buy” option if and when the moratorium will be lifted.

Article 29 Working Party Guidelines for Apps on Smart Devices - Belgium

  By Lorenz
On February 27, the Article 29 Data Protection Working Party adopted an opinion on smart devices. The opinion strives to clarify the European regime on the collection and use of personal information by means of smart devices.

Legal Advice on the Arbitration Clause After Separation of CIETAC Shanghai and South China from CIETAC Beijing

The separation of CIETAC Shanghai and CIETAC South China from CIETAC Beijing has made a great noise, causing some confusion and legal issues about the arbitration clause. The author intents to briefly clarify it in this article.

Should China Overhaul Its Patent System?

A European business group is calling on China to make big changes to its patent system. The European Chamber of Commerce in China argues that the current Chinese patent system hinders the country's ability to innovate and may be detrimental to foreign companies. The group released a report recommending a total of 52 changes.

Malta and India Renegotiate Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement

India and Malta renegotiated the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) between the two countries with the intention of aligning to changes in domestic laws.

Open a Bank Account in Panama

The authors offer an overview of the process to obtain a bank account in Panama.

Malta Does Not Face Same Bank System Risks as Cyprus

On the 16th April 2013, Fitch Ratings issued a statement regarding a special report published by Fitch, highlighting the main differences between the Maltese and Cypriot banking systems and concluded that these differences far outweigh the similarities and that, as such, ‘Malta Does Not Face Same Bank System Risks as Cyprus’ meaning the Maltese banking sector does not present the same level of risk to the sovereign that was seen in Cyprus.

Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Turkey

This article aims to explain Enforcement Procedure and Conditions in Turkey. International private and civil procedure law of Turkey and Turkish Procedure Law are the main laws governing the procedure of enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Turkey. In this article, we’ll guide our readers based on the provisions of these laws. It is also important to note that Turkey ratified Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards which apply to the cross-border enforcement.

Legal Aspects of Company Incorporations in Dubai/UAE

The investors establishing their businesses in the UAE should consider various legal aspects, before any investment decisions to avoid any future legal implications.

Offshore Tax Havens and Bank Accounts- Are They Legal?

Following Mitt Romney's run for election and the more recent fall of Cyprus, tax havens have become increasingly scrutinized by the public eye. But are they always illegal?

Civil Litigation Procedures in Ontario, Canada

This summary of Civil Litigation Procedures was prepared on the on the occasion of the 2012 Annual Conference of the International Network of Boutique Law Firms in Rancho Palos Verde, CA on Oct 12-14, 2012. The law and procedure are similar but not identical in the Canadian common provinces and territories but differs in Quebec which has a Civil Code. This summary is not exhaustive and is not intended as legal advice.

Effective Advocacy in Commercial Arbitration

With the proliferation of international commercial arbitration and business arbitrations locally, a large body of rules, protocols, laws and conventions - formal and informal -- have developed. Litigation lawyers cannot assume they know the ins and outs of arbitration without learning how the details. This article reproduces the power point slides of a presentation made by the author at an Arbitration Advocacy seminar in October 2012. They are for information only and not legal advice.

EU Court fleshes out Community Trademark Rules

The concept of the Community Trademark (CTM) has long been considered very straight-forward in its approach. The common understanding is that it gives protection of a trademark applicable to all 27 Member States of the EU. Naturally, this could be easily abused if a CTM were registered and only used in one Member State.

Cyprus Developments on Banking Sector – Overcoming the Difficulties

Cyprus is struggling with the worst crisis in its history since the 1974 invasion by Turkish military forces that divided the country in two.

Neelie Kroes pushes Tech Creativity in the EU

When we think about creativity in the field of technology, we normally think about the U.S. and Japan. The European Union Commissioner for technology and the digital agenda Neelie Kroes is now actively trying to challenge this notion. Few people realize, for example, that Angry Birds and Skype were actually created in Europe. These may not trump the prolific success of Silicon Valley, but they are certainly a start.

The Role of Arbitration in International Business

International commercial arbitration is the most common method for resolving disputes arising from agreements between businesses from different countries. In this presentation, the author describes the systems and procedures applicable to international commercial arbitration and helps business people understand what to expect.

Official EU Patent Now a Reality

After a series of debates spanning around forty years, the EU has finally approved the new unitary patent system as of 19th of February, 2013.

Combatting Counterparty Risk with Central Counter-Parties - Malta

Chasing payment of dues is a mundane yet critical element of every business process. Hugely time consuming, it could expose any activity large or small to counter-party risk, even more so in times of economic crisis.

LIBYAN INVESTMENT LAW: FOREIGN OIL COMPANIES

Forty-two years of the Kaddafi regime’s apathetic attitude and incoherent economic development strategies left Libya as one of the least developed of the oil producing countries.

International Rating Agencies Also Potentially Indictable in Germany

German investors who invest their money with foreign banks on the basis of the credit rating assessments of rating agencies can potentially recover their assets in the case of an erroneous assessment.

EU Patent System Being Finalized

The European Union has spent a good number of years trying to consolidate bloc-wide intellectual property regimes to improve the efficiency of the Single Market.

Banking Business and Conditions of Approval of a Financial Institution in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This article discusses conditions conditions of approval of a Financial Institution in the Democratic Republic of Congo and how to open a bank in that country.

Protecting Your Assets through Trust Formation - Cyprus

High-net-worth individuals with valuable possessions around the globe need effective asset protection tools to manage and safeguard their wealth, as a respond to the differing legislations and tax regulations of the various jurisdictions.

EU Bent on Reform in Telecoms Sector

On the 14th January 2013, Neelie Kroes, in her capacity as Commissioner responsible for telecommunications within the European Union, issued a statement that the EU will dedicate this year to introducing reforms in the regulation of the pan-European telecoms market.

The new world of work: The legal form of changing labour relations

What are the trends going to be for personnel management in the years to come? From an employment law point of view, how will companies and employees relate to each other in these changing times?

Construction under attack

Those, who watch the real estate market, may note that after the crisis of recent years, new buildings began to appear in Kyiv again as rapidly as mushrooms after rain. The construction industry is slowly recovering and hopes to go beyond the 3% of the Ukrainian GDP.

Divorce between Bulgarian National and Citizen of EU Member State

This article is intended to analyze the conditions for enforcing of divorce between Bulgarian national and citizen of EU member state before the Bulgarian court

Secured business in Ukraine

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) provided guarantees for funding in Ukraine

Absolutly Pure competition

The global brands can assert the rules of fair competition in Ukraine.

Further Improvement and Revision of Foreign Exchange Regulatory Policies concerning Foreign Direct Investment

On November 19th, 2012, State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) issued a Notice on Further Improvement and Revision of Foreign Exchange Regulatory Policies concerning Foreign Direct Investment (hereinafter referred to as the Notice) which shall be implemented since December 17th, 2012.

Attorney advocates alternative penalty system

JEDDAH: A Saudi attorney called for a law eliminating imprisonment as a penalty for infringing upon certain private rights as part of efforts to modernize the country’s legal system.

Political Asylum or Refugee Status – Who Can Be Eligible

If you are looking for refugee status or political asylum in the US, you would need to learn more about these options.

Purchasing of Land in Bulgaria by Foreigners after 01.01.2012

Legal comments on the possibility for acquiring of land by foreign citizens following expiration of the 5-years period of prohibition

Italian Inheritance Rights Depending on Your Marital Status

It is always a difficult topic to address when one talks about the death of a spouse: this article aims to clarify some of the issues people living in Italy may have if they find themselves in the situation of inheriting property or assets under the Italian Legal system.

The Insurance Claim Against the Refrigerator Manufacturer, Sharp, Will Not be Arbitrated in Israel

This is an article regarding a law suit against Sharp in Israel.

A Smart Device in Every Pocket? On the Reforms in the Import of Cellular Devices to Israel.

This is an article regarding the reform in the importation of cellular phones into Israel.

The export was not proven? Then there is no zero rate VAT.

This is an article regarding a 0% VAT rate during exportation from Israel.

There is No Obligation to Give Top Priority to Israeli Products in Business Connections that Occur

This is an article regarding the obligation to perchuse Israeli products after a tender was canceled.

The Supreme Court Places the Blame on the Forwarder for Releasing Merchandise .

This is a verdict reagrding a bill of lading

Updated rulings: the right of lien of international forwarders and marine carriers.

This is an article regarding a case between an international forwarder and a marine carrier.

The Madrid International Trademark System and the Problem of Non-Registration

Rejection and non-registration of international trademarks using the Madrid system often go unnoticed for years resulting in crisis once enforcement action is sought. Careful scrutiny of the current status of such registrations is advisable to all international trademark holders.

Video Deposition Formats - What They Are and How to Choose

This article was written to help explain the various video formats available to attorneys after conducting a video deposition.

Private Limited Liability in Italy

  By Singulance
The Italian Civil Code (“ICC”) recognizes three types of limited liability companies: • Società a responsabilità limitata (a private limited company); • Società per Azioni (a joint-stock company); • Società in Accomandita per Azioni (an hybrid form, rarely used in practice, that involves two categories of shareholders, some with and some without limited liability). The S.r.l. is the most commonly used corporate form in Italy.

Fraud: Chinese Style - A Case Study

Fraud emanating from the employee level rather than the more typical organization level is often indistinguishable to the victim. However, these are two distinct forms of misdeed and must be approached differently in order to affect a positive outcome for the victim.

Approval of M&A Transactions by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce - 2012 Annual Review

  By MMLC Group
This article reviews the activities of the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and the Anti-Monopoly Bureau, in reviewing applications for approval for M&A transactions under the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law, over the last 12 months.

The Supreme Court has authorized- insurance debt based on documents, without hearing testimonies.

This is an article regarding an insurence law suit

Is the price too low? On the Customs Authority's value invalidation.

This is an article regarding reducing the price of goods by importers

Can an international forwarder withdraw his price quote?

This is an Article regarding changing a price quote by an international forwarder

International Taxation: Resident and Non-Resident Considerations - Pakistan

In view of world wide economic integration, the international aspect of income taxation has become increasingly important. This note provides an introduction to the policies that countries seek to advance. The questions of source, jurisdiction and distinction between resident and non-resident from the perspective of international taxation are an important issue and in this perspective tax treaties and related instruments have been reviewed.

Time Does Not Matter With Regards To Community Trademark Prioritization - Germany

If for example, the main priority of a community trademark over a national trade mark is in question, then the day of registration is applicable and never the particular time. The precise time of the brand registration shouldn't be assessed.

Highly Qualified Persons Rules - 15% Flat Tax Rate on Employment Income - Malta

Malta’s position within the financial services, gaming and aviation sectors, is further bolstered by the newly introduced 15% flat tax rate on; income derived from employment in Malta, by persons not domiciled in Malta and working in either of the ‘eligible offices’ as defined by the HQP Rules. With a minimum annual tax payable of € 11,250, equating to a 15% tax rate being applied to an income of € 75,000, tax planning has become a lot simpler.

Should China Overhaul Its Patent System?

A European business group is calling on China to make big changes to its patent system. The European Chamber of Commerce in China argues that the current Chinese patent system hinders the country's ability to innovate and may be detrimental to foreign companies. The group released a report recommending a total of 52 changes.

Production-Outsourcing: Processing of Foreign Goods in Ukraine

In these difficult economic times, some foreign investors are understandably reluctant to acquire costly factories in emerging markets to produce their goods. Instead, they employ the good old method of production outsourcing, and for several good reasons: when properly implemented, tollmanufacturing schemes enable foreign manufacturers to avoid Ukrainian customs taxes, reduce their cost of production, and realize greater profit margins in the West.

Defending Interests of Foreign Companies in Ukrainian Courts: Theory and Practice

Welcome to the conference hall of the Investment Company Sigma Bleyzer. We have an interesting topic for you today, a topic that is interesting in any country, but especially so in Ukraine. Our topic today is how to protect foreign investors in Ukraine and what legal support is available from professionals. My name is Alexander Pavlov, head of the Ukraine-Israel Business Council.

Commercial Letter of Credit

  By Zorlu Law
Examining Contracts Arising Under the Commercial Credit Transaction (Letter Of Credit) Commercial credits are most commonly used in the international transactions areas. Its main future is that; it gives security both the exporter (seller) and the importer (buyer). The Seller knows that, he will get paid if he completes his duty properly. The buyer, on the other hand, can ensure to part his money before the goods are received.

International Business Law: Starting or Buying an Arizona Business

With a few exceptions, Arizona does not impose a citizenship or even a residency requirement on non-citizens seeking to start or buy an existing business in Arizona. As its economy recovers from the housing bust, Arizona is ideally situated for foreign investment, especially from partners in Canada and Mexico. Arizona participates in the CANAMEX Corridor Coalition, promoting safe and secure trade between Canada, the U.S., and Mexico.

10 Common Mistakes that Business Owners Make

The following is an outline of a lecture I have given to the Edson Institute at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona as well as the Arizona Small Business Development Center and tte students of my business law class at ASU in Glendale, Arizona. I am hoping this summary report will be sufficient to trigger action on the issues discussed and to cause the reader to obtain some professional advice regarding same.

Investment Treaty Law: Impact of Umbrella Clauses on State Liability - Pakistan

The rise of BIT regime worldwide represents a major shift in investor-state relations in developing and emerging economies. As an outcome, this choice presented challenges both to Investors and BIT partner states. Competing demands emerging from this new relationship between investors and treaty partner led to the development of Law of Investment Treaties.

Hurried to Cancel a Contract? You'll Pay! - Israel

This article is dealing with the Israeli contracts law. Many companies customarily establish a joint venture for importing and marketing certain products, with one company responsible for the importation process to Israel, and the other responsible for marketing the products in Israel.

Principle Points of the Government's Decision to Lessen Import Obstructions in Regards to Standardization - Israel

This article is dealing with the new legislation regarding the standartization in Israel. A few months ago, the Israeli government reached a decision to implement the recommendations of the Trachtenberg Committee which aim to ease the economic burden of Israeli citizens.

A New Law for Regularizing the Import of Medical Equipment - Israel

This article is dealing in the new legislation regarding the importation of medical equipment into Israel. Many goods are subject to strict regulations in import or export, requiring the presentation of certifications and licensing from various authorities (the Ministries of communication, health, agriculture, the standards institute, etc.)

The Battle over Beer Taxation - Points of Interest - Israel

This article is dealing with the battle over the salse taxes over beer in Israel. It was recently reported that the Minister of Finance raised the sales tax rate on beer from NIS 2.18 per liter to NIS 4.19 per liter and in light of this, local producers of beer claim that they will not be able to withstand such a tax raise.

Free Trade Agreement Between the US and South Korea - Israel

This Article is dealing with the new Trade agreement that was sign between the U.S and South Korea. The free trade agreement between the US and South Korea has come into effect in March 2012. The agreement's objective is to facilitate trade in various types of products between the two countries. As a rule, a free trade agreement creates a very enticing environment for international trade among two (or more) countries that have entered such an agreement.

Parallel Import - New Rulings - Israel

This article is dealing with Parallel import of Tommy Hilfiger goods to Israel. The incidents of parallel import are increasing in our country. Many brand names are being imported not only by the exclusive/official importers, but by others as well.

GATT Law: Interpreting the Term, “Like Products” - Pakistan

During the multilateral trade negotiations it was agreed that countries will extend a judicious treatment to the flows of international trade, despite that many countries are using technical barriers as a cause to prohibit imports and to distort competitiveness.

You Need a Lawyer When Coming into China

Now the world is becoming small, there are many people want to live in foreign countries, especially the developing countries, China, there are many opportunities in here, but the risks are exist at same time. So find a attorney before you go abroad. This is the true fact that I met during my attorney practice, for the secret of the person, I do not use the true name of the person.

Supreme Court to Revisit Copyright Protections for “Grey Market” Goods

The U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to revisit the issue of whether copyrighted works purchased overseas can be resold in the U.S., without the permission of the copyright owner. The Court previously considered the issue in 2010, but ultimately split 4-4 after Justice Elena Kagan recused herself.

GATT Law: Indicative Prices and Their Use for Determining Customs Valuation - Pakistan

World’s economies are closely woven and interrelated with each other, individual states are thus required to be more efficient in application of conventions and agreements signed under WTO, in order to increase the trade volumes of goods and services. States are also required to be prudent in implementing laws meant for the growth of international trade, more particularly when such conventions or agreements have become part of the municipal legislation.

The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

  By Zorlu Law
Formation of the contract under the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980 (CISG) in comparison with Turkish Code of Obligations. 1 – General - The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) was signed in Vienna on 11th April 1980 by the United Nations and entered into force on 1st January 1988.

Advertising Discounts, Distribution Fees and Warranty Fees in Israel

This is an article regarding advertising discount and distribution fees. The Customs Authority has recently published a draft of a position paper regarding the evaluation of goods for Customs purposes, covering three issues: advertising expenses, distribution fees and warranty fees.

Israel - In Which Cases is the Insurer Permitted to Refuse Providing Compensation for Damage to a Shipment?

This is an article regarding insurance law. Many times, the court will be presented with a subrogation in which an insurance company that has given compensation to a policy holder for cargo damages takes his place and sues the related parties in the transportation network whom they hold responsible for the damage, for instance: the port, the marine carrier, the air forwarder, the warehouse, the international delivery company etc.

Israel - The Port Lost a Container? The Port will Recompense the Importer

This is an article regarding the responsibility of a port to the containers that are storage in it. The magistrate’s court of Haifa recently ruled that the Haifa Port Company will recompense the Golmat Company at a sum of NIS 25,000 for the loss of a shipping container that took a long time to find. The case and the claims made by the parties:


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