International Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide discussing legal aspects related to International Law.



Find a Law Firm:

“Green” (“Feed-In”) Tariff in Ukraine

  December 30, 2011     By Avellum Partners
The “green” tariff for electricity (also known in many other jurisdictions as the “feed-in” tariff) was introduced in Ukraine relatively recently – only in 2008. Since that time it has evolved substantially and now appears to be quite mature in terms of the legislative base.

Regulation Proposal Regarding the Promotion of Activities for the Protection of EU Financial Interests

  December 28, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The protection of EU’s financial interests reflect s the basic targets and objectives of the European Union to suppress the illegal traffic of products as well as counterfeiting activities within EU Member States. Hercule I and II, as well as Pericles constitute the means and the tools with the aid of which, relevant European and national authorities will be empowered to take all the measures needed and execute the harmonized strategy of the Union.

Enforcement of Foreign Judgment in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  December 22, 2011     By Yav & Associates
The courts must enforce foreign judgments that meet the criteria described in this article. In fact, once a foreign judgment has been rendered “executor” by a court in the DR. Congo, it may be enforced by writ or order of the court. Generally, as in most civil law systems, the court will recognize the foreign judgment and issue the enforcement order in the same proceeding.

The Commercial and Legal Significance of Laytime & Demurrage in English Law and the New Turkish Commercial Code

  December 6, 2011     By Midyat & Midyat Law Firm
So far as the global shipping practice is concerned, laytime & demurrage is one of the most complicated topics for both ship-owners and charterers under voyage charter-parties. Thus, the dynamic between the parties has been sought to be balanced through a number of attempts which have been made either by courts or legislators in shipping world.

Data Processing in Hungary: New Act and New Authority

  December 5, 2011     By Soos Law Firm
The Hungarian Parliament has recently adopted a new act arguing that the provisions of the current data protection are outdated. Although the applicable EU directive is under significant review in the EU, the new Hungarian act still follows the old (current) EU legislation. The new act is called Information Act), and maintains the rigid Hungarian system of data protection and misses the opportunity to help foreign data processing.

LIBYAN INVESTMENT LAW: BEFORE AND AFTER

  December 3, 2011     By Karbal & Co.
During the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, Libya was the leading state among the Developing Countries. Due to Gadaffi’s arbitrary economic policy, Libya became the least developed among oil producing countries.

New Package of Measures for EU Economic and Financial Strategy

  December 1, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The new package of measures adopted by the European Commission regarding the action to be followed for growth governance and stability contains four elements: the 2012 Annual Growth Survey consists of priorities for the coming year, a Green Paper on the feasibility of introducing Stability Bonds and two new Regulations to further strengthen budgetary surveillance in the Euro area. By adopting this package, the European Union focuses on the strengthening of the Eurozone governance.

Investment Firms in Cyprus

  December 1, 2011     By Michael Chambers & Co. LLC
In the Republic of Cyprus only certain persons and companies are permitted to undertake investment services and activities (for a full list of such regulated activities please refer to the end of this article)[i] and such entities are tightly regulated in order to ensure high standards and full consumer protection. The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission is the body responsible for the issuing of licenses and for overseeing the operation of such entities.

Private Placements 101

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
Regulation D, Rule 506 Offerings - To offer and sell securities in the United States, an issuer must comply with the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), or must offer and sell the securities pursuant to an exemption from the registration statement requirements.

Investor Relations 101

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
Investor relations involve the dissemination of information regarding a publicly traded company to create awareness of the public company and its business and to increase its stock price. The person who provides the investor relations services is known as a “Stock Promoter”. Stock promoters have used illegal practices and are often the subject of enforcement actions by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) is the stock promoter.

FINRA Rule 6490

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
FINRA Rule, 6490, recently enacted in September 2010, requires issuers of equities and debt securities not listed on exchanges to provide timely notice to FINRA of certain corporate actions. These corporate actions include name changes, forward stock splits, reverse stock splits, distributions of cash or securities such as dividends, stock splits and other actions, and rights and subscription offerings.

SEC Rules Affecting Shell Companies

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
What is a Shell Company? Securities Act Rule 405 and Exchange Act Rule 12b-2 define a Shell Company as a company, other than an asset-backed issuer, with no or nominal operations; and either: • no or nominal assets; • assets consisting of cash and cash equivalents; or • assets consisting of any amount of cash and cash equivalents and nominal other assets. By: Brenda Lee Hamilton, Attorney Hamilton & Associates Law Group

Form S-8 Registration Requirements

  November 28, 2011     By Hamilton & Associates, P.A.
Registration of securities on Form S-8 (“Form S-8”) is a short-form registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). By Brenda Lee Hamilton, P.A. Hamilton & Associates

A New Profitable EU Immigration Policy

  November 24, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Given the new globalization effects in modern societies and the consequences of the financial crisis, EU adopted a new approach towards immigration policy. This European policy intends to establish bilateral and multilateral agreements with EU neighbors and other countries presenting immigration flows towards the EU, in order to benefit the human capital from the countries concerned.

Offshore Oil Drilling, Gas Exploration and Production on Activities in the EU

  November 24, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Introduction - Environmentally sustainable management at an international level requires reliable information on the natural environment, as well as sharing of knowledge on the social, economic, legal and political systems. Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep sea floor are of increasing international concern.

Regulation Regarding Acquisition of Immovable Properties by Companies With Foreign Investment

  November 23, 2011     By Barlas Uyar Eraslan Law Firm
Purpose, Scope, Basis and Definitions

Work Permit, Work Visa and Residence Permit for Foreign National Citizens

  November 23, 2011     By Barlas Uyar Eraslan Law Firm
Foreign national citizens are obliged to be granted work permit by the General Directorate of Foreign Capital in order to perform work inside the borders of Turkey. The application to the General Directorate of Foreign Capital is submitted by the Employer.

No More Business Complications Now

  November 23, 2011     By OPARA Law PC
Corporate law attorneys are required in a number of aspects of a business and business affairs. Legal orders may sometimes require you to necessarily incorporate a new company to make sure that the correct paperwork is filed with adequate governmental requirements.

Execution of Foreign Judgments under Ethiopia Law

  November 18, 2011     By Fikadu Asfaw and Associates Law Office
Have you wondered how the Ethiopian law addresses the issue of execution of foreign judgments? Below you will find brief note on how foreign Judgments are executed or enforced in Ethiopia.

Areas of Investment Provided by the Ethiopian Investment Laws for Domestic and Foreign Investors

  November 18, 2011     By Fikadu Asfaw and Associates Law Office
Do you want to know about areas of investment permitted for investment according to Ethiopian law? Below you will find these areas of investment divided by sector of investment.

Succession: Structured Solutions for Estate Planning

  November 14, 2011     By Pardini & Associates
The author has prepared this document to assist in the evaluation of alternatives offshore structures for the better planning of their assets, estate and business transactions.

Be Cautious Before Entering Canadian Franchisee Market!

  November 12, 2011     By OPARA Law PC
Canada is the foremost foreign destination for expanding franchises and a preferred entry point for cross border franchisers, especially for those seeking to enter the North American market. With high per capita personal incomes, a stable and reliable economy, and a sophisticated consumer culture, many franchisers find Canada to be an opportunistic and rewarding market. However the Business Franchise Law in Canada is too stringent and hence seeks attention.

Latest Amendments to the Customs Code of Ukraine

  November 8, 2011     By Legal Alliance
On November 3, 2011, Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted in general the draft Law of Ukraine On amendments to the Customs Code of Ukraine that will become effective as of January 1, 2012.

Capital Contributions by Equity: Available to Foreign Invested Enterprises in China Soon

  November 4, 2011     By UB & Co. Attorneys and Counselors
On May 4th 2011, the Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) issued a Draft of the Management Measures regarding Capital Contribution by Equity to Foreign Invested Enterprises (“FIEs”) for public comments ("Draft Measures"). The deadline for the submission of comments was May 20th, 2011.

Interim Rules on Implementation of a Security Review System Regarding M&A Transactions - China

  November 4, 2011     By UB & Co. Attorneys and Counselors
On March 4th 2011, Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) issued the Interim Rules on Implementation of a Security Review System regarding M&A Transactions Executed by Foreign Investors over Domestic Enterprises (the “Interim Rules”), which will come into effect on March 5th, the same day the Notice on the establishment of a security review system regarding merger and acquisition (“M&A”) transactions over domestic enterprises executed by foreign investors (“the Notice”) comes into effect.

Security Review System Regarding M&A Transactions Executed by Foreign Investors over Domestic Enterprises - China

  November 4, 2011     By UB & Co. Attorneys and Counselors
Notice on the establishment of a security review system regarding merger and acquisition (“M&A”) transactions over domestic enterprises executed by foreign investors (“the Notice”) was issued by China's State Council on February 3, 2011, which will come into effect on March 5, 2011.

Measures for the Launching of a Pilot Foreign-Invested Equity Investment Enterprise Project in Shanghai

  November 4, 2011     By UB & Co. Attorneys and Counselors
Implementing Measures for the Launching of a Pilot Program for Foreign-Invested Equity Investment Enterprises in Shanghai (the "Measures") were issued jointly by the Shanghai Municipal Financial Services Office, Shanghai Municipal Commission of Commerce and Shanghai Municipal Administration of Industry and Commerce on January 12th, 2011. The Measures will be effective on February 1st, 2011.

The Connecting Europe Facility Regulation

  November 2, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Regulation and its impact on Cyprus Republic. The European Commission adopted on October 2011, a plan with a huge budgetary importance of around 50 billion euro aiming at improving EU’s transport, energy and networks.

The Supremacy of the European Union Law over the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus

  October 24, 2011     By Michael Chambers & Co. LLC
Cyprus was a British colony until 1960 and as such the Cyprus legal system was highly influenced by the English legal system and the principles of common law and equity were adopted by the legal system of Cyprus.

New Law on International Private Law - Albania

  October 19, 2011     By ISUFI & International Associates
The international law operates on the basis of coordination with elements of compromise in the relations between states. In these relations equality prevails between states based on their sovereignty. This spirit is entirely followed by the law “On International Law” nr.10428 date 02.06.2011. The law is conceived as an act which reflects the rules adopted by the EU legislation and fulfills the obligations of Albania that arise from the membership in the Hague Conference on International Law.

New EU Common Sales Law Seeks to Boost eCommerce

  October 19, 2011     By CSB Advocates
The EU Commission has recently presented a draft regulation with the purpose of creating a standard sales regime across the European Union.

Free Trade Panama-USA

  October 13, 2011     By Molina & Co.
Panama and the United States approved the Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA).

Chinese Investment in Latin America

  October 10, 2011     By Markowicz International Law
In September, 2011, a consortium of five Chinese companies invested 2 billion USD to acquire a minority stake in a Brazilian metal company...

China Law Update - September 2011

  October 9, 2011     By MMLC Group
This update looks at major recent developments in legal and business issues in China.

Arbitration in Thailand: The Arbitrators

  October 3, 2011     By Duensing Kippen
One of the advantages of arbitration proceedings over domestic court proceedings is the opportunity for the parties to select the person(s) that will decide on the issue in question, the arbitrator(s). In arbitration proceedings the parties are enabled to nominate arbitrators that have a certain specialized and up-to-date know-how that might be required to understand the technical background of the issues in question.

Arbitration in Thailand: The Advantages to Arbitration

  October 3, 2011     By Duensing Kippen
Arbitration proceedings offer various important advantages to the normal local court proceedings in Thailand.

Arbitration in Thailand: The Agreement to Arbitrate

  October 3, 2011     By Duensing Kippen
In Thailand, Section 11 of the Arbitration Act (2002)(the "Act") specifically requires that the parties, must enter into a written "Arbitration Agreement" that is signed by both parties. Furthermore, the Arbitration Agreement must state that the parties want arbitration proceedings govern all disputes arising out of a specified legal relationship, like a contract.

Arbitration - Enforcing Contracts Outside of Thai Courts

  October 3, 2011     By Duensing Kippen
If you are doing business in Thailand you might have already had some experience with the local court system. An all too common complaint of the local business community is that court proceedings in Thailand are agonizingly slow.

Nigeria Sovereign Wealth Fund Law

  September 30, 2011     By Oserogho & Associates
A Sovereign Investment Authority (Establish, Etc.) Act, 2011 has established for Nigeria a Sovereign Investment Authority. This Authority is charged to receive, manage and invest in diversified portfolios the excess of the medium and long term revenue of the Federal, States, Local Governments and Area Councils. The Proceeds of these investments are statutorily required to create a savings base for the country, develop infrastructure that will attract local and foreign direct investments.

Israeli Tax and US LLC

  September 24, 2011     By Dr. Avi Nov, Law Offices
A Limited Liability Company (LLC) is an important investment vehicle for Israelis who operate in the US. An LLC is a company incorporated under the laws of one of the US states. In practice, LLC’s are often formed in the state of Delaware for administrative ease. They are relatively cheap to form and run. An LLC does not have shareholders, but rather members.

LEGISLATIVE PROPOSAL PREPARATION ON EU FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS TAX

  September 21, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Finance ministers and Central Bank governors of European Union Member States debated during the last informal Economic and Financial ECOFIN Council of September 17, the current condition of the economy and the situation in sovereign bond markets. The debate on the European Union’s financial stability was also attended by representatives of European financial oversight authorities.

Energy Market: New Legislation on Wholesale Traders in the EU

  September 19, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
New legislation to present abuses to the disclosure of deals. New rules were adopted September 14, 2011 by the European Parliament to prevent abuses in wholesale energy trading for the final protection of consumers. According to the legislation, wholesale trading will be monitored independently across the EU, in order to enable Member States to prevent and punish anti-competitive behaviors.

Public Finances and Budgetary Developments in the EU and in Cyprus

  September 15, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
All European Union countries have been affected between 2008 and 2010 by the economic and financial crisis and after a contraction in 2009 in every EU country, except Poland, growth returned in 2010 in all but five peripheral countries. While in 2010 several countries continued to support their economies through discretionary measures, other countries had less room for maneuvers given their underlying public finance situation trying to consolidate them.

How to Get Belgian Professional Card

  September 11, 2011     By Lexial
Obtaining the Belgian professional card is a compulsory step for non-EU citizens who plan to set up a company or to buy a running business in Belgium. With the work permit (for expats as employees) and the wealth card (for people who can prove that their financial means avoid them to work), professional card is also the best way to become a Belgian resident.

EU Environment Policy: Results and Next Steps

  September 7, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Following the implementation of the 6th Environment Action Program (EAP), which was adopted on 22 July 2002 and provided the framework of EU’S Environment legislation and extended the Natura 2000 network, the European Commission adopted on 31 August 2011 the final assessment of the 6th EAP (2002-2012).

Energy Development Perspectives for the Republic of Cyprus

  September 7, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Based on Eurostat’s researches, the Republic of Cyprus disposes a very promising feedback from the energy saving and the renewable energy schemes, as more and more people apply for the available funding.

Israel Tax Treaties with Malta and Panama

  August 30, 2011     By Dr. Avi Nov, Law Offices
A treaty for the avoidance of double taxation has been signed between Israel and Malta, and a treaty for the avoidance of double taxation has been initialed between Israel and Panama. These treaties will enter into force on completion of ratification proceedings in the two countries.

Import Substitution: Adaptation of Foreign Manufacturers of Medicines to the New Ukrainian Reality

  August 29, 2011     By Legal Alliance
Over the last several years the pharmaceutical markets of some countries of the former Soviet Union have witnessed strengthening positions of domestic production of medicines, as well as the general tendency of the imported medicines substitution by the domestically produced pharmaceutical products (so-called “import substitution”).

Exchange of Tax Information between the Czech Republic and Bermuda

  August 25, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The Czech Republic has concluded another agreement on exchange of information on tax matters (TIEA). Following the signing of similar agreements with the British Virgin Islands on 13 June 2011 and the Isle of Man on 18 July 2011, the Czech Republic concluded and signed a TIEA with Bermuda on 15 August 2011.

Areas of Investment Provided by the Ethiopian Investment Laws for Domestic and Foreign Investors

  August 23, 2011     By Fikadu Asfaw and Associates Law Office
Do you want to know about areas of investment permitted for investment according to Ethiopian law?

Opposition Deadline Extensions Will No Longer be Granted by the Trademark Office in Ecuador

  August 22, 2011     By Bermeo & Bermeo Law Firm
On July 1st, 2011, the Trademark Office issued a new Resolution concerning the elimination of the possibility of obtaining an extension to the deadline to file oppositions against new trademark applications. The new resolution is highly ambiguous and leaves many open questions. Risks shouldn’t be taken, we suggest filing any oppositions in due term until the scope of this regulation is clarified by the Trademark Office.

Freedom of Contract in International Carriage Contracts - Ecuador

  August 15, 2011     By Villagran Lara, Attorneys
The Doctrine of Freedom of Contract also known as “Laissez Faire” is the basis for international carriage contracts, according to Common Law.

Goods on Deck - Ecuador

  August 15, 2011     By Villagran Lara, Attorneys
An article related to the Hague Visby Rules and goods on deck.

Causation in Maritime Insurance: The Cendor MOPU

  August 15, 2011     By Villagran Lara, Attorneys
The Cendor MOPU case law brings a new scenario to insurance law.

Peculiarities of Cross-Border Contracts under Ukrainian Law: Key Points to Consider

  August 11, 2011     By Integrites
This article aims to highlight the most essential legal requirements of Ukrainian legislation to foreign economic contracts which should help foreign companies to identify certain principal points subject to negotiations between the parties.

Disclosure Obligations in Debt and Equity Offerings - Ukraine

  August 11, 2011     By Integrites
Whether it’s a start-up project or a successfully running company, at some point in time every business faces a need to raise money for a variety of reasons. There are two basic ways to raise capital: either debt or equity. This article focuses on comparative analysis of primary disclosure requirements for debt and equity offerings.

Apostate from Islam in Jordan

  August 10, 2011     By Arida Law Firm
Effects of apostate from Islam (Convert from Islam).

Enforcement of Foreign Commercial Arbitration Awards in Ghana

  August 8, 2011     By AB Lexmall & Associates
This article provides information to law firms and their clients to help them strategize on how best to get their foreign commercial arbitration awards enforced in Ghana.

Business Establishment Models and Procedure for Foreign Investors in Turkey

  August 4, 2011     By Ongur Ergan Law & Consulting Office
The main aim of this article is to introduce business establishment models and procedure in Turkey to foreign direct investors who has intention of doing business in Turkey.

EU Energy Policy and Targets - Energy Efficiency Plan

  August 1, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
In March 2011, the European Commission adopted a plan for saving more energy through concrete measures. Energy efficiency is a key tool to strengthen Europe’s competitiveness and reduce energy dependence, as well as the level of emissions. The measures proposed aim at creating substantial benefits for businesses and public authorities.

EU Immigration Policy

  August 1, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The package of measures proposed by the European Commission aiming towards better regulated immigration flows from the southern Mediterranean region as well as the proposal to amend EU Regulation on visas consists of the new incentives of EU bodies for a fair, credible and effective EU immigration policy.

Exchange of Tax Information between the Czech Republic and the Isle of Man

  July 27, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The Isle of Man and the Czech Republic signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement (TIEA) on 18 July to regulate and facilitate the exchange of tax information between them. The TIEA will enter into force after both parties have completed all required ratification procedures and exchanged corresponding notifications. Most of its provisions will then take effect immediately, with the remainder taking effect on the following 1 January.

The Settlement of an Inheritance’s Case in Greece-How to Get Your Inheritance in Greece

  July 26, 2011     By Pandora Manolidi Law Office
The Greeks abroad can take their share of their inheritance, without even having to travel to Greece.

The Malta Option is “in-the-Money”

  July 21, 2011     By CSB Advocates
Fund managers don’t like surprises. And it is this aversion to anything unknown that has caused the more “traditional” financial centers like London, Luxembourg, Ireland and Switzerland to boom as financial centers towards which fund managers have gravitated and established themselves over the past 20-odd years.

Factors contributing to Malta’s success as a financial services hub, past and future.

  July 20, 2011     By Mamo TCV Advocates
Malta has established itself on the map of domiciles of choice for alternative investment funds and continues to build its reputation as a financial services hub – a brief overview of the key ingredients for Malta’s success.

First Approved EU Sustainability Schemes for Biofuels

  July 20, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
On 19 July 2011, the European Commission issued a list of the first sustainable voluntary schemes for biofuels recognized directly in the 27 EU Member States. According to the Energy Commissioner, Günther Oettinger, the EU has to secure the entire biofuels production and supply with the highest sustainability standards in the world under a transparent and reliable system.

Recent Developments in Turkish E-Commerce Legislation

  July 20, 2011     By Kolcuoglu Demirkan
The volume of e-commerce has been constantly expanding in Turkey. The total e-commerce volume of 15,2 million TL recorded in 2010, is expected to expand by 50% in 2011.

European Stability Mechanism (ESM)

  July 20, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
On 17 December 2010 the European Council agreed on the need for a Eurozone area and on the establishment of a permanent stability mechanism which will intervene by providing financial assistance to the Eurozone Member States after June 2013.

Council’s Recommendation on National Reform Program 2011 and Stability Program 2011-2014 for Cyprus

  July 14, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The Council concluded on 12 July 2011 the first European Semester which has been implemented this year, for the first time, as part of a broader reform of the EU’s economic governance. Based on the European Council’s decision a recommendation has been adopted on the implementation of the Eurozone Member States’ economic policies as well as a recommendation on its National Reform Program 2011 and the Stability Program 2011-2014 for each Member State.

North Africa and the Middle East: Opportunities and Threats Posed by Patent Systems

  July 11, 2011     By Katsh & Associates LLC
The states of North Africa and the Middle East are high growth markets, having recently achieved growth rates higher than many so-called “industrialized countries.” Unfortunately, these developments have not been accompanied by the kind of patent protections that would apply in countries with longer histories of technological innovation. The NA/ME States are at a cross roads and it is timely to consider how their systems for the protection of technology measure up to international standards.

Yachting - Which Welfare Rights for the Crews Employed Onboard Yachts? - EU

  July 11, 2011     By ECD Avocats & Solicitors
Which welfare rights for the crews? Maritime welfare law was initially developed under the aegis of the domestic legal systems of shipping Nations, each setting their own rules on board their ships. Ships’ freedom of registration and shipping internationalization were the main factors undermining domestic frameworks.

EU Budgetary Perspectives 2014-2020

  July 8, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The European Commission has faced the challenge of being able to fund a number of policy areas where the EU could be more effective, by acting at EU level, in preparing its proposals for the future budget of the European Union. In its proposal, based on the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy, a new funding potential can be seen attempting to ease the direct impact of the national budgets with the creation of a new Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF).

Mechanism on the Application for Investment Licenses - Indonesia

  July 7, 2011     By Leks&Co
To create an order in the investment activity, the authorized body needs to set out a line of licensing process before an investor could conduct the investment activity in the territory of Indonesia. Investment Coordinating Board (Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal) (“BKPM’) introduced a system, namely Integrated One Door Service (Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu) (“PTSP”) whereby investors can enjoy certain facilities.

Overview of Overseas Adoption

  July 6, 2011     By Law Offices of Van T. Doan, LLC
Every year, many U.S. citizens make the decision to adopt a child from overseas.

EU’s Smart Specialization Strategies Platform - Smart Growth in Europe 2020

  June 30, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
In the European Commission’s Communication regarding the contribution of the regional policy in the area of smart growth in the Europe 2020 strategy, the central role of European regions in this process is primarily recognized.

Real Estate Investments in Ghana

  June 29, 2011     By AB Lexmall & Associates
One of the fastest growing sectors in the Ghanaian economy is the Real Estate industry. In fact this is not strange to industry analyst especially as the World Bank’s Global Economic Prospect Report has projected that Ghana will become the fastest growing economy in fiscal year 2011 in sub-Saharan Africa.

China Releases New Rules Guiding Merger Control Review

  June 20, 2011     By Guo Lian Law Firm
The Anti-Monopoly Law (“AML”) opens a new landscape for merger and acquisition practice in China. Regardless where a merger takes place, if the transaction satisfies the prescribed conditions, it must be filed with China's Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”), the agency charged with enforcing the merger control laws in China, for business concentration review.

Main results of Justice and Home Affairs Council meeting of 9 and 10 June 2011

  June 16, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Following the Justice and Home Affairs Council meeting of 9 and 10 June 2011, the Council discussed the political guidelines for the future work of the following issues:

Amendment of the Migration Policy and Visa Regulation - Cyprus

  June 7, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The lists of third countries whose nationals should be in possession of a visa when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement have been amended on several occasions. When introducing or lifting a visa obligation for a third country the current procedure can take several years. It has become clear that further technical modifications to the main text of the Regulation (EC) No. 539/2001 are needed.

Legal System for Foreign Investments in Saudi Arabia in the Field of solar power

  June 1, 2011     By Talal Abu-Ghazaleh Legal (TAGLegal)
It is not recommended to think, ...that the idea of using solar power for mechanical operations is recent. (1)

Company Incorporation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  May 30, 2011     By Yav & Associates
A foreign company wishing to establish a business in the Democratic Republic of Congo has an option between registering as an external company and forming a subsidiary in Congo. The choice between the one and the other hinges mainly on issues of convenience, privacy and tax. Sometimes, the issue of risk, or rather the limitation of risk, also comes into play. The decision at the end of the day is really a commercial one.

Foreign Invested Travel Consulting Company: A Way to Promote Outbound Tourism

  May 29, 2011     By Amaris Law
With the promulgation of the Regulation on Travel Agencies as of February 20, 2009 (“Regulation”), China has opened its doors to the foreign investors in the tourism business. However, the door of outbound tourism business is still firmly closed to the foreign investors. This Article will discuss the way to promote outbound tourism by setting up foreign invested travel consulting company in China.

Can the Right of Free Movement Be Invoked by EU Citizens to Regularise the Residence of Their Non-EU Spouse?

  May 27, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
Under EU law, when a national of a Member State resides legally in another Member State, his or her spouse is allowed to remain with him or her even when the spouse is not a national of an EU Member State.

China Intensifies Law Enforcement on Unfair Price Competition: the Unilever Case

  May 27, 2011     By Guo Lian Law Firm
On 6 May 2011, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) published a statement commenting on the punishment on Unilever (China) Co. Ltd. (“Unilever”) for its unfair price competition acts, endorsing publicly the law enforcement action in Shanghai.

Late Payments in Commercial Transactions - EU

  May 25, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
During the ongoing crisis, the private and public sectors are under attack, often unable to react to the destructive power of evolution. Trade transactions are hit by uncertainty due to the ongoing liquidity constraints.

Foreign Employees in Shanghai Will Enjoy More Protection under Chinese Labor Contract Law

  May 21, 2011     By Amaris Law
It is quite usual for a foreign employee to have the unfair clauses in his employment/labor contract in Shanghai, such as “the employer may terminate the labor contract without special reason, but with a 3-months or payment in lieu thereof.” This kind of clause has been usually regarded as valid by the Shanghai courts. However, the situation has been changing recently with the white book published by the Shanghai No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court as of April 12, 2011 (“White Book”).

Bank Intro and the Private Foundation

  May 20, 2011     By Molina & Co.
Tips on opening a bank account in Panama.

The Obligations of International Organisations When Investigating on Informal Complaints of Harassment

  May 13, 2011     By Lorenz
On February 2, 2011, the ILO Tribunal rendered two judgments dealing with cases of harassment within international organisations. The Tribunal ruled that the claims challenging the sufficiency of the investigations carried out by the organisation at stake were admissible and allocated damages to the applicants, although the complaints were initially lodged in an informal way only.

EU Offers Financial Support to the Russian Enterprise Sector

  May 6, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The Russian Federation is one of the most important partners for the European Union. A key priority for the EU is to build a strong strategic partnership with Russia based on a solid foundation of mutual respect. Moreover, Russia is the largest neighbor of the EU with a dynamic market for EU goods and services and the EU’s market, on the other hand, is by far the most important destination for Russian exports.

The End of Cross-border Tax Obstacles for EU Citizens?

  May 6, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The European Commission, in its Communication published 20 December, aims to make Member States tax systems more compatible in order to facilitate cross-border activities between citizens from neighboring States. Eventually new measures could make it easier for individuals living, working or moving abroad to confront double taxation, tax refunds reclaim, cross-border income, inheritance taxes, dividend taxes, car registration taxes and E-Commerce.

New Special System for the Operation of Free Zones in Panama

  May 5, 2011     By Icaza, Gonzalez-Ruiz & Aleman
In the Official Gazette N°26,757-B of April 5th, 2011 was published the Law N°32 of the same date whereby a special, comprehensive and simplified system for the establishment and operation of free zones is established and provides other provisions. For your convenience, we have prepared the following summary of this law.

Panama and the USA Sign an Agreement for Tax Cooperation and the Exchange of Information Relating to Taxes

  May 5, 2011     By Icaza, Gonzalez-Ruiz & Aleman
On the 30th day of November of 2010, the governments of the Republic of Panama and of the United States of America (“USA”) signed an “Agreement for Tax Cooperation and the Exchange of Information relating to Taxes” (“the Agreement”).

Laws to Know Before Hiring Your Employee in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  May 5, 2011     By Yav & Associates
When investing in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC], you need to be concerned with the laws that regulate employment and related matters. This article gives you an idea on how to do.

Gambling Business in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  May 5, 2011     By Yav & Associates
This article discusses how to invest in the gambling business in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

New Security Review for M&A of Domestic Companies in China

  May 4, 2011     By Angela Wang & Co.
To strengthen control over inbound foreign investments into the country, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) on 3 February 2011 issued a Circular on the Establishment of National Security Review Mechanism on Foreign Investors’ Mergers and Acquisitions (“M&A”) of Domestic Enterprises in PRC (“Circular”). The Circular was implemented on 5 March 2011.

Companies Ordinance Rewrite: Registration of Charges and its Effect on Lenders - Hong Kong

  May 4, 2011     By Angela Wang & Co.
In addition to the Companies (Amendment) Bill 2010 which was passed on 7 July 2010, Hong Kong has also taken steps since 2006 to rewrite the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance (“CO”) and the Companies Bill was finally introduced to the Legislative Council on 26 January 2011. The Bill is intended to update and modernize the CO and improve the competitiveness of Hong Kong as an international financial center.

Euro-Mediterranean Convention on Preferential Rules of Origin

  May 4, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The Hungarian Presidency adopted the decision authorizing the signature for the convention on behalf of the EU on 14 April 2011 without any discussion at a meeting on the Agriculture and Fisheries Council.

EU Asks Cyprus Via Reasoned Opinion to Lift Restrictions on Property Purchases by EU Citizens

  April 18, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
The European Commission called Cyprus to comply with EU rules which grant to nationals from the European Union as well as from Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein, the right to purchase property in the Republic of Cyprus. Cyprus is still maintaining its restrictive measures and as a result EU and EEA nationals cannot exercise their right.

Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation (Council Directive 2011/16/EU of 15 February 2011) - Cyprus

  April 18, 2011     By Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC
In April 2009, the European Commission issued a Communication on “Good Governance in Tax Matters” with the intention to launch a debate about concrete actions that could be taken to better promote the principles of good governance in the tax area (transparency, exchange of information and fair tax competition). The aim of the Commission to improve synergies between tax and development policies becomes concrete with the Council Directive 2011/16/EU of 15 February 2011.

Issuing Securities in U.S. Private Offerings – New Higher Standard for Accredited Investors - Israel

  April 14, 2011     By S. Wimpfheimer, Aronoff & Co.
When issuing securities in private offerings to U.S. investors, issuers (from companies to investment funds) often look to the registration exemptions and safe harbors afforded by Regulation D of the United States Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”). One of the key components of an exempted Regulation D offering is the “accredited investor” – the individual with significant net worth and deemed to not be in need of the protections afforded by a registered offering.