Criminal Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Criminal Law.




What is Money Laundering and Why is It Illegal

  By HG.org
A common topic on spy shows and mobster movies, money laundering may be an unclear concept for many. What is it? Is it illegal? If so, why? What are the elements of this crime?

Legal Considerations for Child Pornography Cases

  By HG.org
Few sex crimes bring more negative connotations to mind than those related to child pornography. In our computer age where information, images, and videos can be rapidly and easily accessed, this has become a growing area of concern. Although search engines have become better at filtering out inappropriate materials, it is still possible to occasionally come into contact with these matters, either intentionally or not.

Dealing with Drug Charges

  By HG.org
By far, one of the most common class of crimes to pass through the American legal system is the drug case. Whether possession or distribution, drug cases have gotten a lot of attention from both the media and legislators since the 1980's and the beginning of the “War on Drugs.” However, these laws are changing for some substances, like marijuana, so it is important to get a basic understanding of the state of the law related to controlled substances.

Considerations for Victims in Prosecuting Rape

  By HG.org
It is a difficult topic to discuss or even think about, but rape is a real part of every civilization. Although improvements have been made in the legal system, prosecution of a rapist can still be a drawn out and painful process, and often the victims of rape have no idea what to expect. This article will discuss what rape is and what a victim should expect from the prosecution of the crime.

Combating Computer Crime

  By HG.org
Computer crime is one of the fastest-growing types of illegal activity, both in the U.S. and abroad. Indeed, much of the computer crime Americans face is from foreign sources, making regulation of these activities by police authorities exceedingly difficult. While the Internet links people together like never before, it also provides endless opportunity to criminals seeking to exploit the vulnerabilities and trusting nature of others.

Victimized by the Law: Weird Examples of Penalties Against Crime Victims

  By HG.org
As many judges are fond of saying, ours are courts of law, not courts of justice. “Justice” is an often subjective term that fails to take into consideration the best practices for society at large. Laws are generally intended to create the best outcome for all people in all situations. But, what happens when the best intentions go awry?

Legal Considerations in Arson Cases

  By HG.org
Arson is the malicious burning of the dwelling of another. Some states also include other places and things in the scope of items that can be burned and constitute arson, such as cars, businesses, churches, etc. In any event, arson is usually considered a second degree felony and is very serious.

Legal Consequences of Child Abuse

  By HG.org
Child abuse is never acceptable. Of course, what constitutes child support and what is discipline may sometimes be a gray zone. While the government stays out of our personal relationships in most instances, when it comes to child abuse and domestic violence there can be serious legal consequences. Thus, it is important to know what type of behavior is considered abusive and against the law, and the legal consequences those accused of abuse may face.

What are the Differences Between Felonies and Misdemeanors?

  By HG.org
In most states, crimes are classified in one of two categories: felonies and misdemeanors. Sometimes, there are also a third class of crimes called petty crimes or violations, and are usually punished by a fine with no jail time (these often include traffic infractions). Understanding the difference between a felony and a misdemeanor can be critical in understanding charges against a person, terms of plea agreements, and potential punishments.

Prostitution in the United States

  By HG.org
Prostitution is one of those legal issues that creates an intense debate and will likely remain an issue in America for years to come.

What is RICO?

  By HG.org
RICO stands for the “Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations” Act. It was a groundbreaking piece of legislation passed in the United States in 1970 with the goal of financially crippling the Mafia. However, it has evolved to have a variety of applications today against many organizations aside from the Mafia.

Juvenile Crimes

  By HG.org
Juvenile crimes are the fastest growing area of criminal activity in America. Juvenile crimes are considered those crimes committed by people who are under the age of eighteen. Juvenile offenders, or “juvenile delinquents,” as they are sometimes referred to, are usually handled differently than adult offenders, but an increasing trend toward harsher sentencing may erode this distinction in the near future.

Understanding American Extradition Laws

  By HG.org
Extradition refers to the transfer of an accused criminal by one state or nation to another. The recent Snowden case has brought this issue to the forefront again, as the American government has expressed its desire to regain jurisdiction over Edward Snowden for leaking top-secret information about American intelligence gathering efforts.

Texas Man Sentenced to 20 Years in Prison for DWI

A Texas City man was sentenced to 20 years in prison for a drunk driving accident that occurred in 2011.

Domestic Violence: California Penal Code 273.5

California domestic violence law has changed a lot over the years. The author explains how things have changed as well as the influences that spurred changes.

How to Fight a Traffic Ticket

  By HG.org
You have been pulled over but you are not sure why. You do not think you did anything wrong, but you get a ticket anyway. How do you fight it?

What Are the Different Types of Criminal Homicide?

  By HG.org
Homicide is the taking of a human life. Every state in the US has its own unique classifications of homicide, but these classifications generally fall into three general categories. Those general categories are murder, manslaughter, and justifiable homicide.

Understanding the Different Types of Theft

  By HG.org
Have you ever heard someone talk about larceny and wondered why they called a theft by that name? What about robbery? How about fraud or embezzlement? What's really the difference between all these different types of theft? It can be an important question if you or someone you know is facing criminal charges or have been the victim of a crime. Following is a description of eight (8) different types of theft and what their respective elements include.

The Relevance of Cybersecurity Risk Management - Malta

The majority of enterprises nowadays rely on information technology as an essential tool for meeting their business objectives as well as safeguarding their intellectual property, financial information and the Company’s reputation, amongst others. Concurrently, critical digital assets are being targeted and the potential impacting businesses has never been greater.

What Can You Do When Someone Commits Perjury?

  By HG.org
Anyone who has ever had to rely on the testimony of others, whether in a criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding, has probably felt the cold knife of panic and disgust slice through their gut as someone testified in a manner they considered untruthful. Of course, many people can have many different interpretations of the same event, including some that seem wildly different than your recollection, simply because they had a different perspective.

The Elements and Differences Between Assault and Battery

  By HG.org
How often do we hear the compound term “assault and battery” thrown around in courtroom television dramas or the nightly news? Were you aware that assault and battery are actually two different things? That they can have both civil and criminal implications? So what exactly is the difference between them, and why is this distinction important?

Los Angeles Shoplifting: Felony or Misdemanor, It's Still a Crime

When thinking of shoplifting, you may think of Jean Valjean in Les Misérables who stole bread for his starving sister and was imprisoned for five years. But not everybody who shoplifts steals food because they're hungry. It doesn't matter what was shoplifted, or who did the shoplifting, it is still a crime, and is the most common type of theft happening today in the United States.

Los Angeles DUI Defense Process

Regardless of where you live, driving under the influence is a serious offense with serious consequences, but California drunk driving laws can be especially confusing and difficult to maneuver. The best way to approach them is to work with a lawyer that is well versed in what the laws are and what they mean for you.

Saying No to Police Searches

  By HG.org
One very often used tool in the law enforcement tool box is the power to intimidate citizens into voluntarily giving up their rights, usually without even realizing they are doing it.

What to do if You Get Stopped for a DUI or DWI

  By HG.org
This is a step-by-step guide as to what you should do if you get pulled over for a DUI (Driving Under the Influence) or a DWI (Driving While Impaired). This is not a substitute for using common sense and avoiding behavior that might put you in jeopardy of being stopped for a DUI or a DWI. It is also not a substitute for getting assistance from a qualified, competent attorney. When in doubt, contact your lawyer.

When Should You Accept a Plea Bargain in your Criminal Case?

  By HG.org
Let's face it, being arrested can be a terrifying, stressful, confusing experience. From that point forward, things can move fast, get very complicated, and it may be very hard to know what to do or who to turn to.

Breathalyzers: Defects Then/Failures Still

Breathalyzers have had a long history of controversy over their effectiveness and validity when used as evidence in a court of law. The author details their history of failure and malfunction as well as their current problems.

Illinois Allows Marijuana for Medical Use

Any activity involving the cannabis plant is a criminal offense. In all the jurisdictions, it is an offense to possess marijuana, transport marijuana, drive under the influence of marijuana, sell marijuana and grow cannabis. But scientific evidence verifies that marijuana has the following therapeutic effects:

Ignition Interlock Device Laws in Florida

Individuals convicted of drunk driving in Florida are often required to install Ignition Interlock Devices (IID) in their vehicles as part of their sentences. IIDs require drivers to take a breath test before their vehicles will start. Learn about IID laws in the state of Florida.

Arrested for DUI, Will I lose My Job

You have just been arrested for a DUI, oh how your world is going to change. If you are convicted you will face fines, possible jail time and loss of your driving privileges. Will you lose you job as well? Anything is possible, if you need to be able to drive to do your job, it could be in jeopardy. Consult an experienced DUI attorney if you are arrested, you have so much to lose, make sure that you aren't convicted.

44 Ways to Beat the Cops

A careful review of your case may find critical mistakes. Each may work in your favor and result in a dismissal of your case

Time of Arrest is Key in Drunk Driving Arrests

What happens after you've been arrested for a OUI in Boston?

FIAU Annual Report 2012 - Malta

On the 15th July 2013, the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) issued a Notice for the purpose of formally notifying all Financial Services License Holders of the recent publication of the Malta Financial Intelligence Analysis Unit (FIAU) Annual Report for 2012, issued in terms of Article 42(1) of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (Chapter 373, Laws of Malta).

An Overview of DUI Penalties in Arizona

Each state has unique laws governing drinking and driving. Continue reading to learn about Arizona’s DUI administrative and criminal statutes.

Proposals for a Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive - EU

The European Central Bank ("ECB") and the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee ("ECON") have issued opinions following the adoption by the European Commission, on 5th February 2013, of a Proposal for a Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive and a Proposal for a Regulation on Information Accompanying Transfers of Funds, to reinforce the EU's existing rules on anti-money laundering and fund transfers.

FL Texting While Driving Ban Signed Into Law

The “Florida Ban on Texting While Driving Law” is set to go into effect on October 1, 2013 and has already come under criticism for being too weak, leaving a lot to be desired in the realm of enforcement.

Extraordinary Dismissal in Cases of Suspected Personal Enrichment - Germany

The Hamburg Labor Court recently ruled that the strong suspicion of credit memos belonging to a business being used for private purposes can justify an extraordinary dismissal.

Alternative Criminal Sentencing – Drug Courts

Sometimes jail just isn’t the answer. To help combat criminal activity in a more effective manner, alternatives to the standard criminal sentencing are being used, namely, drug courts.

House Arrest: Florida’s Community Control Program

The Florida Community Control Program places offenders under house arrest or electronic surveillance as an alternative to a traditional incarceration sentence.

Pending Litigation Determines Whether Alcohol “Sniffing” Device Violates the Fourth Amendment

A recent program has been initiated by the National Traffic Safety Board, and it is referred to as the “Sniffer.” The “Sniffer,” has been overshadowed by another proposal to decrease BAC levels from 0.08% to 0.05%; however, if enacted, it may have just as serious implications to drivers apprehended for driving under the influence.

How to Beat a Reckless Driving Ticket

Unlike speeding tickets, which are considered to be civil violations a reckless driving charge is defined as a criminal offense and comes with more, and more severe penalties. One will not be able to simply pay a fine and move on with their life if they are charged with a willful or wanton act.

Effect of out-of-state DUI Convictions in Illinois

Pursuant to the Illinois Driver License Compact (625 ILCS 5/6-700), the ‘home state’ of a driving license holder is the state which has issued and has the power to suspend or revoke the use of the license or permit to operate a motor vehicle.

Increasing Use of DNA Evidence Both Convicts and Exonerates in Texas

One of the more recent technological advancements in the criminal justice world is DNA analysis. More and more frequently, especially in Texas, DNA evidence gathered from a crime scene is used to identify someone who may have been present. It is also used to exclude someone from consideration as a suspect or to save him or her from a wrongful conviction.

Investigators Deploy Various Tools in Texas Internet Solicitation Cases

Becoming the subject of an Internet investigation related to the online solicitation of a minor is life altering. Not only are there criminal penalties, but also if convicted sex offender registration rules apply and jobs and housing can be hard to come by with required background checks.

Michigan's MIP Law Offers Deferred Prosecution

The Michigan MIP law allows Courts to dismiss the case if the minor successfully completes a probationary period. Deferred prosecution protects the underage drinker from jail and a permanent criminal record. On the other hand, the repeat offender faces potential jail time, costly probation conditions and a mandatory license suspension.

The Minnesota Commercial Driver and DWI

Minnesota DWI Laws can be very difficult for drivers that choose to drive under the influence of alcohol. But, they can be especially harsh for those individuals that possess a commercial driver's license.

Careless Driving Ticket in Fort Lauderdale or Miami

If you have received a careless driving ticket in Broward or Miami-Dade County, you probably got the ticket due to being involved in an automobile accident where the officer investigating the accident found you to be at fault or the cause of the crash. A careless driving charge in Florida carries a four point penalty against your license. If you pay the ticket outright, these points will be assessed on your license, which will cause your car insurance rates to increase.

Embezzlement in North Carolina Can Get You in Criminal Trouble with the State or the Feds

Employees who are wrongly accused of theft or who made an innocent mistake that is interpreted as fraud have even more on the line than the businesses themselves.

Discovering Evidence in Criminal Cases

Every criminal defense in Michigan rests on the strength of the Prosecutor's evidence. Discovery is essential to a successful criminal defense strategy. Discovery is the stage where your Defense Attorney submits a written demand to inspect the evidence, and get copies of all reports. If the Prosecutor refuses to comply with the Discovery Demand, the Court may issue and Order Compelling Discovery, which directs the Prosecutor to release the evidence.

Outsourcing of AML Compliance: How Far Can a Financial Institution Go?

Several banking giants, such as HSBC and Standard Chartered, are currently being investigated by US regulators for alleged failings in anti-money laundering (AML) compliance. All fingers point to lapses involving outsourcing units operating without adequate oversight.

Law against Internet Solicitation in Florida

Internet solicitation of children and teens has been a persistent problem following the immense popularity of the Internet as a means of information and communication. The state of Florida has put in place adequate laws to deal with this problem firmly and reduce the risk of Internet surfers becoming victims of such online solicitation.

Drug Convictions Disqualify Student Financial Aid Applicants

People with a one drug possession conviction lose Student Financial Aid eligibility for one year from conviction date. People with two drug possession convictions or one drug sales/delivery conviction lose eligibility for two years. Those with three drug possession convictions or two drug sales convictions are ineligible indefinitely.

Special Consideration for Motorcycle Accident Caused by a Drunk Driver Crash

When a motorcycle accident is caused by drunk driver crash the consequences for the victim may be more serious.

What to Do if Pulled over for Suspicion of Driving under the Influence

What do I do if I get pulled over and have had a little bit too much to drink and think I’m about to be arrested for driving under the influence?

What Is Unlawful Search and Seizure?

In the United States, the US Constitution's 4th Amendment provides protection for US citizens from unreasonable search and seizure.

Too Drunk to Fly? Federal Blood-Alcohol Limits for Pilots

In January 2013, a pilot was arrested after failing a breathalyzer test in the cockpit. The pilot was about to take off with more than 50 passengers aboard the plane.

Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants in Oregon

A DUI in Oregon is actually a DUII, which stands for driving under the influence of intoxicants. Drivers who are found operating a vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of .08 percent or higher are considered legally drunk, whether they have shown impairment of driving abilities or not.

Texas DWI Traffic Crashes in 2011

The Council on Alcoholism & Drug Abuse reports that approximately 16,000 alcohol-related traffic accident deaths occur every year in the United States. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), alcohol plays a role in about one out of every three traffic fatalities.

Unlawful Search and Seizure

In any situation, and for any alleged crime, police and other government officials have guidelines and limitations on their power to gather evidence against a suspect.

Nevada DUI

Nevada DUI DUI Las Vegas

Study Reveals Texting and Driving Just as Risky as Drunk Driving

Most people are very aware of the dangers of drinking and driving, but texting while driving is becoming just as serious a threat on our public roadways.

No Duty to Defendant for Criminal Charge that Could Include Fines

From the tragic Station Night Club fire came a decision from the Rhode Island Supreme Court discussing R.I. Gen. Laws § 12-28-5. See Derderian v. Essex Ins. Co., 44 A. 3d 122 (R.I. 2012).

Felony Traffic Offenses: What to Do if You Are Arrested?

Felony traffic offenses are the most serious type of criminal traffic offenses.

How to Expunge and Clear Your Criminal Record in Virginia

Imagine finding the job of your dreams-only to be told you don't qualify because of a conviction from many years ago. Or imagine being able to get rid of that cloak of doubt that fills your head every time you see a checkmarked box that asks if you've been convicted of a crime. By expunging your criminal record, you can honestly answer “no” to this question, and employers outside of government agencies will not be able to see any past offenses.

Criticism and Changes to the Maryland Sex Offender Registry

Sex offender registries exist in one form or another across the nation, but there are differences state to state. However, most (if not all) state registries are public in nature.

Job Hunting with a Criminal Record

Privacy is a thing of the past, and in a matter of minutes potential employers can have the ability to access public arrest records. In fact, in 2010 73% of companies conducted a criminal background check for all candidates.

Cultivating and Manufacturing Drugs in Arizona

Drug manufacturing offenses can be charged for the cultivation, production or possession of items necessary for the creation or growth of illegal drugs.

Semi Truck Scares Interstate Drivers in Wrong Lane

The driver of a semi truck got lots of attention on the morning of March 18th, 2013 when he drove for about 10 miles in the wrong direction on an interstate. Police dispatchers were first alerted to the wayward semi a little after four in the morning, when motorists began calling in handfuls to report the truck, which many reported forced them to swerve in order to avoid a collision.

Florida’s Cyberstalking Laws

While the Internet, email, smartphones, and the widespread usage of social media sites have improved our lives in many ways, they have also unfortunately become the breeding grounds for new types of crime.

Taking a Look at Some Common Defenses for Criminal Charges

This article describes the most common defenses used when facing a criminal charge. It's important that the accused are made aware of their rights so that they can properly defend oneself. Briefly describes self-defense, statute of limitations, alibis, entrapment, and insanity defense strategies.

Ohio Rape Case Begs the Question: How Drunk Is Too Drunk to Consent to Sex?

An August 2011 sexual assault case that brings into question the validity of drunken consent to sex, is still being debated in Steubenville, Ohio. Members of organizations that work with victims of sexual assault across the country are pleased with the national attention this particular case is receiving, and regardless of the outcome, anticipate that the publicity will deter related crimes.

Contempt of Court Charges in Florida

Unless you’ve been living under a rock, you’ve surely caught wind of the viral news story about Miami’s bad girl du jour: the foul-mouthed, bird-flipping teen Penelope Soto. Here’s a recap of the infamous February 2013 courtroom incident:

Federal Child Porn Sentencing Guidelines

In imposing sentences in Federal Court judges are required to consider the advisory sentencing guidelines adopted by the United States Sentencing Commission.

Changes to Arizona DUI Penalties - Senate Bill 1200

The state of Arizona has extremely harsh penalties for DUI convictions. Starting in 2012, the Arizona legislature passed a bill to lessen some of those penalties.

Online Publication of Mugshots in Florida

A mugshot is a photographic portrait taken of a defendant by the police department after the defendant has been arrested and is in police custody. Typically, the arrestee will take one front-view photo and one-side view photo. The purpose of a mugshot is to provide law enforcement with a photographic database of all arrested individuals, which is then often used by victims and investigators for identification purposes.

An IRS Criminal Investigation at a Glance

The Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigation Division serves the American public by conducting criminal investigations regarding alleged tax violation and various money laundering statutes. The IRS is the only federal agency that can investigate potential criminal violations of the Internal Revenue Code. There is a long, complicated investigation process involving many levels of personnel that goes into prosecuting these types of criminals.

Criminal vs. Civil Charges

A cab driver was taken to the hospital after being assaulted and battered by a customer who didn’t want to pay his fare. According to reports, the driver of the cab had just finished dropping off four customers when one of the customers pulled a handgun and used it to strike the cab driver in the head.

Daytime DUI Rising Across The Country

Law enforcement officials agree that intoxicated driving during the day is a rising problem.

Voluntary Compliance #1 Goal for 2013, Reports Hawaii Department of Taxation

The Hawaii Department of Taxation has announced its goals for 2013, and the #1 goal is to increase voluntary compliance. The Department is going to focus its outreach and enforcement efforts on non-compliant groups, including non-residents and persons "new" to the tax system.

California School’s Duty to Report Abuse

In California, the responsibility of school employees to report suspicion of child abuse is not only a component of a person’s moral compass, it’s the law. Communities rely on places like institutions of education to provide an element of safety for children, and teachers and administrators are assumed to uphold that expectation.

Restitution Award in DUI Case Reversed and Vacated Because Trial Court’s Calculation Not Rational

In the following 2009 case, a DUI matter, O.M. was driving his car when hit by DUI Defendant R.P. on Beach Boulevard in Orange County. O.M. sustained broken ribs, back fractures and a serious knee injury.

A Principal in Disturbing the Peace May Be Sentenced to 25 Year-To-Life for Attempted Murder that Follows

A reasonably foreseeable consequence of two rival gangs disturbing the peace, in confronting each other is a weapons discharge, as did occur. Consequently, as a principal in disturbing the peace, the attempted murder conviction was proper. Therefore, the 25 years-to-life sentenced was proper.

Court May Not Commit a Mentally Retarded Person Without Showing Violence is Related to Retardation

A court trial was then held on the petition. The evidence was that he was diagnosed shortly after birth in 1966 with being mentally retarded, but not mentally ill until 1992 when he had a violent outburst at his family home and threatened to kill himself. In 1999, he began hearing voices, he said, and also began calling people on the phone incessantly. In 2010, police were called to R.C.’s home in response to an alleged criminal threat made by R.C. over the phone.

Maryland Citizen’s Dream of Death Penalty Abolition Closer to Reality

To execute just one innocent person is too much, even if it means that people convicted of offenses like homicide will escape the ultimate punishment for their crimes.

Collateral Consequences of a Criminal Conviction

More and more often, the collateral consequences of a criminal conviction (often referred to as the four C's) are more serious than the direct penalties determined in court.

The Bail Review Problem in Maryland Criminal Justice

Often times defendants without legal representation end up getting held for criminal offenses when they shouldn’t be.

Underage Drug and Alcohol Risks

As summer begins, so does the opportunity for teens and other underage people to try drugs and alcohol for the first time.

Amendment of FIAU Implementing Procedures - Malta

The Malta Financial Services Authority has issued a Circular addressed to the investment services industry regarding the Prevention of Money Laundering and Funding of Terrorism (Amendment) Regulations 2009, following the revision of Part I of the Implementing Procedures which changes are being introduced through the inclusion of a new Chapter 9 and additional paragraphs to Section 6.1 of the Implementing Procedures.

Sex Crime- Defendant Has Right at Trial to Present Evidence of Alleged Victim’s Prior False Claims

A victim may motivated by revenge or spite or even offering to dismiss charges with bribery.

Resentencing of a Three Strikes Sentence Often Involves Difficult Document Gathering Challenges

Proposition 36 amended the state's Three Strikes Law due to overcrowding of state prisons.

New York State Tops the Nation With Investment Fraud Schemes

New York City is known as the nation capital for federal securities and investment fraud investigations and prosecutions. The most common claims in arbitration filed in New York include Breach of Fiduciary Duty, Negligence, Fraud/Misrepresentation, Failure to Supervise and Breach of Contract.

States with the Most Strict Marijuana Laws: Part 2 of 2

In the midst of marijuana reform, and even legalization in some states, there are many parts of the country whose marijuana laws remain stringent, and some states are even getting stricter.

States with the Most Lenient Marijuana Laws: Part 1 of 2

2012 marked a year of marijuana reform, legalization and heightened freedoms for recreational users. While some states have taken steps back, others have begun to pave the way and have inspired conversations among lawmakers.

Sexual Assault under Texas Law

Sexual assault, or rape in Texas is defined as a person intentionally, knowingly and recklessly causing or threatening to cause bodily harm to another through sexual contact without the victim's consent.

Child Pornography under Texas Law

Internet sex crimes are becoming more prevalent and more serious in today's technology-driven society where offenders falsely assume their online identity is anonymous. The Internet Watch Foundation confirmed 1,536 child sexual abuse domains on the Internet in 2008, 58% of which were housed in the United States. Child pornography is a $3 billion annual industry, and continues to grow with its' demand.

Conviction Upheld for Possession of an Assault Weapon Although AK-47 Disassembled

The reader of this article may understand that a .50-cal weapon fires a very large round, one that probably can take down a hippopotamus or even perhaps an elephant. It is used in the military often to penetrate buildings with stucco and drywall (the author of this article is a former Marine with seven years of active duty service, including combat experience).

Ignition Interlock: A Simple Step Toward Preventing PA Drunk Driving Fatalities

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recently recommended that all states require ignition interlock devices for first time drunk driving offenders.

Enhanced Sentence Upheld on Appeal for Sex Crime Defendant Who Already Was a Penal Code § 290 Registrant

In 1994, California amended its law again so that any sex offense conviction-felony or misdemeanor-required continuous registration, regardless of expungement. This was Penal Code § 290.1 (1994).

Spoliation: Destruction and Failure to Safeguard Evidence

At any trial, parties must show evidence to prove their claims. Sometimes, the most effective way, or even the only way, to prove a point is through physical or documentary evidence, e.g. the allegedly defective product in a products case, the weapon actually used in a criminal case, or patient files in a case of nursing home negligence. There are obvious motives to destroy such evidence, and destroying or failing to safeguard such evidence is known as spoliation.

Second-Time DUI Offender’s Prison Sentence Upheld on Appeal

Under AB109, also known as the Criminal Justice Realignment Act of 2011, California began a policy to reduce its prison population to ease over-crowding. The overcrowding was deemed by the U.S. Supreme Court to constitute cruel and unusual punishment for the prisoners and thus a violation of the U.S. Constitution’s Eight Amendment ban against cruel and unusual punishment.


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