International Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of International Law.

Debt Collection in Italy

How the debt collection works in Italy.
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Hong Kong is an Ideal Place for Investment despite the Unbounded EC Tax Haven Blacklist

Hong Kong was named among the thirty uncooperative tax jurisdictions in the European Commission’s (“EC”) tax haven blacklist released on June...

International and Domestic Law

With globalization and recent reshaping of the global landscape the paradigm shifted, and the international law moved away from its classical...

Recent Amendments and Modernisation of the Companies Act in Cyprus

The Law amending the Companies Act, CAP 113, Number 4, of 2015 has been passed by the Cyprus parliament. It provides for significant changes to...

Lawyer Tariff in Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina there are two lawyer tariffs in effect, for the territory of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina applies the Lawyer...

Enforcing Child Support in US Courts When the Child Lives Overseas

  By HG.org
In the modern, global world, it is not uncommon for people to migrate from one country to another. Unfortunately, doing so can complicate family...

When Buying from Foreign Sources, What Can You Do if the Seller Does Not Send Your Product?

  By HG.org
Buyers large and small have begun purchasing from foreign sources. Sites like alibaba.com have revolutionized the international market for...

The Unified Judiciary Law of GCC

In 34th Session of the Supreme Council of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) the council agreed that The Unified...

Shipping Contracts: Affirming the Contract

A recent High Court judgment in the UK highlights the difficulties that can arise when unexpected problems strike. In the case of MSC...

Compulsory Marine Liability Insurance

If you are involved in the maritime and shipping industry, you will be only too familiar with the wealth of legislation and regulation with...

When to Retain an Attorney for a Missing Child in California and for What Purposes

Each year, nearly 1.3 million children are reported missing. Fortunately, most missing children are returned home in a short period of time. In...

Efficacy and Validity in International Law

Compliance and its relation to validity is one of the central points in the discussions related to the international law. H Kelsen stated that...

Singapore The Island Nation with Global Significance

Singapore is a hub for international arbitration. Learn more about the city-state and what to do to prepare for an upcoming arbitration.

Does America Have to Follow International Laws?

  By HG.org
Attorneys often experience a passionate client coming into their office and insisting that they have a case based on something they read about...

Dispute Resolution in the Eurasian Economic Union

  By Integrites
On 29th of May 2014, the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan), the Russian Federation (Russia) and the Republic of Belarus (Belarus) have signed...

Fair Use or more Fair Dealing: China’s Copyright Law in Transition

The third draft of proposed amendments to the Chinese Copyright Law was released on March 31, 2012. As expected with any piece of legislation...

Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in China

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the New York Convention as applied in China, in particular in relation to when courts in China are able to refuse to...

Michael Jordan and the Chinese Trademark System: Two Languages, One Superstar

Waiting too long to protect your trademark can end badly. In China, with its first to file system, foreign brands have learned the hard way to...

The Digital Single Market Top Priority for EU

Creating a Digital Single Market is one of the ten priorities of the EU President-elect Jean-Claude Juncker.

Shipping Contract Disputes

A recent contract dispute demonstrates the need to secure expert shipping law advice as soon as possible, particularly if the contract in...

IT-startups in Ukraine: It's Time to Start

Ukraine, as a potential country for doing business, is often discussed by foreign investors, despite the fact that the ratings of favorable...

China’s Case Acceptance Regulations: Getting into Court Gets A Little Easier

Getting in the courthouse door in China has always been problematic even for seemingly straight-forward cases. China’s Supreme People’s Court is...

Investing in Cyprus

Large-scale projects, privatisations and a burgeoning oil and gas sector are firmly placing Cyprus on the map as a hotspot for investment from...

UAE Banks must apply Sharia Law to Bank Accounts

Very recently Emirates Airlines together with the Chamber of Commerce in Abu Dhabi organized a conference on Asset Protection and Estate...

An Arbitral Award has No Immediate Effect in Cyprus

A foreign judgment or an arbitral award has no immediate effect in Cyprus. A procedure must be followed in order to enforce the foreign...

A Methodological Approach to Negotiating International Business Disputes

The United States government has declared increased exports are the path for financial recovery. In particular, the Small Business...

Foreign Companies in Ecuador

Foreign companies wishing to open a branch in Ecuador, should be incorporated in their country of origin as a trading company, may be of limited...

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

Firstly, is important to understand the cause of money laundry crime. Usually, is related to drugs traffic, terrorism, trafficking of humans,...

Spotlight: Concerns about Constitutionality of Turkey’s New IP/O Regime in Civil Industrial Sectors

On 06 February 2014, Turkish Parliament has enacted a 6518 Omnibus Bill, gazetted February 19th 2014, which adjoins a provision to article 3 of...

Introduction to Jurisdiction of Divorce in Turkey

Divorce principles in Turkish Law related to divorce. Enforcement of a Foreign Divorce Decree in Turkey requires some standards.

The Main Advantages for Clients of Using Cayman Islands Corporate Structures

What is the single most important advantage that Cayman Islands corporate structures provides to clients?

Worry and Reassurance: A New Food Safety Law in China and What You Can do for Your Customers

Fake wine is nothing new in China. Even though the economic incentives for going after counterfeiters have never been greater, the fakes are...

Overhaul Aimed at Making all Media Equally Available throughout Europe

The European Union has recently unveiled a planned reform for the 28 Member State’s digital market aimed at boosting ecommerce and overhauling...

Avoiding of Risks in Property Interests Purchase in the Ukraine

Investing to the real estate market is very profitable in Ukraine. There are a lot of foreign companies which provide their activity in Ukraine...

Risk Management and Prevention Strategies for Start-Ups in China

For any start-up, there are multiple legal issues involved in building your business but risk management and prevention issues can be arranged...

E-Residency in Estonia

As the world seems to develop faster and faster, a new gadget has been placed to the disposal of the foreigners and non-resident persons in...

Scammed by Someone from Another Country, What are My Legal Options?

  By HG.org
They are a routine part of our modern, online world: Internet scams are a daily annoyance for many. Often found in annoying emails, website...

Parameters to Request the Granting of a Concession in a Maritime Zone

If a private person or a legal corporation wants to purchase a property at the beaches of Costa Rica, whether it is to build a house, hotel,...

Oil Contracts, What Is it all About?

Perhaps fuel could be the quickest product to come in to mind when thinking about petroleum, but the list of petroleum products is long and...

Parallel Import to be Legalized in Russia in 2015 - Antitrust Risks

Parallel import allows import of goods not only by their owner or dealer, but also by any importer.

Turkish Energy Market 2015

Turkey’s importance in the energy market grows as a regional transit hub given its location between the oil rich Middle East, Caspian region,...

The Schengen Agreement

The Schengen Agreement is very important when travelling across Europe.

USA: Business Structures Available for Foreign Investors

The choice for the appropriate legal structure to transact business in the United States (“U.S.”) depends on a combination of factors relevant...

Ratification to the Treaty Relating to Grand Inga Hydroelectric Project in the Congo

In accordance with articles 213 paragraph 1 and 214 paragraph 1 of the Constitution of February 18, 2006 as amended to date, the President of...

Enforcing the 1958 New York Convention in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of arbitral awards signed in New York on June 10, 1958, (« The New York Convention »), has...

Enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey

Explaining current provision and practice of enforcement and Recognition of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey. New York Convention and Turkish...

Discovery and Depositions in Germany

Taking depositions in Germany can be easy with the proper planning and scheduling.

Ship arrest in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel.

The Applicable Procedures to Arrest a Ship in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel....

Important Frequently Asked Questions on Ship Arrest in Tunisia

The best option available to a party seeking to obtain security for a maritime claim against a shipowner is, certainly the arrest of the vessel....

Recent Canadian Court Decisions Affecting Commercial Arbitration

More business cases are going to arbitration than ever before. Therefore, courts have to confront more procedural and legal issues arising out...

Cyprus Courts Do Not Recognise Foreign Arbitration Awards when Neither Party Has its Domicile in Cyprus

The Supreme Court of Cyprus ruled on 17 February 2015, in STX OFFSHORE & SHIPPING CO. LTD v. STX (DALIAN) SHIPBUILDING CO.LTD, Civil Application...

When a Marriage Breaks in the United Arab Emirates

Shedding light on the application of the UAE Personal Affairs (‘Sharia’) versus foreign laws. The case of a Hindu divorce granted by the Sharia...

The Legal Truth of E-contracts in Egypt

No doubt that the technological evolution and its wide range usage in various fields became a part of our daily lives, accompanied by this...

Buying Property in Dubai

The endless opportunities that Dubai is bringing back to its real estate sector and the influx of new people relocating to Dubai have...

Setting Up a Business in Italy

The first step a company based outside Italy has to take before starting a business in Italy is chosing the most appropriate form of...

Turkey’s Civil Offset/Industrial Participation Enthusiasm

Most probably many people would not know more about where offset/industrial participation discussions were moving toward before the article...

Recognition of Foreign Judgments by Thai Courts

The recognition of foreign judgments by Thai courts is an issue likely to be of great interest to foreigners and Thai nationals alike. Its...

Legal Aspects of Marrying Ukrainian Citizens

Nowadays, many people move to Ukraine to marry with Ukrainian citizens. A foreigner who married a person who lives in Ukraine will face a number...

Business Establishment in Ukraine

Nowadays many foreigners plan to establish their own business in other country. It can be very profitable because every country has some...

Your Business in Ukraine: New Perspectives for the Private Sector

It's not a secret that Ukraine is still one of the market dark horses in context of entrepreneurship. Not many of large companies venture to...

How Does the Foreigner Validate Documents Issued in Ukraine?

The largest part of all documents confirming one or another status of the foreign person by some country will require a further legalization...

Overview of Business Crime in Latin America

While several Latin American countries have vowed to combat corrupt practices and have enacted legislation to formalise their intentions,...

Civil and Commercial Court Rulings Will Have Effectiveness in All the EU

Savings of up to €48 million thanks to new rules for cross-border judgments.

Independent Bank Guarantee in Italy

Business clients dealing with international trade frequently asked us whether an independent bank guarantee issued under the URDG 758 (the ICC...

The Gateway to Europe

Despite the fact that the German market is considered to be the third biggest economy in the world, with an annual turnover of (if you mention...

The Cargo Transport Units Code of Practice – What Does it Mean for You?

A new Code of Practice aims to increase safety and security in the working environment in dock and on board ship – and helps shipping, cargo and...

Enforcement of US Judgments in Turkey

As a civil based law country (continental European Law) in Turkey, enforcement of foreign judgments are entitled to specific provision in...

Enforcement of UK judgments in Turkey

How to enforce UK judgments in Turkey. Uk Decrees are generally enforceable in Turkey based on high court decision.

Doing Business in Cuba

In January 2015 the Treasury Department issued regulations to establish banking relations and allow U.S. companies to export items for sale in...

Shipping and Maritime: Costs Following Hijacking of Vessels

A vessel was hijacked in the Gulf of Aden by Somali pirates. Unfortunately for cargo owners and insurers, the High Court in the UK has ruled...

Alternative Investment Funds in Cyprus

The Alternative Investment Funds Law of 2014 was enacted by the parliament on the 10th of July 2014 and entered into force on the 27th of July...

Parallel Import in Israel

Israel's Supreme Court has just handed down a watershed ruling in relation to the question of parallel import in Israel. In addition to...

Innocent Infringer Trademark Defense in Israel?

Israel's Supreme Court recently found that trademark infringement in Israel should not be attributed to an importer who did not knowingly order...

FATCA: Cayman Islands Investment Entities Should Act Before Upcoming Registration Deadline

The broad scope of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“US FATCA ”) introduced by the United States (“US”) and the implementation of that...

European Securities and Markets Authority Issues Consultation Paper on Asset Segregation

The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has recently published a consultation paper on the asset segregation requirements under the...

China - Live Animal Import and Export Regulations

  By MMLC Group
A look at the web of Chinese laws that potentially apply to the import of live animals into China.

Overseas Service Businesses Under the Thai Foreign Business Act

The Foreign Business Act of 1999 generally restricts service businesses under Category (21) of List Three, with certain explicit exemptions such...

Investments Into Crimea

Pursuant to a treaty of accession between the Russian Federation, Crimea and Sevastopol dated March 18, 2014 Crimea and Sevastopol became...

Foreign Skilled Technicians and Experts Under the Board of Investment in Thailand

The Investment Promotion Act of B.E. 2520 (1977) allows three categories for foreigners to enter Thailand in addition to the standard...

An Overview of FIDIC Rules in Turkey

FIDIC, (Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs Conseils), International Federation of Consulting Engineers aims to find a resolution in...

Cyprus Nominee Shareholders - Valid Trusts Arrangements or a Mere Façade?

First to be explored is the legal nature of the so called “nominee shareholder”. Nominee shareholder is a shareholder of a company holding...

New Rules Simplify the Filing and Approval of Chinese Outbound Investment Projects

On September 6, 2014, the Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM") issued the Outbound Investment Management Rules (the "Rules"), which took effect on...

Recognition of a Foreign Judgment and Public Policy Requirement

Do you have court order from court of your country that you wish to seek recognition of it in Turkey, but you are concerned that it might not be...

Security for Cost in Turkey

Security for costs is money that a plaintiff is ordered to provide to the court as a condition of continuing with a claim or execution...

Can the Shares of a Cayman Islands Company be Pledged as Security?

It is not possible to "pledge" registered shares under Cayman Islands law because title to the shares cannot be transferred by physical...

Foreign Investments in the Ukraine

A brief overview about the guarantees that Ukrainian legislation provides for foreign investors and which steps should be done to enjoy them.

International Law Increasingly Important

Globalisation continues to advance. Trade has long since ceased to stop at national borders. This also has implications for jurisdiction.

What will TTIP Bring for Turkey: Legal and Trade Related Issues

Known by its acronym TTIP, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership has the capacity to serve as a game changer in global economic...

China's Supreme People's Court (SPC) Rules in Favor of ICC Arbitration in China

The recent decision by the China SPC turns on its head all that international arbitrators and contract drafters have come to believe of the...

When Should Blog or Forum Posts Create Liability for Defamation?

Writers often express their views on blogs or forums. With the advancement of laws, anyone who writes articles, must be cautious of consequences...

American Defense Industry: Does the Legal Regime Hamstring the Business?

The United States is still by far the leading country in defense spending, allocating a sizable portion of its GDP to produce cutting edge...

Arrest of Ships in Accordance with Libyan Law

Libya is largely dependent on imports, consisting mainly of industrial and food commodities. Libya’s biggest trading partner is the European...

TTIP: The Issue of Investor to State Dispute Settlements

The benefits that will the TTIP bring to the table for both of the signatories across the Atlantic are well documented by the Atlantic...

Practical and Legal Aspects of Debt Collection in Ukraine

Despite all the current geopolitics, trade goes on in Ukraine, but what if you are an exporter and have concerns about repayment?

Shanghai Free Trade Zone Releases 2014 Negative List Revision

The broad negative list initially issued at the launch of the Shanghai Free Trade Zone (FTZ) in Oct 2013 has been revised as promised. The newly...

People’s Republic of China Arbitration Clause – No Room for Ad Hoc?

The People’s Republic of China (PRC) rules on arbitration requires arbitration by an institution. Therefore for China based arbitration this...

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: How should Turkey Cope with the Changing Dynamics?

The free trade agreement, known with its acronym TTIP, currently being negotiated between the United States and the European Union is expected...

Integration of US and Europe Energy Markets: TTIP and Global Energy Trading Projection

Shale gas revolution has been driving US energy market by increasing economic and industrial competitiveness. Today, shale gas has gained...

Why Small Businesses Should Consider China Trademark Registration

The recent troubles facing Tesla’s expansion into China, particularly the trademark of its name and it’s Chinese version TeSiLa should be paid...


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