Banking and Finance Law Articles

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Several Things to Keep in Mind for a Less Stressful Capital Markets Project - Ukraine

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
Capital markets projects always involve a significant amount of effort and stress from all parties of the process. Everybody has a common goal to get everything done just before the ever-urgent “windows” for the issue close. This time of crisis and uncertainty is precious and not to be wasted. Now is a great opportunity for prospective issuers and investors alike to get to grips with preparatory work in time for when the capital markets open their doors for Ukrainian business.

Resolving M&A Disputes in Arbitration - Ukraine

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
Traditionally M&A transactions involving Ukrainian targets are structured in a specific way in order to reflect peculiarities of the Ukrainian business environment. Enforcement of such structures requires deep knowledge and outstanding expertise in arbitration involving Ukrainian parties. Before drafting any dispute resolution clause, the following issues should be addressed.

Recommendations for a Foreign Retailer in Ukraine

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
From the moment foreign investors enter Ukraine they face a “non-Western standard” business environment, confusing and unstable legislation, and bureaucracy. One would need to spend a lot of time and effort to get a clear understanding of the local “rules of conduct”. That is why many investors prefer to have a local partner rather than be on their own.

Recent Developments in Oil-and-Gas and Energy Sectors in Ukraine

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
On the way to the European integration, and by virtue of the determined Ukrainian policy towards energy independence, the Ukrainian Government is taking significant steps to improve Ukrainian energy sector. Currently, important changes are being introduced in the oil-and-gas industry. This has already encouraged global oil-and-gas companies such as Exxon Mobil, Shell, Chevron, and Eni to commence investment activity in Ukraine.

Ukraine Competition Law Aspects in M&A Transactions: Questions and Answers

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
Sophisticated M&A transactions include not only straightforward share purchase agreements but may also contemplate ancillary agreements (e.g. option agreements, share pledge agreements, repo financing, etc.). Moreover, share purchase agreements may envisage non-compete clauses, which also fall within the ambit of Ukrainian competition law.

7 Key Questions on Corporate Restructuring - Ukraine

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
Development of efficient tax and corporate structures from the shareholders’ and potential investors’ perspective are key issues in a business restructuring. Each cross-border restructuring usually involves several jurisdiction. Below are some of the most frequently asked questions (and answers) on the cross-border restructuring of Ukrainian business:

4 Questions You Should Consider When Selling Your Stake in Business to a Private Equity Fund - Ukraine

  June 26, 2012     By Avellum Partners
Unlike Western developed economies, Ukraine has only recently started to unlock its potential in the area of attracting investments from Private Equity Funds (“PEFs”). Therefore, on the one hand, every more or less serious Ukrainian business (“Business”) has a good chance to attract the attention of a PEF.

New Incentive Scheme of Turkey

  June 19, 2012     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkish Cabinet has announced a new decree on 15th June 2012, numbered 2012/3305 and published on official gazette of 19th June 2012.

An Introduction to Investment Support and Promotion Agency - Turkey

  June 19, 2012     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Turkish Government has incorporated The Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Investment Support and Promotion Agency (“ISPAT”) by law no 5523 (“Law”) as of 4 July 2006. ISPAT is incorporated as a legal entity with administrative and financial autonomy in association with Prime Ministry.

Foreign Ownership of Immovables - Turkey

  June 19, 2012     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The Turkish Parliament has enacted a law, Law No 6302 (“Law”) that enables foreigners to buy real estate in Turkey in line with the interests of the country. Accordingly, compliance with legal restrictions, provided that the interests of the country where this is justified in terms of international bilateral relations established by the Council of Ministers, citizens (individuals) of foreign countries may acquire immovable property and limited real rights in Turkey.

Photovoltaic Investments in Greece

  June 15, 2012     By Kosmidis & Partners
The photovoltaic market in Greece offers great opportunities for investors, as it is expected to rise significantly within the coming years. Greece has grown to be one of the major investment destinations for solar energy production in the European Union; it is the southernmost country of EU, with almost 300 days of sunshine per year, and thus a massive potential for photovoltaic investments.

New Turkish Commercial Code

  June 13, 2012     By Ketenci & Ketenci
The new Turkish Commercial Code will become effective as of July 1, 2012 pursuant to the Law numbered 6103 on the Validity and Application of the Turkish Commercial Code 1 July 2012 and Law. Whereas some of the provisions therein will be effective on different dates. The new Turkish Commercial Code numbered 6102 (the “New TCC”) was promulgated in the Official Gazette on February 14, 2011.

Transfer of Ownership of Foreign Shares - Indonesia

  June 11, 2012     By Leks&Co
Background - The application for transfer of ownership of foreign shares can be submitted either by foreign investment company or by domestic investment company. The transfer of ownership of foreign shares shall be conducted whenever there are changes in the company’s capital that cause some or all the company’s capital into a foreign capital or domestic capital.

Summary of Minister of Public Housing Regulation Number 06/PERMEN/M/2009 - Indonesia

  June 11, 2012     By Leks&Co
Background - The purpose of the issuance of Regulation No. 6 is to implement the provisions of Article 7 paragraph (2) and paragraph (3) of Presidential Regulation of the Republic Indonesia Number 27 of 2009 on One Stop Integrated Services.

No Credit after Bankruptcy?

It is a myth that you won't be able to get credit after filing for bankruptcy. Some people are mislead into believing that you won't be able to get credit for up to 10 years after filing for bankruptcy protection. This is simply not true. Filing for bankruptcy has always had a stigma about it. Many people look at it as a way to cheat the system and not pay your bills.

CDO Attorneys Use their Skill and Expertise to Protect Investment Victims

  May 29, 2012     By Diane A. Nygaard, PA
Why would you need an experienced CDO attorney? Unfortunately, investors are frequently taken advantage of or "scammed" by brokers and financial advisors, even in the area of collateral debt obligations. As these asset-backed securities were found not to be diversified enough when the stock market started to collapse, it became apparent that these CDO's were being sold by investment bankers, who then used the money to themselves profit.

Rules Regulating Foreign Currency in Russia

  May 26, 2012     By Levine Bridge Law Firm
If you are planning on visiting any country, it is always helpful to be familiar with the rules governing the import and export of currency and other securities. In Russia these issues are regulated by Federal Law from 10.12.2003 No.173-FZ “On Currency Regulation and Currency Control” and Customs Legislation.

Benefits of a Life Insurance Trust

  May 25, 2012     By Deborah Sexton Law Office, PA
An Irrevocable Life Insurance Trust (ILIT) is a Trust used to hold your life insurance policy. Upon your death, your life insurance policy can pay into this Trust instead of directly to a beneficiary. Your ILIT Trustee will then use your Trust to pass funds out to your loved ones for a pre-determined amount of time. You must take special consideration when placing a life insurance policy into an Irrevocable Trust.

Using Your Traditional IRA to Buy a Home

  May 23, 2012     By Norrie & Associates
For many individuals, buying their first home is difficult because of the need to save up enough money to make the initial payment or to cover the closing costs. However, you may be able to use funds you saved in your traditional IRA to buy a home without incurring the 10% early withdrawal penalty (but you will probably still have to pay the regular income taxes on the distribution).

The Sanctions of Bad Check under the Light of Regulations Brought by the Turkish Law Numbered 6273

  May 22, 2012     By Ongoren Law Office
“The Act to Amend of Check Law” numbered 6273, accepted on the date of 31.01.2012 by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey has been entered into force by publishing in the Official Gazette numbered 28093 and dated 03.02.2012. This Law brought radical amendments with respect to check which is one of the most important and vital payment instrument of the commercial life. The prison sentence concerning bad check has been abolished.

The Basics of the Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP)

  May 20, 2012     By Law Office of Jason Ostendorf LLC
This article covers the eligibility criteria for homeowners who wish to lower their interest rates and monthly mortgage payments through the Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP). Although the country is showing signs of recovery from the economic crisis of 2008, many Americans are still feeling its effects. One wide-spread problem concerns the large number of “underwater homes”, or homes as to which the homeowner owes more on the mortgage than the property is worth.

The JOBS Act – Key Provisions You Should Know

  May 16, 2012     By Schwell Wimpfheimer & Associates LLP
Last month, President Obama signed historic and far reaching legislation into law – the Jumpstart Our Business Start-ups Act (the “JOBS Act”). The broad impact of the JOBS Act effects companies – whether private or public, domestic or foreign – as well as capital raises, the IPO market, and more.

Recognized Incorporated Cell Companies - Malta

  May 16, 2012     By CSB Advocates
On the 17th April 2012, the Companies Act (Recognized Incorporated Cell Companies) Regulations were incorporated into Maltese law by virtue of L.N. 119 of 2012. The said Regulations are supplemented by the MFSA Investment Services Rules for Recognized Incorporated Cell Companies (“RICC”) and Incorporated Cells which have been integrated into the existing MFSA investment services regulatory framework.

Stepping Up on Corporate Governance of Listed Issuers in Hong Kong

  May 14, 2012     By Angela Wang & Co.
In line with the trend towards higher level of corporate governance and more accountability of listed issuers and their directors in many other countries, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (the “Exchange”) released its Consultation Conclusions on Review of the Corporate Governance Code (“Code”) and Associated Listing Rules (the “Conclusions”) on 28 October 2011.

Do I Need a Seattle Real Estate Lawyer to Invest in Real Estate?

  May 14, 2012     By DC Law Group
If you are considering purchasing investment property, rather than a primary residence, getting help from a Seattle real estate lawyer can be especially essential to ensuring that you make a wise and informed choice. A Seattle real estate lawyer will assist you with all aspects of the transaction and will help you to do your legal due diligence before you buy the property.

JOBS Act: Initial Public Offering “On-Ramp”

  May 9, 2012     By TroyGould
The JOBS Act, signed into law on April 5, 2012, is intended to stimulate job creation and economic growth by improving access to the capital markets for smaller companies. In an effort to facilitate capital-raising for private companies, the JOBS Act created a new class of issuer known as an “emerging growth company,” or an EGC.

JOBS Act: Small Public Offerings – New Regulation A+

  May 9, 2012     By TroyGould
On April 5, 2012, President Obama signed into law the “Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act” (JOBS Act). The JOBS Act is intended to facilitate the creation of new jobs by easing securities law burdens on capital-raising activities by smaller companies.

Can an Investment Securities Fraud Lawyer Help When You've Been Scammed by a Broker?

  May 8, 2012     By Diane A. Nygaard, PA
You trusted your broker or financial advisor to help you make smart decisions and increase your investments; now, you suspect that he/she may have scammed you, or given you bad advice. Can an investment securities fraud lawyer help you determine whether you were indeed scammed, and is there anything that can be done to recover your losses?

Securities Fraud Attorneys Work to Recover Investors' Losses

  May 8, 2012     By Diane A. Nygaard, PA
Has a stockbroker or financial advisor misled you, recommending a product or investment that proved to be unsafe or not suitable for you? A skilled securities fraud attorney understands these often complex issues, and will work to recover your losses.

JOBS Act: SEC Must Amend Reg D to Permit Advertising for Private Offerings to Accredited Investors

  May 4, 2012     By TroyGould
The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (JOBS Act) has made several important changes to federal securities laws. One of these changes has been to require the SEC to eliminate the restriction under Regulation D prohibiting general solicitation and advertising in connection with certain private offerings.

Recognizing Investment Fraud

For many Americans, trying to understand the rules that regulate the securities industry and the investment firms that invest their money is like trying to read another language. The investment industry has grown immensely over the past decade, and that growth has brought a complicated and massive system of policing along with it. If you have invested your money in a security or a company, you must take extra precaution to protect your rights and avoid being a victim of fraud.

Preserving Wealth - A Concern for Facebook Founders

  May 3, 2012     By Frank & Kraft, Attorneys at Law
If you have more money than you're going to be able to spend during your lifetime you have to consider tax efficient asset transfers. Clearly Facebook founders Mark Zuckerberg and Dustin Moskovitz are in this situation. And, they are also in possession of shares that are going to increase in value dramatically when the company goes public.

Preserve Your Wealth by Looking Ahead

  May 2, 2012     By Augulis Law Firm
If you find yourself in a position where you have more than ample resources to last throughout your lifetime you have to start to consider how you will be preserving your wealth. Two individuals who certainly are in this category would be Facebook founders Mark Zuckerberg and Dustin Moskovitz.

Kazakhstan Legal Alert - GRATA Finance and Securities (January-March 2012)

  April 17, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
In keeping with GRATA’s practice of informing clients regarding important legal developments that might influence their business, we draw your attention to the following recent changes in Kazakhstani financial legislation that occurred during the period of January - March 2012.

JOBS Act Makes Major Revisions to Securities Laws; Eases Capital-Raising for Smaller Companies

  April 11, 2012     By TroyGould
The JOBS Act is intended to stimulate job creation and economic growth by improving access to the capital markets for emerging growth companies. The JOBS Act contains a number of provisions designed to ease capital-raising for private companies, including:

Thinking of Starting a Business in Italy? Beware of Italian Red Tape

  April 9, 2012     By Giambrone Law
Gabriele Giambrone, Managing Partner at Giambrone Law ILP, the Anglo-Italian law firm, comments on the failed venture of the British firm, British Gas and its decision to forego its business venture in Southern Italy. Setting up a business in a foreign country can be a daunting endeavor.

Business Valuation in Divorce Proceedings: Understanding of the Basic Approaches to Value

  April 5, 2012     By Jaburg Wilk
Determining the valuation in divorce proceedings can often be contentious and difficult. There are three approaches to value any asset, business or business interest: 1) the asset approach, 2) the income approach and 3) the market approach. By: Mitchell Reichman

Tax Benefits to New Immigrants / Returning Senior Residents to Israel

  April 2, 2012     By Dardikman Law Offices
Over the last few years Israel has become an attractive jurisdiction for tax planners, the following article will provide information on some of the tax benefits which new immigrants or returning residents can obtain.

Suspect Investment Fraud?

  March 26, 2012     By Diane A. Nygaard, PA
Unfortunately, many investors are taken advantage of by unscrupulous brokerage firms and financial advisors every day.

When Is It Time to Consult With a Class Action Securities Fraud Attorney?

  March 26, 2012     By Diane A. Nygaard, PA
When investors buy or sell a company's securities within a "class period" or specific time period and securities laws are violated, leaving investors injured economically, it may be time to consult with a class action securities fraud attorney.

5 Ways to Help Maintain ’34 Act Reporting Compliance

  March 26, 2012     By The Lebrecht Group APLC
In tough economic times there are things smaller public companies can do to help ensure they maintain their ’34 Act reporting compliance.

How to Choose a Corporate Securities Attorney

  March 26, 2012     By The Lebrecht Group APLC
Finding a qualified securities law attorney is not difficult, if you know where, and how, to look.

How to Raise Money for Your Company

  March 26, 2012     By The Lebrecht Group APLC
For many private and public companies raising funds is essential to get over the hump and on the road to revenues and eventual profits. There are several things companies can do to increase their chances of successfully raising money on favorable terms.

Role of Audit Committees under Nigerian Financial and Corporate Laws

  March 22, 2012     By Brooke Chambers
Audit Committees are part of internal audit mechanisms created by both public and private companies to ensure financial regulatory and risk management compliance of public and private companies to laid down financial laws and practices.

OSOS and OSSC Revisited

  March 18, 2012     By Pugnatorius Ltd.
More than two years ago Thailand decided to concentrate several governmental services for foreign investors at one place in Bangkok. In the meantime, Thailand has gone through ups and downs. Therefore, it is justified to make a judgement in 2012 whether the formation of this one-shop-solution has been accepted and adopted by foreign investors.

China Approved Western Digital and Hitachi Storage Deal on Conditions

  March 12, 2012     By Guo Lian Law Firm
On 2 March 2012, MOFCOM published its conditional approval to the $4.5 billion acquisition of Viviti Technologies Ltd (a company directly holding Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. ,which holds Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Singapore Pte. Ltd.) (“Viviti”) by Western Digital Corporation (“Western Digital”).

While Jobs Increase Consumer Spending Remains Low

  March 12, 2012     By Walker Law Firm, P.A.
Consumer spending is a great initiator of the U.S. economy, pushing it forward or back depending on the trends of the time. It is so important that it accounts for around 70 percent of the activity of the economy. The job market has taken many hits recently. Economic hard times have forced many workers to seek unemployment compensation while they continue seeking jobs elsewhere.

Aircraft Finance in Turkey

  March 9, 2012     By Ketenci & Ketenci
Turkey has recently ratified the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment (the "Convention") and the Protocol to the Convention on Matters Specific to Aircraft Equipment (the "Protocol" and, together with the Convention, the "Cape Town Convention"). By ratifying such Convention, Turkey has become a country which is very fit for aircraft finance in all respects.

Russian Legislation Overview, January 2012

  March 3, 2012     By MTIT Legal Company
The Russian Legislation Overview includes a brief overview of the major legal acts that came into force in January 2012. Federal Law N 353-FZ dated December 12, 2010 entitled "On amendments to the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation”. Came into legal force on January 01.2012 (excluding certain provisions).

Free Trade Zones Law of Turkey

  March 2, 2012     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
In this article you will find general information on Free Trade Zones regulation of Turkey that will help foreign investors to make transit trade through Turkey without involving to any domestic trade area.

What if One of my Service Providers is Under SEC Investigation?

  February 28, 2012     By The Lebrecht Group APLC
It eventually happens to all of us in the securities business, particularly those of us who provide services to public companies. One of the other service providers to the company comes under investigation by the SEC, or FINRA, or a state regulatory agency. It might be the company’s lawyer, auditor, public relations firm, investment banker, or a consultant. What should the company do?

Is $92 Billion a Year in Stock Trading an “Established Public Market”?

  February 28, 2012     By The Lebrecht Group APLC
In 1964 the SEC published its policy regarding registration of securities without an “established trading market.” From that policy came the conclusion that a stock traded only on the Pink Sheets does not have an established trading market. That policy is essentially still in place today, despite the fact that $92 billion worth of securities traded on the Pink Sheets in 20091.

Documentary Credit in International Trade

  February 23, 2012     By Villagran Lara, Attorneys
Documentary credits law depends on the principle of autonomy or independence of the credit and the doctrine of strict compliance. The principle of autonomy protects the beneficiary (exporter) while the doctrine of strict compliance protects the issuing bank and the applicant (importer).

Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements and Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies (“CFC”) in Turkey

  February 22, 2012     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
Although it has been long time to have CFC regulation in Turkey, in parallel with the increasing rate of growth of Turkish economy, many major entrepreneurs making Turkey related businesses required to focus on management of their taxation policies in consideration of CFC regime in Turkey.

Simplification of Cross Border Payments in the Eurozone

  February 22, 2012     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Overview of SEPA - The Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) is an initiative of the European banking industry to simplify all electronic payments across the euro area by credit card, debit card, bank transfer or direct debit and to make them as easy as domestic payments within one country are now.

Increase of Capital - Indonesia

  February 22, 2012     By Leks&Co
Background - A Limited Liability Companies (“Company”) may gain their capital by increasing its capital, the process is performed based on General Meeting Shareholder’s (“GMS”) Resolution. According to Article 41 paragraph (2) of Law Number 40 of 2007 on Limited Liability Companies (“Company Law”),

Entrepreneurs and Investors Continue to Get Red Carpet Treatment to Set Up in the UK

  February 16, 2012     By Hudson McKenzie
The Tier 1 (Entrepreneur) category is for those investing in the United Kingdom by setting up or taking over, and being actively involved in the running of one or more businesses in the United Kingdom.

Tier 1 (Investor) Visa- Invest in the UK to gain Citizenship

  February 14, 2012     By Hudson McKenzie
The Tier 1 (Investor) category is for those high-net-worth individuals who want to make a substantial financial investment in the UK of £1,000,000 (GBP 1 million) or more.

The New Check Regime of Turkey

  February 14, 2012     By Herdem Attorneys at Law
The Turkish Parliament has recently adopted a legislation that brings down penalties on bounced checks. Accordingly, contrary to the former legislation the issuers of bounced checks will only be subject to administrative fine rather than imprisonment. During the years of high inflation and the several economic crises in Turkey, the checks especially by textile and raw materials sector have been preferred as the payment tool in Turkey.

Offshore Foundations

  February 12, 2012     By Carlo Scevola & Partners
An overview on the foundation structure, with a particular focus on Private Interest Foundations in Panama. There are many countries offering legal entities known as offshore foundations. A private offshore foundation is a private entity usually set by an individual or married couple to provide for their children and their heirs.

Attracting the “Best of Breed” for Malta’s Financial Services Industry

  February 9, 2012     By CSB Advocates
An outline of the Highly Qualified Persons Rules, 2011 - Managing Growth - Malta has attracted much media attention as an up-and-coming onshore financial centre, particularly since the 2008 economic slowdown.

Developments in Financial Legislation in Kazakhstan

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
Following the financial crisis, the Government of Kazakhstan together with AFN (a financial regulator, recently replaced in its role by the National Bank) has introduced amendments to legislation designed to address issues which arose during the crisis and to enhance financial legislation and the financial market of Kazakhstan. Two main laws have been developed (one of which has already come into effect, while the other is yet to be passed).

Kazakhstan has Adopted a New Law on Special Economic Zones

  February 9, 2012     By Grata Law Firm
1. General Provisions - On 21 July 2011, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Special Economic Zones (hereinafter - the 'Law') has been enacted.

New EU Stability Mechanism Treaty on Strengthening Fiscal Discipline and Convergence

  February 8, 2012     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
EU leader Member States agreed on a new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Convergence in the Economic and Monetary Union. The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) Treaty was signed by euro area Member States on 2 February 2012 and ratification is pending by the 17 euro area Member States. The target date of its operation is July 2012, a year earlier than expected.

Directors’ Fiduciary Obligation and the Law on Improper Purpose

  February 7, 2012     By Angela Wang & Co.
In the recent Hong Kong case of Passport Special Opportunities Master Fund, LP v eSun Holdings Ltd [2011] 4 HKC 62, the court examined the law of improper purpose in relation to fiduciary obligations on directors, when deciding whether or not, and in what manner, to embark on an issue of new shares.

Elder Law

  February 1, 2012     By Law Offices of Richard B. Schneider, LLC
The practice of elder law is an area of expertise that developed from the need of a growing population of senior citizens with specific legal issues. What can an elder law attorney do for you or a loved one? Elder law is a relative new area in the practice of law, arising from the need of a growing population of senior citizens with specific legal needs.

Mechanism of the Investment Licenses - Indonesia

  January 20, 2012     By Leks&Co
Background - Mechanism of the investment licenses that is applied by BKPM to the investor covers provisions concerning business sector and business entity that could be managed by the investor in the territory of Indonesia. Principally, provisions on the mechanism of the investment licenses apply the same treatment to all of the investors, either foreign investor or domestic investor.

Merger on Investment Company - Indonesia

  January 20, 2012     By Leks&Co
Background - Merger is a legal action conducted by one or more company to merge with another existing company causing the assets and liabilities of the merging company transferred by law to the surviving company. Moreover, the legal entity status of the merging company will be ended by law.

Investment Law Dispute Settlement through ICSID - Indonesia

  January 20, 2012     By Leks&Co
Background - International Center for Settlement of International Dispute (“ICSID”) was established on the basis of the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States of 1966 (“ICSID Convention“). This ICSID Convention regulates the settlement of dispute between a country with foreign individual or company who have invested their capital in the country, by peaceful means through conciliation or arbitration.

Bulgarian Corporate Income Tax Rate 2012

  January 13, 2012     By Belcheva & Associates Law Office
Planning all corporate taxes: income taxes, VAT, withholding taxes, dividends taxes and considering the tax impact on your business, should play a significant role in every financial step your company in Bulgaria undertakes. Even if you consider that your business is not currently in need, you can seek for taxing information as at the moment Bulgarian system almost apply tax free levying of income for residents and non residents.

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange for Indian Issuers

  January 12, 2012     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
Indian companies are accessing the Frankfurt Stock Exchange (“FSE”) and other foreign capital markets in search of capital and liquidity for their shares. The Entry Standard of the FSE is an appealing option for Indian issuers seeking an access point to European capital markets. By Brenda Lee Hamilton, Attorney

Deutsche Börse AG Suspends New Listings on the Open

  January 12, 2012     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
On December 20, 2011, Deutsche Börse AG suspended new listings for the First Quotation Board due to fraud and new cases of suspected market manipulation among several shares listed in the First Quotation Board. Deutsche Börse AG stated, “prosecution according to criminal law and supervisory legislation only seems to have a limited deterrent effect. By Brenda Lee Hamilton

Asset Protection Errors - How to Avoid the Most Common Errors in Setting Up an Asset Protection Strategy

  January 11, 2012     By Carlo Scevola & Partners
Many of you probably receive unsolicited junk e-mails offering different Asset Protection schemes. With so many "tax haven" jurisdictions and unlicensed companies selling unproven and unreliable Asset Protection techniques and entities, which do you trust? There are many flawed asset protection packages offered on the internet now days.

Foreign Loans in Belarus

  January 9, 2012     By Glimstedt Law Firm
Loan agreement is one of the most common ways of financing in Belarusian companies when a foreign shareholder provides a loan to the Belarusian Company. This article covers some crucial issues of receiving loans from foreign companies including currency and tax regulations.

LLC for Asset Protection

  January 7, 2012     By Kevin Pillion - Co-Executor PLLC
The initials “LLC” in a financial planning context stand for a "limited liability company." (Note that the “C” stands for company rather than corporation.) The limited liability company is somewhat of a hybrid enterprise that has some of the characteristics of a corporation while also resembling a sole proprietorship or partnership depending on whether or not there is more than one member.

Dominican Law 158-01 of Tourism Incentives for Development

  January 5, 2012     By Arthur & Castillo
The tax benefits of Law 158-01 may extend to the purchase and acquisition of Dominican Republic real estate such as second homes and vacation villas of projects located in designated tourist zones.

Estate Planning for Same-Sex Couples in Ohio

  January 3, 2012     By Gudorf Law Group
I recently had the opportunity to develop an estate plan for a same-sex couple and found several effective strategies for making sure each partner could receive inheritance and make healthcare decisions for the other just as if they were a married heterosexual couple. Actually, now they are probably better protected than most married heterosexual couples, because most couples don’t have an estate plan or living trust in place.

SEC Amends Definition of “Accredited Investors”

  January 1, 2012     By Schwell Wimpfheimer & Associates LLP
Last week the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) amended its rules to exclude the value of a person’s home from net worth calculations used to determine whether such individual qualifies as an “accredited investor”. The amendment is not “new law” but rather simply conforms the SEC rules with the Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) which already became law on July 21, 2010.

China Released the Industrial Catalogue for Guiding Foreign Investment 2011

  December 30, 2011     By Guo Lian Law Firm
The new version of Industrial Catalogue for Guiding Foreign Investment (“Catalogue”) was formally released on 24 December 2011. It will come into effect on 30 January 2012 and supersede the Catalogue published in 2007. The 2011 Catalogue brings significant adjustments to China's industrial policy towards foreign investment.

Will There be an Inflow of Chinese Money in Ukraine?

  December 30, 2011     By Avellum Partners
In recent months, China has been dominating media headlines in connection with exchange rate disputes with the Unites States and possible participation of China in the bailout of some Eurozone nations. China seems to be proving the truth behind the Chinese proverb that says that ‘the saving man becomes the free man’.

Regulation Proposal Regarding the Promotion of Activities for the Protection of EU Financial Interests

  December 28, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The protection of EU’s financial interests reflect s the basic targets and objectives of the European Union to suppress the illegal traffic of products as well as counterfeiting activities within EU Member States. Hercule I and II, as well as Pericles constitute the means and the tools with the aid of which, relevant European and national authorities will be empowered to take all the measures needed and execute the harmonized strategy of the Union.

Bulgarian Business Advantages

  December 27, 2011     By Belcheva & Associates Law Office
The location of Bulgaria makes it strategically advantageous for accessing the developing markets in Eastern Europe and Turkey. It is also a largely unspoilt rural country with enormous business tourism potential. It has a coastline along the Black Sea and lovely mountains making for potential investment opportunities.

Advantages of Registration under the Cypriot Flag

  December 27, 2011     By Michael Chambers & Co. LLC
Cyprus is a major ship management centre and its flag holds an envious reputation worldwide. The Cypriot Register now ranks 10th in size internationally and represents the third largest fleet in the EU. Moreover, the Register is growing, with shipping entrepreneurs attracted to the host of benefits offered by registration under the Cyprus flag and the active promotion of ship management interests by regulatory authorities.

Country’s Indebtedness as Threat in Doing Business? The Case of DR. Congo and China vs. Vulture Funds

  December 22, 2011     By Yav & Associates
It is normal to think that the indebtedness of Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] and potential threats such Vulture Fund activity increase the cost of doing business in some countries such as the DRC. This article discusses the DRC and China case as regard to Vulture Finds.

NDRC’s New Regulation on RMB Private Equity Funds in China

  December 16, 2011     By Guo Lian Law Firm
The regulatory regime on private equity fund is developing at a fast pace, despite there is still no unified national-level law or regulation governing the business. After establishing its authority as a key regulator of China’s venture capital funds, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) takes the leadership in developing the regulatory regime and is determined to expand its regulatory power into the area.

Venture Capital Terms: A Primer

  December 14, 2011     By The Berkman Law Firm
Whether you are a company looking to raise financing or a potential investor, make sure you understand the important concepts that you will invariably be confronted with in a venture capital transaction. Even if your business is not at the juncture of raising financing, understanding the key terms now will help you start to position the company for an eventual financing round down the road. This Article provides an overview of some of the important terms in a venture deal.

SEC Limits its Non-Public Review Policy for Non-U.S. Issuers

  December 14, 2011     By Schwell Wimpfheimer & Associates LLP
On December 8, 2011, the Division of Corporation Finance of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission significantly limited its policy of allowing non-U.S. issuers to submit initial drafts of registration statements (initial public offering or other first-time registration statements) on a “draft” confidential basis.

Restructuring and Insolvency in Greece - Q & A Guide

  December 9, 2011     By Potamitisvekris
Reproduced with permission from Law Business Research. This article was first published in Getting the Deal Through - Restructuring & Insolvency, (published in 2011; contributing editor: Bruce Leonard).

Access and Admission of Foreign Investors in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  December 7, 2011     By Yav & Associates
This articles discusses the Investment Legislation and its Reasoning; Foreign Investment Establishment, Registering and Licensing Processes; Registering a company; Establishing a Bank; Investing in the Mining Sector; Mining Prospecting; Mining Exploration; Investing in the Forestry, Gold and Diamond Sectors; Foreign Employment & Residence and; Foreign Investor Access to Land and Property Rights within the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Investment Promotion in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  December 7, 2011     By Yav & Associates
In order to value the extraordinary resources, the Democratic Republic of Congo adopted from 2001, an important batch of economic measures establishing the freedom of commerce and industry and the liberalization of sectors governed so far by the Government (mining, oil and exchange sectors). Should be added to the reforms introduced the promulgation of new laws, the spirit of boosting private initiatives: it is the case of investment code, mining code, forest code, labor code.

Cross Border Investment Firm Activity

  December 6, 2011     By Michael Chambers & Co. LLC
Activities of all investment firms in Cyprus are governed by CySEC, the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission. CySEC isresponsible for authorizing investment firms to undertake investment and ancillary services and governs ongoing transactions and compliance with the various applicable regulations. Investment firms may consider undertaking their activities abroad through establishment of a branch in the intended market or by providing services in that territory where authorized.

SEC Moves Forward and Approves Tougher Listing Standards for Reverse Merger Companies

  December 4, 2011     By Schwell Wimpfheimer & Associates LLP
In November, the Securities and Exchange Commission approved new rules (the “New Reverse Merger Rules”) that make it more difficult for companies that have effected a “reverse merger” (also known as a “reverse takeover”) to go public and meet the required listing standards of the three major U.S. exchanges – the NYSE, NYSE Amex and NASDAQ.

Investment Firms in Cyprus

  December 1, 2011     By Michael Chambers & Co. LLC
In the Republic of Cyprus only certain persons and companies are permitted to undertake investment services and activities (for a full list of such regulated activities please refer to the end of this article)[i] and such entities are tightly regulated in order to ensure high standards and full consumer protection. The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission is the body responsible for the issuing of licenses and for overseeing the operation of such entities.

Recent Development of China’s Merger Control: A Review on the Penelope/Savio and GE/CSCLC Cases

  November 28, 2011     By Guo Lian Law Firm
China launched formally a comprehensive business concentration control regime on 1 August 2008 when its Anti Monopoly Law (“AML”) entered into effect.

Why Put Your Trust in a Securities Fraud Attorney?

  November 28, 2011     By Diane A. Nygaard, PA
Once you have been taken advantage of by deceitful stockbrokers or financial advisors, it's hard to trust anyone. However, it is essential that you consult with a capable securities fraud attorney if a financial professional has encouraged you to invest in ventures that are risky or if they have invested your money without your knowledge.

Restricted Securities 101

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
The Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) requires that the sale of a security be registered under the Securities Act, unless the security or transaction qualifies for an exemption from registration.

Private Placements 101

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
Regulation D, Rule 506 Offerings - To offer and sell securities in the United States, an issuer must comply with the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), or must offer and sell the securities pursuant to an exemption from the registration statement requirements.

Investor Relations 101

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
Investor relations involve the dissemination of information regarding a publicly traded company to create awareness of the public company and its business and to increase its stock price. The person who provides the investor relations services is known as a “Stock Promoter”. Stock promoters have used illegal practices and are often the subject of enforcement actions by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) is the stock promoter.

FINRA Rule 6490

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
FINRA Rule, 6490, recently enacted in September 2010, requires issuers of equities and debt securities not listed on exchanges to provide timely notice to FINRA of certain corporate actions. These corporate actions include name changes, forward stock splits, reverse stock splits, distributions of cash or securities such as dividends, stock splits and other actions, and rights and subscription offerings.

New Listing Standards for Reverse Merger Issuers

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
On July 9, 2011, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) approved rules to increase the standards for companies going public through a reverse merger to list on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), American Stock Exchange (“AMEX”) and the NASDAQ Stock Market (“NASDAQ”).