International Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to International Law.


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Divorce between Bulgarian National and Citizen of EU Member State

This article is intended to analyze the conditions for enforcing of divorce between Bulgarian national and citizen of EU member state before the Bulgarian court

Secured business in Ukraine

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) provided guarantees for funding in Ukraine

Absolutly Pure competition

The global brands can assert the rules of fair competition in Ukraine.

Further Improvement and Revision of Foreign Exchange Regulatory Policies concerning Foreign Direct Investment

On November 19th, 2012, State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) issued a Notice on Further Improvement and Revision of Foreign Exchange Regulatory Policies concerning Foreign Direct Investment (hereinafter referred to as the Notice) which shall be implemented since December 17th, 2012.

Attorney advocates alternative penalty system

JEDDAH: A Saudi attorney called for a law eliminating imprisonment as a penalty for infringing upon certain private rights as part of efforts to modernize the country’s legal system.

Political Asylum or Refugee Status – Who Can Be Eligible

If you are looking for refugee status or political asylum in the US, you would need to learn more about these options.

Purchasing of Land in Bulgaria by Foreigners after 01.01.2012

Legal comments on the possibility for acquiring of land by foreign citizens following expiration of the 5-years period of prohibition

Italian Inheritance Rights Depending on Your Marital Status

It is always a difficult topic to address when one talks about the death of a spouse: this article aims to clarify some of the issues people living in Italy may have if they find themselves in the situation of inheriting property or assets under the Italian Legal system.

The Insurance Claim Against the Refrigerator Manufacturer, Sharp, Will Not be Arbitrated in Israel

This is an article regarding a law suit against Sharp in Israel.

A Smart Device in Every Pocket? On the Reforms in the Import of Cellular Devices to Israel.

This is an article regarding the reform in the importation of cellular phones into Israel.

The export was not proven? Then there is no zero rate VAT.

This is an article regarding a 0% VAT rate during exportation from Israel.

There is No Obligation to Give Top Priority to Israeli Products in Business Connections that Occur

This is an article regarding the obligation to perchuse Israeli products after a tender was canceled.

The Supreme Court Places the Blame on the Forwarder for Releasing Merchandise .

This is a verdict reagrding a bill of lading

Updated rulings: the right of lien of international forwarders and marine carriers.

This is an article regarding a case between an international forwarder and a marine carrier.

The Madrid International Trademark System and the Problem of Non-Registration

Rejection and non-registration of international trademarks using the Madrid system often go unnoticed for years resulting in crisis once enforcement action is sought. Careful scrutiny of the current status of such registrations is advisable to all international trademark holders.

Video Deposition Formats - What They Are and How to Choose

This article was written to help explain the various video formats available to attorneys after conducting a video deposition.

Private Limited Liability in Italy

  By Singulance
The Italian Civil Code (“ICC”) recognizes three types of limited liability companies: • Società a responsabilità limitata (a private limited company); • Società per Azioni (a joint-stock company); • Società in Accomandita per Azioni (an hybrid form, rarely used in practice, that involves two categories of shareholders, some with and some without limited liability). The S.r.l. is the most commonly used corporate form in Italy.

Fraud: Chinese Style - A Case Study

Fraud emanating from the employee level rather than the more typical organization level is often indistinguishable to the victim. However, these are two distinct forms of misdeed and must be approached differently in order to affect a positive outcome for the victim.

Approval of M&A Transactions by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce - 2012 Annual Review

  By MMLC Group
This article reviews the activities of the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and the Anti-Monopoly Bureau, in reviewing applications for approval for M&A transactions under the PRC Anti-Monopoly Law, over the last 12 months.

The Supreme Court has authorized- insurance debt based on documents, without hearing testimonies.

This is an article regarding an insurence law suit

Is the price too low? On the Customs Authority's value invalidation.

This is an article regarding reducing the price of goods by importers

Can an international forwarder withdraw his price quote?

This is an Article regarding changing a price quote by an international forwarder

International Taxation: Resident and Non-Resident Considerations - Pakistan

In view of world wide economic integration, the international aspect of income taxation has become increasingly important. This note provides an introduction to the policies that countries seek to advance. The questions of source, jurisdiction and distinction between resident and non-resident from the perspective of international taxation are an important issue and in this perspective tax treaties and related instruments have been reviewed.

Time Does Not Matter With Regards To Community Trademark Prioritization - Germany

If for example, the main priority of a community trademark over a national trade mark is in question, then the day of registration is applicable and never the particular time. The precise time of the brand registration shouldn't be assessed.

Highly Qualified Persons Rules - 15% Flat Tax Rate on Employment Income - Malta

Malta’s position within the financial services, gaming and aviation sectors, is further bolstered by the newly introduced 15% flat tax rate on; income derived from employment in Malta, by persons not domiciled in Malta and working in either of the ‘eligible offices’ as defined by the HQP Rules. With a minimum annual tax payable of € 11,250, equating to a 15% tax rate being applied to an income of € 75,000, tax planning has become a lot simpler.

Should China Overhaul Its Patent System?

A European business group is calling on China to make big changes to its patent system. The European Chamber of Commerce in China argues that the current Chinese patent system hinders the country's ability to innovate and may be detrimental to foreign companies. The group released a report recommending a total of 52 changes.

Production-Outsourcing: Processing of Foreign Goods in Ukraine

In these difficult economic times, some foreign investors are understandably reluctant to acquire costly factories in emerging markets to produce their goods. Instead, they employ the good old method of production outsourcing, and for several good reasons: when properly implemented, tollmanufacturing schemes enable foreign manufacturers to avoid Ukrainian customs taxes, reduce their cost of production, and realize greater profit margins in the West.

Defending Interests of Foreign Companies in Ukrainian Courts: Theory and Practice

Welcome to the conference hall of the Investment Company Sigma Bleyzer. We have an interesting topic for you today, a topic that is interesting in any country, but especially so in Ukraine. Our topic today is how to protect foreign investors in Ukraine and what legal support is available from professionals. My name is Alexander Pavlov, head of the Ukraine-Israel Business Council.

Commercial Letter of Credit

  By Zorlu Law
Examining Contracts Arising Under the Commercial Credit Transaction (Letter Of Credit) Commercial credits are most commonly used in the international transactions areas. Its main future is that; it gives security both the exporter (seller) and the importer (buyer). The Seller knows that, he will get paid if he completes his duty properly. The buyer, on the other hand, can ensure to part his money before the goods are received.

International Business Law: Starting or Buying an Arizona Business

With a few exceptions, Arizona does not impose a citizenship or even a residency requirement on non-citizens seeking to start or buy an existing business in Arizona. As its economy recovers from the housing bust, Arizona is ideally situated for foreign investment, especially from partners in Canada and Mexico. Arizona participates in the CANAMEX Corridor Coalition, promoting safe and secure trade between Canada, the U.S., and Mexico.

10 Common Mistakes that Business Owners Make

The following is an outline of a lecture I have given to the Edson Institute at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona as well as the Arizona Small Business Development Center and tte students of my business law class at ASU in Glendale, Arizona. I am hoping this summary report will be sufficient to trigger action on the issues discussed and to cause the reader to obtain some professional advice regarding same.

Investment Treaty Law: Impact of Umbrella Clauses on State Liability - Pakistan

The rise of BIT regime worldwide represents a major shift in investor-state relations in developing and emerging economies. As an outcome, this choice presented challenges both to Investors and BIT partner states. Competing demands emerging from this new relationship between investors and treaty partner led to the development of Law of Investment Treaties.

Hurried to Cancel a Contract? You'll Pay! - Israel

This article is dealing with the Israeli contracts law. Many companies customarily establish a joint venture for importing and marketing certain products, with one company responsible for the importation process to Israel, and the other responsible for marketing the products in Israel.

Principle Points of the Government's Decision to Lessen Import Obstructions in Regards to Standardization - Israel

This article is dealing with the new legislation regarding the standartization in Israel. A few months ago, the Israeli government reached a decision to implement the recommendations of the Trachtenberg Committee which aim to ease the economic burden of Israeli citizens.

A New Law for Regularizing the Import of Medical Equipment - Israel

This article is dealing in the new legislation regarding the importation of medical equipment into Israel. Many goods are subject to strict regulations in import or export, requiring the presentation of certifications and licensing from various authorities (the Ministries of communication, health, agriculture, the standards institute, etc.)

The Battle over Beer Taxation - Points of Interest - Israel

This article is dealing with the battle over the salse taxes over beer in Israel. It was recently reported that the Minister of Finance raised the sales tax rate on beer from NIS 2.18 per liter to NIS 4.19 per liter and in light of this, local producers of beer claim that they will not be able to withstand such a tax raise.

Free Trade Agreement Between the US and South Korea - Israel

This Article is dealing with the new Trade agreement that was sign between the U.S and South Korea. The free trade agreement between the US and South Korea has come into effect in March 2012. The agreement's objective is to facilitate trade in various types of products between the two countries. As a rule, a free trade agreement creates a very enticing environment for international trade among two (or more) countries that have entered such an agreement.

Parallel Import - New Rulings - Israel

This article is dealing with Parallel import of Tommy Hilfiger goods to Israel. The incidents of parallel import are increasing in our country. Many brand names are being imported not only by the exclusive/official importers, but by others as well.

GATT Law: Interpreting the Term, “Like Products” - Pakistan

During the multilateral trade negotiations it was agreed that countries will extend a judicious treatment to the flows of international trade, despite that many countries are using technical barriers as a cause to prohibit imports and to distort competitiveness.

You Need a Lawyer When Coming into China

Now the world is becoming small, there are many people want to live in foreign countries, especially the developing countries, China, there are many opportunities in here, but the risks are exist at same time. So find a attorney before you go abroad. This is the true fact that I met during my attorney practice, for the secret of the person, I do not use the true name of the person.

Supreme Court to Revisit Copyright Protections for “Grey Market” Goods

The U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to revisit the issue of whether copyrighted works purchased overseas can be resold in the U.S., without the permission of the copyright owner. The Court previously considered the issue in 2010, but ultimately split 4-4 after Justice Elena Kagan recused herself.

GATT Law: Indicative Prices and Their Use for Determining Customs Valuation - Pakistan

World’s economies are closely woven and interrelated with each other, individual states are thus required to be more efficient in application of conventions and agreements signed under WTO, in order to increase the trade volumes of goods and services. States are also required to be prudent in implementing laws meant for the growth of international trade, more particularly when such conventions or agreements have become part of the municipal legislation.

The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

  By Zorlu Law
Formation of the contract under the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980 (CISG) in comparison with Turkish Code of Obligations. 1 – General - The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) was signed in Vienna on 11th April 1980 by the United Nations and entered into force on 1st January 1988.

Advertising Discounts, Distribution Fees and Warranty Fees in Israel

This is an article regarding advertising discount and distribution fees. The Customs Authority has recently published a draft of a position paper regarding the evaluation of goods for Customs purposes, covering three issues: advertising expenses, distribution fees and warranty fees.

Israel - In Which Cases is the Insurer Permitted to Refuse Providing Compensation for Damage to a Shipment?

This is an article regarding insurance law. Many times, the court will be presented with a subrogation in which an insurance company that has given compensation to a policy holder for cargo damages takes his place and sues the related parties in the transportation network whom they hold responsible for the damage, for instance: the port, the marine carrier, the air forwarder, the warehouse, the international delivery company etc.

Israel - The Port Lost a Container? The Port will Recompense the Importer

This is an article regarding the responsibility of a port to the containers that are storage in it. The magistrate’s court of Haifa recently ruled that the Haifa Port Company will recompense the Golmat Company at a sum of NIS 25,000 for the loss of a shipping container that took a long time to find. The case and the claims made by the parties:

Cargo was Stolen from a Warehouse? The Warehouse will be Required to Pay the Import Taxes - Israel

This article is dealing with the responsibility of a warehouse to the goods that are storage in it. Many importers enlist the services of the warehouses under Customs supervision for storing their cargo without having to pay import taxes. In this way, they can choose to pay the import taxes only after they have found buyers for their wares and then pay the taxes upon their release.

If a Shipment Arrives in Delay, does this Justify Withholding Payment? - Israel

This is an article regarding the reasons to cancel a delivery contract. The magistrate’s court of Haifa has recently decided to accept the lawsuit of a ground carrier vs. a company of Customs agents, for failure to pay shipment expenses. The defendants did not deny having ordered the shipment but they claimed the shipment had arrived a few hours in delay, which justifies withholding payment for it. The court overruled this claim and accepted the entire lawsuit.

Purchaser's Guide When Doing Business in China

As an international trade attorney in China, I have tackled many case of international trade dispute. I think if buyer has advice before buying goods in China, then they can have successful business, if not, they will lose thoroughly.

USPTO Proposes Higher Fees for FY 2013

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office recently proposed patent fee increases for fiscal year 2013. Although these fee increases generally take place every year, they may particularly harder to swallow given that the current fees reflect a 15% increase that occurred in September 2011, as required by the America Invents Act.

Iron from China Instead of Russia- Is this a Breach of Contract? - Israel

This article deals with the ruling of the Israeli court regarding a contract about imported iron. The Haifa District Court has recently deferred the prosecution of an iron importer, filed against an Israeli company who had given their assurance to purchase that same iron but went back on their word.

Israel - Can a Land Delivery Company be Considered an Air Forwarder for the Sake of International Treaties?

The Warsaw treaty - The laws dealing with international air transports (the Warsaw Treaty, the Montreal Treaty, the Air Transport Treaty) pose a fundamental obstacle to the possibility of suing an airline company for damage to cargo. Among other things, these laws set a restriction on the amount of compensation that can be demanded as well as a relatively short statute of limitations- two years from the plane's arrival at its destination (or the date it was supposed to arrive).

Israel - Who Ordered this Conveyance? The Ruling in a case Between a Carrier vs. a Customs Agent

This article deals with a ruling of the Israeli court in case between carrier and a custom agent. The Magistrate's Court of Ashdod has recently deferred the legal action filed by a ground carrier (a truck company) against a Customs agent. The court ruled that the ground carrier was unable to prove that the conveyance was ordered by the Customs agent.

Upholding the Requirements of Israeli Standardization

This Article reviews the new requirements of Israeli standardization. The Standards Institute has recently declared its intentions to summon importers to a hearing due to forgeries discovered in the importers' declarations submitted to the Institute during the procedure for the release of shipments imported by them. In the wake of these hearings these importers could possibly be placed in a status of "breach of trust".

The Advantages of Trading Through a Limited Company in the Bahamas

Is your business trading in the most cost effective way and is your legal status adequately protected? Choosing the best legal ‘vehicle’ through which to operate your business is perhaps the most important decision you can make as a business owner – particularly with the advice of an expert companies lawyer.

Apple Prevails in California iPad Trademark Lawsuit

Apple Inc. has won at least one round of its trademark battle against Proview Electronics Inc. The two companies are fighting over the rights to the iPad trademark in China, with lawsuits pending in both countries. Here in the U.S., a California judge recently dismissed Proview’s trademark infringement lawsuit.

Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Pakistan

This paper examines the issue relating to the enforceability of foreign judgments in Pakistan. In the existing law, there are two categories of judgments, one passed by the courts of reciprocating states and the other by non-reciprocating states. The judgments of reciprocating states are enforceable per se, but for non-reciprocating states, the judgment creditor will have to seek enforcement by filing a suit in the appropriate court.

Recognition of International Arbitration in Ukraine in Figures

Arbitration practitioners often put Ukraine below the average ranking of countries in terms of recognition of arbitration. Ukraine’s image of a not entirely arbitration-friendly jurisdiction is “promoted” with common thought about problematic enforcement of arbitral awards in Ukraine.

How to Set Up a Foreign Invested Consulting Limited Company

Here is described the working process for setting up an advising company in China. I. Company Name - **** Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd - II. Business Scope Trading Information Consultating, Enterprise Management Consultation, Investment Consultation, International Economical Information Consultation, others...

How to Set Up a WOFE in the Free Trade Zone in Shanghai, China

Time estimated to set up a WOFE in the Free Trade Zone in Shanghai: 2 to 3 months. I - Investors - Individual or corporation from foreign countries or China Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. No special requirement. II - New Company Name - Chinese Name: ***** International Trading (Shanghai) Co., Ltd English Name: no limit.

What to Look for in a Video Deposition

This article is an attempt to illuminate both the rudimentary and nuanced strategies required to consistently produce high-quality video depositions. I often worry that attorneys who order them are unaware that the footage for which they have paid dearly, is of exceedingly poor production value. The bottom line: all video depositions should look nearly identical (except for the witness, of course); it is the means by which that end is achieved that separates excellence from inferiority.

China-Chile Investment Agreement

September 9, 2012. On September 9th, 2012, China and Chile signed the Supplementary Agreement on Investment to the Free Trade Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of Chile (China-Chile Investment Agreement).

Hong Kong and Chile Sign Free Trade Agreement

September 7, 2012. On September 7th, 2012, Hong Kong and Chile signed a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (the Agreement), marking a new milestone in the furtherance of trade and investment co-operation between the two economies. The Agreement will enter into force on a date to be mutually determined by Hong Kong and Chile after completing necessary domestic procedures.

Dispute between CIETAC and its Shanghai and South China Sub-commissions

CIETAC has recently announced that CIETAC’s authorisation to the CIETAC Shanghai and South China Sub-Commissions for accepting and administering arbitration cases is suspended. However, CIETAC Shanghai and South China Sub-Commissions made a Joint Statement, claiming that they are independent arbitration institutions which are not subject to the admnistration of CIETAC.

Doing Business in a Transcontinental Country: Russia

  By DS Law
Doing Business in a Transcontinental Country: Russia - What gives you an advantage over local and global competitors in your areas of expertise? We have a deep knowledge of Russian law combined with a strong expertise in cross-border processing based on practical cases. We believe that the main thing about us is our eagerness to evoke trust between us and our clients.

Legal Aspects of Investing in Russia

  By DS Law
This article will attempt to outline some of the legal issues that are of relevance to foreign business in Russia. These will be addressed from a business standpoint rather than a strictly legal one; thus, allowing all readers understand fully what these issues are.

Hedge Funds: The Role of Directors in the Life Cycle of a Fund - Cayman Islands

  By Murray LLP
The board of directors play a central role in any offshore hedge fund. At every stage of the life cycle of a hedge fund the directors need certain critical information and documents in order to perform their duties. The life cycle can roughly be determined as the fund formation stage, the post launch operation (which might last several years) and then the eventual liquidation.

EU to Propose Banking Union Plan in Due Course - Malta

The most recent EU Summit held in June 2012 saw the creation of a tentative action aimed at addressing the current problems with bad banks and grossly indebted governments. This is currently being called the “Banking Union Plan”.

Conducting Depositions in Japan per Letters Rogatory

Today’s business world has become very global. So it makes sense that more and more litigation involving business would be global as well. Lawyers try to find critical evidence, which can reside outside the boundaries of the U.S. The question often becomes…What do I do next?

EU Attempt to Improve Royalties System for Musical Copyright

On the 11th July 2012, the European Commission presented a draft bill aimed at the elimination of music piracy as well as strengthening copyright protection for music. The main target of this bill is to ensure that companies managing music rights would pay royalties to the artists they represent in a shorter timeframe.

State Aid Schemes to Support Investment Promoting Regional Development - Romania

Despite the current political turmoil the new Romanian Government has already passed legislation aimed at improving the investment climate. In the Official Gazette no. 563 of August 9, 2012 was published Government Resolution no. 797/2012 (“Resolution”) setting up a State aid scheme to support investments promoting regional development using new technologies and which created new jobs.

Letters Rogatory, Conducting Depositions outside the United States

Today’s business world has become very global. So it makes sense that more and more litigation involving business would be global as well. Lawyers try to find critical evidence, which can reside outside the boundaries of the U.S. The question often becomes….What do I do next?

The Ease of Benefitting from Tax Residence in Malta

Further to the suspension of the Permanent Residents Scheme in December 2010, the Government of Malta has put in place a scheme for special tax status aimed at attracting internationally mobile, high net worth individuals to become tax resident in our islands and benefit from a favourable tax rate of 15% on any income remitted into Malta.

Appointment of a Turkish Lawyer with Power of Attorney

This article aims to explain about Appointment of a Turkish Lawyer with Power of Attorney. - Representation of an applicant at the court is only possible by giving power of Attorney. In Turkish Law, representative is called as an “Attorney” and “Applicant” who will be represented called as a “Client”. In Turkish Law, the power of attorney can be solely issued on behalf of an attorney for practicing law in Turkey.

Entrepreneurs and Business Development around the World

Introduction, Small Business and Southern Europe’s Economic problems. Because my Arizona business law firm represents businesses and start ups, both locally and from around the world, I was curious about the role entrepreneurs, start ups, and small and medium size businesses play in their national economies around the world. Surprisingly, one of the first articles that I found attributed the financial problems of Greece, Italy and Spain,.....

Arizona Business and International Law

A decade or more ago a client of our business law firm needed some advice on an international transaction. We called several local firms that we thought might do that kind of work, but they didn’t. So, I concluded, “What the heck. If they are not going to develop a practice in that area, I will.” Thus, we invested in multiple volume sets on the international law of contracts and the law of various foreign nations. Since that time we have done a number of transactions all over the world......

Brussels Seeks to Address Market Rates Abuse

Michael Barnier, the Commissioner for the single market is expected to propose serious changes to the market abuse directive (2003/6/EC) and the proposed regulation ‘on insider dealing and market manipulation’ in the near future.

Summit Closes Patent Conflict for the EU - Malta

The conclusion of the latest EU summit held on the 29th June 2012 brought with it a new consensus between the leaders of the Member States in the EU in regard to the idea of having an EU based patent court. The final agreement involved dividing the main functions of the courts between France, Germany and Britain, all of whom have been vying to act as the hosts of this court for a while.

Law of and Procedure for Appointment of Arbitrators in India

Appointment of arbitrator(s) under the Indian Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 through court assistance. I. Introduction - Arbitration may be defined as “the process by which a dispute or difference between two or more parties as to their mutual legal rights and liabilities is referred to and determined judicially and with binding effect by the application of law by one or more persons (the arbitral tribunal) instead of by a court of law”.

Severe Sanctions in Trademark Cases: Corrective Measures - Peru

“Administrative sanctions, in contrast to criminal sanctions, are limited to fines, so it is vital that fines are large enough to deter infringing behavior.” The control exercised by the administration in relation to the improper use of registered trademarks is very important, because it is a key component in the regulation and inspection of the proper operation of the market.

What Constitutes "Use"? - Peru

“This makes it impossible to start counting the three years of non-use of the mark in order to request its cancellation, and therefore the trademark is effectively removed from the market.” This article considers the criteria used by the Peruvian trademark office to resolve cancellation for non-use of trademarks.

Transferring Quarry and Mining Rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]

The mining code of the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] provides for a possibility of leasing and assigning mining and quarry rights. Since mining and quarry rights, as expressed in mining and quarry permits, are real and exclusive property rights, it is possible to lease and assign these rights, although under the restrictions set out in the Mining Code.

(EU Law) Claiming the Import of Tax Credits Granted by Foreign Countries is only Possible in Certain Cases - Spain

The Spanish tax authorities prohibited a Spanish bank from deducting in Spain the withholding at source of interest obtained in Belgium, given that this income, in accordance with Belgian regulations, was exempt in that country and the bank had thus never paid any tax in Belgium. In other words, deduction was being claimed in Spain of an amount that had never been paid abroad.

On the Obligation of Outputting VAT Within a Period of One Year

Spanish regulations require the seller of goods or services to issue the invoice within a maximum period of one month following the transaction. The pertaining VAT must evidently be included in the invoice. In the event of failure to do so due to error or omission, the seller has up to one year to output the VAT, that is, to issue a new invoice and claim the payment of VAT from the buyer.

Input VAT Before and After the Business Activity is Always Deductible in Spain

VAT often accumulates before a company begins its ordinary business activity and likewise, when a company is undergoing a winding-up process and is no longer active. Two rulings will help us understand that under no circumstance will the input VAT be lost in either of these two stages of a business.

Risks in the Acquisition of the Status of Business Established in Spain for more Expedient VAT Refunds

Our client, a French company, dissatisfied with the tardiness of the Spanish administration in refunding output VAT in Spain (and which had already been reported on more than one occasion by the European Commission), decided to become established in Spain for VAT purposes (but not in regard to other taxes). The company thus obtained a Spanish tax number (NIF) and established the commencement of its activity in Spain in December.

Land of Money and Offshores… Ukraine

Today the economic growth should be something more than a line of political slogan for Ukraine. Approving itself as the EURO-2012 organizer, the country hopes for the inflow of investments and economic breakthrough. To fill the vessel with precious moisture, it must be intact, but the bottom of Ukrainian economy looks more like a sieve because most money is transferred to offshore accounts. What is the reason of such love for offshores: heavy taxes or just mentality?

New Liaison Office Regulation of Turkey

A new regulation published on 03 July 2012 dated, 28342 numbered Official Gazette amending the Regulation for Implementation of Foreign Direct Investment Law. By thus, liaison offices are subject to new regulations both in in permission and operation proceedings. According to the article 6 of the new Regulation, Ministry of Economy is authorized to give permissions as the governmental body.

Special Considerations in International Sales Agreements

International sales contracts constitute a specialist area of law that raises unique considerations when compared with domestic counterparts. Commercial law, responding to the requirements of the international trading community as a whole, has adapted in order to meet the special needs and problems posed by such international contracts. International sales are generally governed by common law, legislation, a number of international conventions, rules, terms and customs.

The Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] is Finalizing its Accession to the OHADA

The Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] is the newest member of OHADA and officially announced its joining OHADA in February 2004 but it’s had to deposit instruments of ratification for the statehood party. This has now been donThe Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] is Finalizing its Accession to the OHADAe since the 27th June 2012.

Trade Finance in Ukraine: Q&A

Please highlight any main trends or shifts in the current Ukrainian financing market? Due to limited or no appetite for Ukrainian risk and global finance markets volatility, capital markets and traditional bank lending are no longer easily accessible to Ukrainian borrowers (subject to few exceptions). At the same time, supply of ECA-backed trade financing continues to be available and trade financing seems to be active this year as well.

Recent Developments in Oil-and-Gas and Energy Sectors in Ukraine

On the way to the European integration, and by virtue of the determined Ukrainian policy towards energy independence, the Ukrainian Government is taking significant steps to improve Ukrainian energy sector. Currently, important changes are being introduced in the oil-and-gas industry. This has already encouraged global oil-and-gas companies such as Exxon Mobil, Shell, Chevron, and Eni to commence investment activity in Ukraine.

7 Key Questions on Corporate Restructuring - Ukraine

Development of efficient tax and corporate structures from the shareholders’ and potential investors’ perspective are key issues in a business restructuring. Each cross-border restructuring usually involves several jurisdiction. Below are some of the most frequently asked questions (and answers) on the cross-border restructuring of Ukrainian business:

4 Questions You Should Consider When Selling Your Stake in Business to a Private Equity Fund - Ukraine

Unlike Western developed economies, Ukraine has only recently started to unlock its potential in the area of attracting investments from Private Equity Funds (“PEFs”). Therefore, on the one hand, every more or less serious Ukrainian business (“Business”) has a good chance to attract the attention of a PEF.

Law on Sea Ports of Ukraine: First Impressions

The Law, long-awaited by the national port industry, establishes the basis of governmental regulation and defines new procedures for building, expanding and closing seaports in Ukraine, as well as the procedure for performing any economic activity on the sea ports’ territory.

Can You Really Become a Lord of the Scottish Highlands for Less than $50.00?

Some would have you believe that Scots law allows anyone to be the Lord of, if not all he surveys, at least a square foot of the Scottish Highlands. One site advertises souvenir plots “from just £29.99” and claims that, in return, you can use a clan crest, coat-of-arms and tartan. By “Scottish tradition”, it says, ownership of the plot “legally allows” you to use the courtesy title of Laird, Lord or Lady. But what is the legal truth behind these offers of instant ennoblement?

Photovoltaic Investments in Greece

The photovoltaic market in Greece offers great opportunities for investors, as it is expected to rise significantly within the coming years. Greece has grown to be one of the major investment destinations for solar energy production in the European Union; it is the southernmost country of EU, with almost 300 days of sunshine per year, and thus a massive potential for photovoltaic investments.

Director and Officer Liability Information Checklist

I. General Standard - With some exceptions, the general legal standard of care for business actors and agents is “prudence.” In this context “prudence” means to act as an ordinary prudent person would act under the circumstances. But, this standard can be misleading because, at law, prudent people arguably do not make common mistakes, like combing their hair or changing the radio dial while driving, let alone sending texts.....

International Arbitration - Nigeria

International arbitration: substantive law, procedural law and arbitration rules in the context of the United Kingdom Arbitration Act 1996. International arbitration: substantive law, procedural law and Arbitration Rules in the context of the Arbitration Act 1996. By: Mr. Femi D. Ojumu*

The New and Improved Cyprus International Trusts Law

The law on international trusts in Cyprus has undergone considerable changes this month with the enactment of a new law[1] that amends the International Trusts Law[2]. The amendments have been heralded as positioning Cyprus as the most favorable trust jurisdiction in the European Union and its much-anticipated provisions have been received with considerable praise by investors and professional advisors across the island.


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