International Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to International Law.




International Arbitration - Nigeria

International arbitration: substantive law, procedural law and arbitration rules in the context of the United Kingdom Arbitration Act 1996. International arbitration: substantive law, procedural law and Arbitration Rules in the context of the Arbitration Act 1996. By: Mr. Femi D. Ojumu*

The New and Improved Cyprus International Trusts Law

The law on international trusts in Cyprus has undergone considerable changes this month with the enactment of a new law[1] that amends the International Trusts Law[2]. The amendments have been heralded as positioning Cyprus as the most favorable trust jurisdiction in the European Union and its much-anticipated provisions have been received with considerable praise by investors and professional advisors across the island.

Private Port in Brazil

In 2008, a new Decree allows installation of private ports in Brazil. The federal government published on Thursday, April 30, 2008 the decree that allows the installation of private ports for the handling of third country. The goal is to create mechanisms for the development of the port, but the measure is already being criticized by the opposition.

Rules Regulating Foreign Currency in Russia

If you are planning on visiting any country, it is always helpful to be familiar with the rules governing the import and export of currency and other securities. In Russia these issues are regulated by Federal Law from 10.12.2003 No.173-FZ “On Currency Regulation and Currency Control” and Customs Legislation.

Tax Transformation from Business Tax to Value-Added Tax in China

The State Administration of Taxation has issued the Provisional Measures of Applying the Exempt, Credit and Refund Method to Zero-rated Value-added Tax Services in Their Transformation from Business Tax to Value-added Tax under the Pilot Program (the “Provisional Measures”) on April 5th, 2012, which has retrospectively become into effective since January 1st, 2012.

Draft Version of the Code Regarding the Property Purchase by Foreigners in Turkey

Following the said draft becomes law upon the decision of the parliament; foreigners will be able to purchase property from all sides of Turkey provided that they comply with the legal limitations. It should be noted that, the condition of reciprocity is removed for the property acquisition of foreigners with the Draft Version. The maximum area to be purchased by a foreigner is increased from 2,5 hectares to 30 hectares with the condition of a project.

U.S. Patent Liability Based on Foreign Sales or Manufacturing - Taiwan

  By Asia Law
Can a company that does business only in Asia, with all of its manufacturing, sales and deliveries taking place there pursuant to contracts signed in Asia, be held liable for infringement under the U.S. Patent Act? Yes, quite possibly, as explained in this article by an international technology attorney based in Taipei, Taiwan.

New Edition of Catalog for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries

The Catalog for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries (Amended in 2011) (the “Catalog”), which shall come into force as of January 30th, 2012 and replace the old version of the Catalog promulgated on October 31, 2007. The new Catalog includes 473 items in total - 354 encouraged items, 80 restricted items and 39 prohibited items.

New Detailed Rules Regulating Value-added Tax and Business Tax of China

The new Detailed Rules of the Provisional Regulations on Value-added Tax of the People’s Republic of China (the “VAT Rules”) and the new Detailed Rules of the Provisional Regulations on Business Tax of the People’s Republic of China (the “Business Tax Rules”) were issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation on October 28, 2011 and will become effective as of November 1, 2011.

Administrative Measures of Shanghai Municipality on Pharmaceutical Prices (Trial Implementation)

Administrative Measures of Shanghai Municipality on Pharmaceutical Prices (Trial Implementation, the “Measures”) were issued by Shanghai Development and Reform Commission on July 29, 2011. The Measures will be effective as of September 1, 2011. The main contents of the Measures are as follows:

New Policy on Social Insurance for Foreign Employees in China

The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security issued the Tentative Measures for Social Insurance Enrollment of Foreign Employees in China (Draft for Comments) (the "Tentative Measures") on June 10, 2011. The main contents of the Tentative Measures are as follows:

How a Foreign Employee Starts His Work in China?

A foreigner and the potential employer should get proper permit before the foreigner starts his work in China. This article also give some basic guidance for the legal issues about the employment contract.

Joint Ventures in Ghana

This article explains the statutory requirements for a joint venture in Ghana involving a foreign partner. Under the laws of Ghana, a foreign investor or company may collaborate with a Ghanaian businessman or company through a joint venture agreement.

Italian Lawyers, Italian Attorneys or Avvocati? - How to Qualify to Practice Law in Italy

The Italian term “Avvocato” (from Latin “advocate”) is normally translated with similar equivalent terms in the English language, namely with the expressions “Italian lawyer” or “Italian solicitor” in England, Wales and Ireland or “Italian attorney” in the United States.

Ireland - New Investor and Entrepreneur Programs

The Irish Government has launched two new immigration programs aimed at Investors and Entrepreneurs who are prepared to invest or create jobs in Ireland. - Immigrant Investor Program - The Immigrant Investor Program requires applicants to make substantial investments in Ireland.

Tax Benefits to New Immigrants / Returning Senior Residents to Israel

Over the last few years Israel has become an attractive jurisdiction for tax planners, the following article will provide information on some of the tax benefits which new immigrants or returning residents can obtain.

OSOS and OSSC Revisited

More than two years ago Thailand decided to concentrate several governmental services for foreign investors at one place in Bangkok. In the meantime, Thailand has gone through ups and downs. Therefore, it is justified to make a judgement in 2012 whether the formation of this one-shop-solution has been accepted and adopted by foreign investors.

Foreign Based Speakers Who Exhibit "Unacceptable Behaviour" Will Be Excluded from the UK

It has been held by the UK Court of Appeal that foreign based speakers will be excluded from the UK if they have exhibited “Unacceptable Behaviour".

China Approved Western Digital and Hitachi Storage Deal on Conditions

On 2 March 2012, MOFCOM published its conditional approval to the $4.5 billion acquisition of Viviti Technologies Ltd (a company directly holding Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Netherlands B.V. ,which holds Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Singapore Pte. Ltd.) (“Viviti”) by Western Digital Corporation (“Western Digital”).

The New [2012] Arbitration Rules of International Chamber of Commerce [“ICC”]

Main purpose of this article is to explain the principle characteristics of the new ICC Arbitration Rules that will come into force on 1st of January 2012 and to analyze how they differ from the prior version. The author focuses to substantial amendments, major procedural innovations, new introduced mechanisms and de-regulated rules of existing ICC principles.

Beware of Trademark Scams

Recently, McDole & Williams has received multiple requests to evaluate official-looking trademark registration notices received by clients. These official-looking notices claim to be from governmental trademark offices, alleging that the client must pay fees in order to maintain his/her trademark and rights.

FOREIGN CONTRACTORS RESORTING TO FORCE MAJEURE UNDER LIBYAN LAW

At a time when Libyans are eagerly gearing up towards the task of rebuilding their country, previous international contractors are gathering their records to calculating their losses during the Libyan revolution. Although, these claims have a legitimate place in commerce, it is unfortunate at time of rebirth; Libyans are left to deal with the uneven commercial legacy of the old regime. Yet, this is the insistent nature of commerce.

JAA v FAA An Overview of Aviation Regulation: Beginnings, Functions and Licensing Practices

In that aviation has helped advance the globalization of our world, it is important to review our beginnings and look forward to where we see ourselves in the future. This article will concentrate on the origins, functions and licensing of modern air transportation systems throughout our world; in particular, where we started and the direction we are headed.

Free Trade Zones Law of Turkey

In this article you will find general information on Free Trade Zones regulation of Turkey that will help foreign investors to make transit trade through Turkey without involving to any domestic trade area.

How to Register an English Judgment for Enforcement in Scotland

English solicitors are used to being instructed to raise proceedings against opponents who are based in Scotland, very often by clients who don't see there's a problem. We lawyers know that, as legal jurisdictions, Scotland and England are quite distinct. There's really little reason, though, why our clients need know or care, at least until they have to consult us.

Entry Into the Spanish Market Through a Representative Office and the Implications for VAT and Corporate Tax

Our firm often deals with consultations on the effects of VAT for a foreign company developing an activity in Spain through a representative office. This is one of the easiest ways of entering into the Spanish market. In that scenario, the foreign company does not need to incorporate any companies in Spain nor create a branch.

New Limits for Offsetting Losses of Spanish Companies and Extension of the Offsetting Deadline

In the context of a severe lack of liquidity in the Spanish public finances and with the purpose of increasing revenue for Corporate Tax collection, on August 19, 2011, the government urgently approved two significant changes for Corporate Tax in relation to offsetting the losses incurred by Spanish companies.

Double-Taxation Agreements in Spain Expands and the List of Countries Classified as Tax Havens is Shortened

To date there are 80 Double Taxation Agreements in force in Spain. For some years, the number of these agreements has been increasing significantly, and this makes international tax planning much easier. Among recent agreements, we can highlight: Among recent agreements, we can highlight the one existing with Panama, which came into force last July, which aims for this country to be removed from the list of countries regarded by Spanish tax authorities as tax havens.

Documentary Credit in International Trade

Documentary credits law depends on the principle of autonomy or independence of the credit and the doctrine of strict compliance. The principle of autonomy protects the beneficiary (exporter) while the doctrine of strict compliance protects the issuing bank and the applicant (importer).

Commercial Dispute Resolution: The International Approach

Considering some facts regarding disputes in the International Trade arena. Most of the time parties in international trade develop all kind of businesses without primary concern of a potential conflict between them.

Law and the Scottish Independence Referendum

It can be tricky to separate law from politics. Some politicians claim sincerely to believe that any Act passed by the Scottish Parliament which provided for the holding of a referendum on Scottish independence would be unlawful. Some lawyers claim to agree with them. In Scotland, we are living in exciting times and the politics may be genuinely intriguing but is the law not actually, and drily, beyond any real debate?

Simplification of Cross Border Payments in the Eurozone

Overview of SEPA - The Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) is an initiative of the European banking industry to simplify all electronic payments across the euro area by credit card, debit card, bank transfer or direct debit and to make them as easy as domestic payments within one country are now.

Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Turkey

Legality and application of foreign judgments in Turkey depends on completion of several procedures which are called enforcement and recognition in Turkish Law. The provisions about recognition and enforcement take place in Law numbered 5718 dated 22.11.2007. Recognition is regulated under Art. 58 of Law numbered 5718.

International Court of Justice gives Judgment on State Immunity

  By Lorenz
On February 3, 2012, the International Court of Justice delivered its judgment in proceedings instituted by Germany against Italy for alleged violations of the jurisdictional immunities enjoyed by States under public international law. The Court held that Italy committed several breaches of Germany’s State immunity.

Marriage Dissolution

The dissolution of a marriage is a legal act that may not coincide with the emotional tearing asunder. Divorce is typically a painful process for all concerned. While it can take adults time to regain psychological equilibrium, there is also a threat to be involved in a court proceeding claiming for compensation for children’s maintenance and support. However different jurisdictions have different solutions to the issue. In this article we will describe the question under Dubai and UAE Law.

Offshore Foundations

An overview on the foundation structure, with a particular focus on Private Interest Foundations in Panama. There are many countries offering legal entities known as offshore foundations. A private offshore foundation is a private entity usually set by an individual or married couple to provide for their children and their heirs.

New EU Stability Mechanism Treaty on Strengthening Fiscal Discipline and Convergence

EU leader Member States agreed on a new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Convergence in the Economic and Monetary Union. The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) Treaty was signed by euro area Member States on 2 February 2012 and ratification is pending by the 17 euro area Member States. The target date of its operation is July 2012, a year earlier than expected.

PRC Broadens the Use of Offshore RMB for Direct Investments

To further encourage foreign investments into the PRC, the Ministry of Commerce published a Circular extending the cross border use of Renminbi (“RMB”) for direct investments into PRC (Shang Zi Han [2011] Number 889) (the “Circular”) on 12 October 2011. Pursuant to the Circular, foreign investors are now allowed to use RMB proceeds legally obtained overseas for investments into PRC. The Circular is also applicable to Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan investors.

European Commission Imposes Simplified Rules on Mergers and Divisions in Six Member States among Which Cyprus

Directive 2009/109/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009, regarding the simplification of the rules on merger and divisions, has not been yet implemented in some Member States of the EU. Cyprus is one of those Member States which failed to fulfill their obligations and commitments under the relevant Directive.

German Law on Inheritance and Gift Tax: New Regulations for Situs Taxation in Force

Under § 16 (1) of the German Law on inheritance and gift tax a tax free amount on the taxable acquisition of up to €500 000 (depending on the degree of kinship) is generally granted. However, this exemption is only €2 000 if both the decedent and the beneficiary are not resident in Germany. The new law now allows to avoid choose the application of the full tax free amount if the beneficiary taxes his worldwide acquisition.

EU Labor Law in Offshore Gas Drilling Operations

EU labor law in offshore gas-drilling operations has been recently challenged in the case of Salemink v. Raad van bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut werknemersverzekeringen, in the judgment of the Court’s Grand Chamber in January, 17, 2012.

Proposed Residential Visa

The "Residential Visa" program will provide an opportunity for people worldwide to live in the United States by purchasing a half million dollars of Real Estate. Senators Charles Schumer and Mike Lee have recently proposed a program that would allow anyone in the world to obtain a United States visa by purchasing United States real estate.

International Sale Contract

International sale is when one of its elements it is connected with the legal order of another state or country. Uniform regulation of international sales is contained in the Vienna Convention (IC) of the United Nations on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.

Challenging the International Criminal Court (ICC) by Using Traditional Form of Justice in Africa

This article addresses the “paradox between peace and justice” that has emerged in discussions about the relationship between the International Criminal Court [ICC] and traditional forms of justice, namely the Acholi tradition of "Mato Oput" in Uganda. While its sees the merit of using a traditional system this article also points out the potential danger of using these mechanisms as an excuse to avoid moral and legal accountability.

Asset Protection Errors - How to Avoid the Most Common Errors in Setting Up an Asset Protection Strategy

Many of you probably receive unsolicited junk e-mails offering different Asset Protection schemes. With so many "tax haven" jurisdictions and unlicensed companies selling unproven and unreliable Asset Protection techniques and entities, which do you trust? There are many flawed asset protection packages offered on the internet now days.

Joint Implementation Projects in Ukraine: Tips for Prospective Investors

On 4 February 2004, Ukraine ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This gave Ukraine an opportunity to engage in various types of projects purported at reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (the “GHG emissions”), in particular and especially joint implementation projects (the “JI projects”).

“Green” (“Feed-In”) Tariff in Ukraine

The “green” tariff for electricity (also known in many other jurisdictions as the “feed-in” tariff) was introduced in Ukraine relatively recently – only in 2008. Since that time it has evolved substantially and now appears to be quite mature in terms of the legislative base.

Regulation Proposal Regarding the Promotion of Activities for the Protection of EU Financial Interests

The protection of EU’s financial interests reflect s the basic targets and objectives of the European Union to suppress the illegal traffic of products as well as counterfeiting activities within EU Member States. Hercule I and II, as well as Pericles constitute the means and the tools with the aid of which, relevant European and national authorities will be empowered to take all the measures needed and execute the harmonized strategy of the Union.

Enforcement of Foreign Judgment in the Democratic Republic of Congo

The courts must enforce foreign judgments that meet the criteria described in this article. In fact, once a foreign judgment has been rendered “executor” by a court in the DR. Congo, it may be enforced by writ or order of the court. Generally, as in most civil law systems, the court will recognize the foreign judgment and issue the enforcement order in the same proceeding.

The Commercial and Legal Significance of Laytime & Demurrage in English Law and the New Turkish Commercial Code

So far as the global shipping practice is concerned, laytime & demurrage is one of the most complicated topics for both ship-owners and charterers under voyage charter-parties. Thus, the dynamic between the parties has been sought to be balanced through a number of attempts which have been made either by courts or legislators in shipping world.

Data Processing in Hungary: New Act and New Authority

The Hungarian Parliament has recently adopted a new act arguing that the provisions of the current data protection are outdated. Although the applicable EU directive is under significant review in the EU, the new Hungarian act still follows the old (current) EU legislation. The new act is called Information Act), and maintains the rigid Hungarian system of data protection and misses the opportunity to help foreign data processing.

LIBYAN INVESTMENT LAW: BEFORE AND AFTER

During the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, Libya was the leading state among the Developing Countries. Due to Gadaffi’s arbitrary economic policy, Libya became the least developed among oil producing countries.

New Package of Measures for EU Economic and Financial Strategy

The new package of measures adopted by the European Commission regarding the action to be followed for growth governance and stability contains four elements: the 2012 Annual Growth Survey consists of priorities for the coming year, a Green Paper on the feasibility of introducing Stability Bonds and two new Regulations to further strengthen budgetary surveillance in the Euro area. By adopting this package, the European Union focuses on the strengthening of the Eurozone governance.

Investment Firms in Cyprus

In the Republic of Cyprus only certain persons and companies are permitted to undertake investment services and activities (for a full list of such regulated activities please refer to the end of this article)[i] and such entities are tightly regulated in order to ensure high standards and full consumer protection. The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission is the body responsible for the issuing of licenses and for overseeing the operation of such entities.

Private Placements 101

Regulation D, Rule 506 Offerings - To offer and sell securities in the United States, an issuer must comply with the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), or must offer and sell the securities pursuant to an exemption from the registration statement requirements.

Investor Relations 101

Investor relations involve the dissemination of information regarding a publicly traded company to create awareness of the public company and its business and to increase its stock price. The person who provides the investor relations services is known as a “Stock Promoter”. Stock promoters have used illegal practices and are often the subject of enforcement actions by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) is the stock promoter.

FINRA Rule 6490

FINRA Rule, 6490, recently enacted in September 2010, requires issuers of equities and debt securities not listed on exchanges to provide timely notice to FINRA of certain corporate actions. These corporate actions include name changes, forward stock splits, reverse stock splits, distributions of cash or securities such as dividends, stock splits and other actions, and rights and subscription offerings.

SEC Rules Affecting Shell Companies

What is a Shell Company? Securities Act Rule 405 and Exchange Act Rule 12b-2 define a Shell Company as a company, other than an asset-backed issuer, with no or nominal operations; and either: • no or nominal assets; • assets consisting of cash and cash equivalents; or • assets consisting of any amount of cash and cash equivalents and nominal other assets. By: Brenda Lee Hamilton, Attorney Hamilton & Associates Law Group

Form S-8 Registration Requirements

Registration of securities on Form S-8 (“Form S-8”) is a short-form registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). By Brenda Lee Hamilton, P.A. Hamilton & Associates

A New Profitable EU Immigration Policy

Given the new globalization effects in modern societies and the consequences of the financial crisis, EU adopted a new approach towards immigration policy. This European policy intends to establish bilateral and multilateral agreements with EU neighbors and other countries presenting immigration flows towards the EU, in order to benefit the human capital from the countries concerned.

Offshore Oil Drilling, Gas Exploration and Production on Activities in the EU

Introduction - Environmentally sustainable management at an international level requires reliable information on the natural environment, as well as sharing of knowledge on the social, economic, legal and political systems. Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep sea floor are of increasing international concern.

Regulation Regarding Acquisition of Immovable Properties by Companies With Foreign Investment

Purpose, Scope, Basis and Definitions

Work Permit, Work Visa and Residence Permit for Foreign National Citizens

Foreign national citizens are obliged to be granted work permit by the General Directorate of Foreign Capital in order to perform work inside the borders of Turkey. The application to the General Directorate of Foreign Capital is submitted by the Employer.

No More Business Complications Now

Corporate law attorneys are required in a number of aspects of a business and business affairs. Legal orders may sometimes require you to necessarily incorporate a new company to make sure that the correct paperwork is filed with adequate governmental requirements.

Execution of Foreign Judgments under Ethiopia Law

Have you wondered how the Ethiopian law addresses the issue of execution of foreign judgments? Below you will find brief note on how foreign Judgments are executed or enforced in Ethiopia.

Areas of Investment Provided by the Ethiopian Investment Laws for Domestic and Foreign Investors

Do you want to know about areas of investment permitted for investment according to Ethiopian law? Below you will find these areas of investment divided by sector of investment.

Succession: Structured Solutions for Estate Planning

The author has prepared this document to assist in the evaluation of alternatives offshore structures for the better planning of their assets, estate and business transactions.

Be Cautious Before Entering Canadian Franchisee Market!

Canada is the foremost foreign destination for expanding franchises and a preferred entry point for cross border franchisers, especially for those seeking to enter the North American market. With high per capita personal incomes, a stable and reliable economy, and a sophisticated consumer culture, many franchisers find Canada to be an opportunistic and rewarding market. However the Business Franchise Law in Canada is too stringent and hence seeks attention.

Latest Amendments to the Customs Code of Ukraine

On November 3, 2011, Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted in general the draft Law of Ukraine On amendments to the Customs Code of Ukraine that will become effective as of January 1, 2012.

Capital Contributions by Equity: Available to Foreign Invested Enterprises in China Soon

On May 4th 2011, the Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) issued a Draft of the Management Measures regarding Capital Contribution by Equity to Foreign Invested Enterprises (“FIEs”) for public comments ("Draft Measures"). The deadline for the submission of comments was May 20th, 2011.

Interim Rules on Implementation of a Security Review System Regarding M&A Transactions - China

On March 4th 2011, Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) issued the Interim Rules on Implementation of a Security Review System regarding M&A Transactions Executed by Foreign Investors over Domestic Enterprises (the “Interim Rules”), which will come into effect on March 5th, the same day the Notice on the establishment of a security review system regarding merger and acquisition (“M&A”) transactions over domestic enterprises executed by foreign investors (“the Notice”) comes into effect.

Security Review System Regarding M&A Transactions Executed by Foreign Investors over Domestic Enterprises - China

Notice on the establishment of a security review system regarding merger and acquisition (“M&A”) transactions over domestic enterprises executed by foreign investors (“the Notice”) was issued by China's State Council on February 3, 2011, which will come into effect on March 5, 2011.

Measures for the Launching of a Pilot Foreign-Invested Equity Investment Enterprise Project in Shanghai

Implementing Measures for the Launching of a Pilot Program for Foreign-Invested Equity Investment Enterprises in Shanghai (the "Measures") were issued jointly by the Shanghai Municipal Financial Services Office, Shanghai Municipal Commission of Commerce and Shanghai Municipal Administration of Industry and Commerce on January 12th, 2011. The Measures will be effective on February 1st, 2011.

The Connecting Europe Facility Regulation

The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Regulation and its impact on Cyprus Republic. The European Commission adopted on October 2011, a plan with a huge budgetary importance of around 50 billion euro aiming at improving EU’s transport, energy and networks.

The Supremacy of the European Union Law over the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus

Cyprus was a British colony until 1960 and as such the Cyprus legal system was highly influenced by the English legal system and the principles of common law and equity were adopted by the legal system of Cyprus.

New Law on International Private Law - Albania

The international law operates on the basis of coordination with elements of compromise in the relations between states. In these relations equality prevails between states based on their sovereignty. This spirit is entirely followed by the law “On International Law” nr.10428 date 02.06.2011. The law is conceived as an act which reflects the rules adopted by the EU legislation and fulfills the obligations of Albania that arise from the membership in the Hague Conference on International Law.

New EU Common Sales Law Seeks to Boost eCommerce

The EU Commission has recently presented a draft regulation with the purpose of creating a standard sales regime across the European Union.

Free Trade Panama-USA

Panama and the United States approved the Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA).

Chinese Investment in Latin America

In September, 2011, a consortium of five Chinese companies invested 2 billion USD to acquire a minority stake in a Brazilian metal company...

China Law Update - September 2011

  By MMLC Group
This update looks at major recent developments in legal and business issues in China.

Arbitration in Thailand: The Arbitrators

One of the advantages of arbitration proceedings over domestic court proceedings is the opportunity for the parties to select the person(s) that will decide on the issue in question, the arbitrator(s). In arbitration proceedings the parties are enabled to nominate arbitrators that have a certain specialized and up-to-date know-how that might be required to understand the technical background of the issues in question.

Arbitration in Thailand: The Advantages to Arbitration

Arbitration proceedings offer various important advantages to the normal local court proceedings in Thailand.

Arbitration in Thailand: The Agreement to Arbitrate

In Thailand, Section 11 of the Arbitration Act (2002)(the "Act") specifically requires that the parties, must enter into a written "Arbitration Agreement" that is signed by both parties. Furthermore, the Arbitration Agreement must state that the parties want arbitration proceedings govern all disputes arising out of a specified legal relationship, like a contract.

Arbitration - Enforcing Contracts Outside of Thai Courts

If you are doing business in Thailand you might have already had some experience with the local court system. An all too common complaint of the local business community is that court proceedings in Thailand are agonizingly slow.

Nigeria Sovereign Wealth Fund Law

A Sovereign Investment Authority (Establish, Etc.) Act, 2011 has established for Nigeria a Sovereign Investment Authority. This Authority is charged to receive, manage and invest in diversified portfolios the excess of the medium and long term revenue of the Federal, States, Local Governments and Area Councils. The Proceeds of these investments are statutorily required to create a savings base for the country, develop infrastructure that will attract local and foreign direct investments.

Israeli Tax and US LLC

A Limited Liability Company (LLC) is an important investment vehicle for Israelis who operate in the US. An LLC is a company incorporated under the laws of one of the US states. In practice, LLC’s are often formed in the state of Delaware for administrative ease. They are relatively cheap to form and run. An LLC does not have shareholders, but rather members.

LEGISLATIVE PROPOSAL PREPARATION ON EU FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS TAX

Finance ministers and Central Bank governors of European Union Member States debated during the last informal Economic and Financial ECOFIN Council of September 17, the current condition of the economy and the situation in sovereign bond markets. The debate on the European Union’s financial stability was also attended by representatives of European financial oversight authorities.

Energy Market: New Legislation on Wholesale Traders in the EU

New legislation to present abuses to the disclosure of deals. New rules were adopted September 14, 2011 by the European Parliament to prevent abuses in wholesale energy trading for the final protection of consumers. According to the legislation, wholesale trading will be monitored independently across the EU, in order to enable Member States to prevent and punish anti-competitive behaviors.

Public Finances and Budgetary Developments in the EU and in Cyprus

All European Union countries have been affected between 2008 and 2010 by the economic and financial crisis and after a contraction in 2009 in every EU country, except Poland, growth returned in 2010 in all but five peripheral countries. While in 2010 several countries continued to support their economies through discretionary measures, other countries had less room for maneuvers given their underlying public finance situation trying to consolidate them.

How to Get Belgian Professional Card

  By Lexial
Obtaining the Belgian professional card is a compulsory step for non-EU citizens who plan to set up a company or to buy a running business in Belgium. With the work permit (for expats as employees) and the wealth card (for people who can prove that their financial means avoid them to work), professional card is also the best way to become a Belgian resident.

EU Environment Policy: Results and Next Steps

Following the implementation of the 6th Environment Action Program (EAP), which was adopted on 22 July 2002 and provided the framework of EU’S Environment legislation and extended the Natura 2000 network, the European Commission adopted on 31 August 2011 the final assessment of the 6th EAP (2002-2012).

Energy Development Perspectives for the Republic of Cyprus

Based on Eurostat’s researches, the Republic of Cyprus disposes a very promising feedback from the energy saving and the renewable energy schemes, as more and more people apply for the available funding.

Israel Tax Treaties with Malta and Panama

A treaty for the avoidance of double taxation has been signed between Israel and Malta, and a treaty for the avoidance of double taxation has been initialed between Israel and Panama. These treaties will enter into force on completion of ratification proceedings in the two countries.

Import Substitution: Adaptation of Foreign Manufacturers of Medicines to the New Ukrainian Reality

Over the last several years the pharmaceutical markets of some countries of the former Soviet Union have witnessed strengthening positions of domestic production of medicines, as well as the general tendency of the imported medicines substitution by the domestically produced pharmaceutical products (so-called “import substitution”).

Exchange of Tax Information between the Czech Republic and Bermuda

The Czech Republic has concluded another agreement on exchange of information on tax matters (TIEA). Following the signing of similar agreements with the British Virgin Islands on 13 June 2011 and the Isle of Man on 18 July 2011, the Czech Republic concluded and signed a TIEA with Bermuda on 15 August 2011.

Areas of Investment Provided by the Ethiopian Investment Laws for Domestic and Foreign Investors

Do you want to know about areas of investment permitted for investment according to Ethiopian law?

Opposition Deadline Extensions Will No Longer be Granted by the Trademark Office in Ecuador

On July 1st, 2011, the Trademark Office issued a new Resolution concerning the elimination of the possibility of obtaining an extension to the deadline to file oppositions against new trademark applications. The new resolution is highly ambiguous and leaves many open questions. Risks shouldn’t be taken, we suggest filing any oppositions in due term until the scope of this regulation is clarified by the Trademark Office.

Freedom of Contract in International Carriage Contracts - Ecuador

The Doctrine of Freedom of Contract also known as “Laissez Faire” is the basis for international carriage contracts, according to Common Law.

Goods on Deck - Ecuador

An article related to the Hague Visby Rules and goods on deck.

Causation in Maritime Insurance: The Cendor MOPU

The Cendor MOPU case law brings a new scenario to insurance law.


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