International Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to International Law.

Public Finances and Budgetary Developments in the EU and in Cyprus

All European Union countries have been affected between 2008 and 2010 by the economic and financial crisis and after a contraction in 2009 in every EU country, except Poland, growth returned in 2010 in all but five peripheral countries. While in 2010 several countries continued to support their economies through discretionary measures, other countries had less room for maneuvers given their underlying public finance situation trying to consolidate them.

How to Get Belgian Professional Card

  By Lexial
Obtaining the Belgian professional card is a compulsory step for non-EU citizens who plan to set up a company or to buy a running business in Belgium. With the work permit (for expats as employees) and the wealth card (for people who can prove that their financial means avoid them to work), professional card is also the best way to become a Belgian resident.

EU Environment Policy: Results and Next Steps

Following the implementation of the 6th Environment Action Program (EAP), which was adopted on 22 July 2002 and provided the framework of EU’S Environment legislation and extended the Natura 2000 network, the European Commission adopted on 31 August 2011 the final assessment of the 6th EAP (2002-2012).

Energy Development Perspectives for the Republic of Cyprus

Based on Eurostat’s researches, the Republic of Cyprus disposes a very promising feedback from the energy saving and the renewable energy schemes, as more and more people apply for the available funding.

Israel Tax Treaties with Malta and Panama

A treaty for the avoidance of double taxation has been signed between Israel and Malta, and a treaty for the avoidance of double taxation has been initialed between Israel and Panama. These treaties will enter into force on completion of ratification proceedings in the two countries.

Import Substitution: Adaptation of Foreign Manufacturers of Medicines to the New Ukrainian Reality

Over the last several years the pharmaceutical markets of some countries of the former Soviet Union have witnessed strengthening positions of domestic production of medicines, as well as the general tendency of the imported medicines substitution by the domestically produced pharmaceutical products (so-called “import substitution”).

Exchange of Tax Information between the Czech Republic and Bermuda

The Czech Republic has concluded another agreement on exchange of information on tax matters (TIEA). Following the signing of similar agreements with the British Virgin Islands on 13 June 2011 and the Isle of Man on 18 July 2011, the Czech Republic concluded and signed a TIEA with Bermuda on 15 August 2011.

Areas of Investment Provided by the Ethiopian Investment Laws for Domestic and Foreign Investors

Do you want to know about areas of investment permitted for investment according to Ethiopian law?

Opposition Deadline Extensions Will No Longer be Granted by the Trademark Office in Ecuador

On July 1st, 2011, the Trademark Office issued a new Resolution concerning the elimination of the possibility of obtaining an extension to the deadline to file oppositions against new trademark applications. The new resolution is highly ambiguous and leaves many open questions. Risks shouldn’t be taken, we suggest filing any oppositions in due term until the scope of this regulation is clarified by the Trademark Office.

Freedom of Contract in International Carriage Contracts - Ecuador

The Doctrine of Freedom of Contract also known as “Laissez Faire” is the basis for international carriage contracts, according to Common Law.

Goods on Deck - Ecuador

An article related to the Hague Visby Rules and goods on deck.

Causation in Maritime Insurance: The Cendor MOPU

The Cendor MOPU case law brings a new scenario to insurance law.

Peculiarities of Cross-Border Contracts under Ukrainian Law: Key Points to Consider

  By Integrites
This article aims to highlight the most essential legal requirements of Ukrainian legislation to foreign economic contracts which should help foreign companies to identify certain principal points subject to negotiations between the parties.

Disclosure Obligations in Debt and Equity Offerings - Ukraine

  By Integrites
Whether it’s a start-up project or a successfully running company, at some point in time every business faces a need to raise money for a variety of reasons. There are two basic ways to raise capital: either debt or equity. This article focuses on comparative analysis of primary disclosure requirements for debt and equity offerings.

Apostate from Islam in Jordan

Effects of apostate from Islam (Convert from Islam).

Enforcement of Foreign Commercial Arbitration Awards in Ghana

This article provides information to law firms and their clients to help them strategize on how best to get their foreign commercial arbitration awards enforced in Ghana.

Business Establishment Models and Procedure for Foreign Investors in Turkey

The main aim of this article is to introduce business establishment models and procedure in Turkey to foreign direct investors who has intention of doing business in Turkey.

EU Energy Policy and Targets - Energy Efficiency Plan

In March 2011, the European Commission adopted a plan for saving more energy through concrete measures. Energy efficiency is a key tool to strengthen Europe’s competitiveness and reduce energy dependence, as well as the level of emissions. The measures proposed aim at creating substantial benefits for businesses and public authorities.

EU Immigration Policy

The package of measures proposed by the European Commission aiming towards better regulated immigration flows from the southern Mediterranean region as well as the proposal to amend EU Regulation on visas consists of the new incentives of EU bodies for a fair, credible and effective EU immigration policy.

Exchange of Tax Information between the Czech Republic and the Isle of Man

The Isle of Man and the Czech Republic signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement (TIEA) on 18 July to regulate and facilitate the exchange of tax information between them. The TIEA will enter into force after both parties have completed all required ratification procedures and exchanged corresponding notifications. Most of its provisions will then take effect immediately, with the remainder taking effect on the following 1 January.

The Settlement of an Inheritance’s Case in Greece-How to Get Your Inheritance in Greece

The Greeks abroad can take their share of their inheritance, without even having to travel to Greece.

The Malta Option is “in-the-Money”

Fund managers don’t like surprises. And it is this aversion to anything unknown that has caused the more “traditional” financial centers like London, Luxembourg, Ireland and Switzerland to boom as financial centers towards which fund managers have gravitated and established themselves over the past 20-odd years.

Factors contributing to Malta’s success as a financial services hub, past and future.

Malta has established itself on the map of domiciles of choice for alternative investment funds and continues to build its reputation as a financial services hub – a brief overview of the key ingredients for Malta’s success.

First Approved EU Sustainability Schemes for Biofuels

On 19 July 2011, the European Commission issued a list of the first sustainable voluntary schemes for biofuels recognized directly in the 27 EU Member States. According to the Energy Commissioner, Günther Oettinger, the EU has to secure the entire biofuels production and supply with the highest sustainability standards in the world under a transparent and reliable system.

Recent Developments in Turkish E-Commerce Legislation

The volume of e-commerce has been constantly expanding in Turkey. The total e-commerce volume of 15,2 million TL recorded in 2010, is expected to expand by 50% in 2011.

European Stability Mechanism (ESM)

On 17 December 2010 the European Council agreed on the need for a Eurozone area and on the establishment of a permanent stability mechanism which will intervene by providing financial assistance to the Eurozone Member States after June 2013.

Council’s Recommendation on National Reform Program 2011 and Stability Program 2011-2014 for Cyprus

The Council concluded on 12 July 2011 the first European Semester which has been implemented this year, for the first time, as part of a broader reform of the EU’s economic governance. Based on the European Council’s decision a recommendation has been adopted on the implementation of the Eurozone Member States’ economic policies as well as a recommendation on its National Reform Program 2011 and the Stability Program 2011-2014 for each Member State.

North Africa and the Middle East: Opportunities and Threats Posed by Patent Systems

The states of North Africa and the Middle East are high growth markets, having recently achieved growth rates higher than many so-called “industrialized countries.” Unfortunately, these developments have not been accompanied by the kind of patent protections that would apply in countries with longer histories of technological innovation. The NA/ME States are at a cross roads and it is timely to consider how their systems for the protection of technology measure up to international standards.

Yachting - Which Welfare Rights for the Crews Employed Onboard Yachts? - EU

Which welfare rights for the crews? Maritime welfare law was initially developed under the aegis of the domestic legal systems of shipping Nations, each setting their own rules on board their ships. Ships’ freedom of registration and shipping internationalization were the main factors undermining domestic frameworks.

EU Budgetary Perspectives 2014-2020

The European Commission has faced the challenge of being able to fund a number of policy areas where the EU could be more effective, by acting at EU level, in preparing its proposals for the future budget of the European Union. In its proposal, based on the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy, a new funding potential can be seen attempting to ease the direct impact of the national budgets with the creation of a new Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF).

Mechanism on the Application for Investment Licenses - Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
To create an order in the investment activity, the authorized body needs to set out a line of licensing process before an investor could conduct the investment activity in the territory of Indonesia. Investment Coordinating Board (Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal) (“BKPM’) introduced a system, namely Integrated One Door Service (Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu) (“PTSP”) whereby investors can enjoy certain facilities.

Overview of Overseas Adoption

Every year, many U.S. citizens make the decision to adopt a child from overseas.

EU’s Smart Specialization Strategies Platform - Smart Growth in Europe 2020

In the European Commission’s Communication regarding the contribution of the regional policy in the area of smart growth in the Europe 2020 strategy, the central role of European regions in this process is primarily recognized.

Real Estate Investments in Ghana

One of the fastest growing sectors in the Ghanaian economy is the Real Estate industry. In fact this is not strange to industry analyst especially as the World Bank’s Global Economic Prospect Report has projected that Ghana will become the fastest growing economy in fiscal year 2011 in sub-Saharan Africa.

China Releases New Rules Guiding Merger Control Review

The Anti-Monopoly Law (“AML”) opens a new landscape for merger and acquisition practice in China. Regardless where a merger takes place, if the transaction satisfies the prescribed conditions, it must be filed with China's Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”), the agency charged with enforcing the merger control laws in China, for business concentration review.

Main results of Justice and Home Affairs Council meeting of 9 and 10 June 2011

Following the Justice and Home Affairs Council meeting of 9 and 10 June 2011, the Council discussed the political guidelines for the future work of the following issues:

Amendment of the Migration Policy and Visa Regulation - Cyprus

The lists of third countries whose nationals should be in possession of a visa when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement have been amended on several occasions. When introducing or lifting a visa obligation for a third country the current procedure can take several years. It has become clear that further technical modifications to the main text of the Regulation (EC) No. 539/2001 are needed.

Legal System for Foreign Investments in Saudi Arabia in the Field of solar power

It is not recommended to think, ...that the idea of using solar power for mechanical operations is recent. (1)

Company Incorporation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

A foreign company wishing to establish a business in the Democratic Republic of Congo has an option between registering as an external company and forming a subsidiary in Congo. The choice between the one and the other hinges mainly on issues of convenience, privacy and tax. Sometimes, the issue of risk, or rather the limitation of risk, also comes into play. The decision at the end of the day is really a commercial one.

Foreign Invested Travel Consulting Company: A Way to Promote Outbound Tourism

  By Amaris Law
With the promulgation of the Regulation on Travel Agencies as of February 20, 2009 (“Regulation”), China has opened its doors to the foreign investors in the tourism business. However, the door of outbound tourism business is still firmly closed to the foreign investors. This Article will discuss the way to promote outbound tourism by setting up foreign invested travel consulting company in China.

Can the Right of Free Movement Be Invoked by EU Citizens to Regularise the Residence of Their Non-EU Spouse?

Under EU law, when a national of a Member State resides legally in another Member State, his or her spouse is allowed to remain with him or her even when the spouse is not a national of an EU Member State.

China Intensifies Law Enforcement on Unfair Price Competition: the Unilever Case

On 6 May 2011, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) published a statement commenting on the punishment on Unilever (China) Co. Ltd. (“Unilever”) for its unfair price competition acts, endorsing publicly the law enforcement action in Shanghai.

Late Payments in Commercial Transactions - EU

During the ongoing crisis, the private and public sectors are under attack, often unable to react to the destructive power of evolution. Trade transactions are hit by uncertainty due to the ongoing liquidity constraints.

Foreign Employees in Shanghai Will Enjoy More Protection under Chinese Labor Contract Law

  By Amaris Law
It is quite usual for a foreign employee to have the unfair clauses in his employment/labor contract in Shanghai, such as “the employer may terminate the labor contract without special reason, but with a 3-months or payment in lieu thereof.” This kind of clause has been usually regarded as valid by the Shanghai courts. However, the situation has been changing recently with the white book published by the Shanghai No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court as of April 12, 2011 (“White Book”).

Bank Intro and the Private Foundation

Tips on opening a bank account in Panama.

The Obligations of International Organisations When Investigating on Informal Complaints of Harassment

  By Lorenz
On February 2, 2011, the ILO Tribunal rendered two judgments dealing with cases of harassment within international organisations. The Tribunal ruled that the claims challenging the sufficiency of the investigations carried out by the organisation at stake were admissible and allocated damages to the applicants, although the complaints were initially lodged in an informal way only.

EU Offers Financial Support to the Russian Enterprise Sector

The Russian Federation is one of the most important partners for the European Union. A key priority for the EU is to build a strong strategic partnership with Russia based on a solid foundation of mutual respect. Moreover, Russia is the largest neighbor of the EU with a dynamic market for EU goods and services and the EU’s market, on the other hand, is by far the most important destination for Russian exports.

The End of Cross-border Tax Obstacles for EU Citizens?

The European Commission, in its Communication published 20 December, aims to make Member States tax systems more compatible in order to facilitate cross-border activities between citizens from neighboring States. Eventually new measures could make it easier for individuals living, working or moving abroad to confront double taxation, tax refunds reclaim, cross-border income, inheritance taxes, dividend taxes, car registration taxes and E-Commerce.

New Special System for the Operation of Free Zones in Panama

In the Official Gazette N°26,757-B of April 5th, 2011 was published the Law N°32 of the same date whereby a special, comprehensive and simplified system for the establishment and operation of free zones is established and provides other provisions. For your convenience, we have prepared the following summary of this law.

Panama and the USA Sign an Agreement for Tax Cooperation and the Exchange of Information Relating to Taxes

On the 30th day of November of 2010, the governments of the Republic of Panama and of the United States of America (“USA”) signed an “Agreement for Tax Cooperation and the Exchange of Information relating to Taxes” (“the Agreement”).

Laws to Know Before Hiring Your Employee in the Democratic Republic of Congo

When investing in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC], you need to be concerned with the laws that regulate employment and related matters. This article gives you an idea on how to do.

Gambling Business in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This article discusses how to invest in the gambling business in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

New Security Review for M&A of Domestic Companies in China

To strengthen control over inbound foreign investments into the country, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) on 3 February 2011 issued a Circular on the Establishment of National Security Review Mechanism on Foreign Investors’ Mergers and Acquisitions (“M&A”) of Domestic Enterprises in PRC (“Circular”). The Circular was implemented on 5 March 2011.

Companies Ordinance Rewrite: Registration of Charges and its Effect on Lenders - Hong Kong

In addition to the Companies (Amendment) Bill 2010 which was passed on 7 July 2010, Hong Kong has also taken steps since 2006 to rewrite the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance (“CO”) and the Companies Bill was finally introduced to the Legislative Council on 26 January 2011. The Bill is intended to update and modernize the CO and improve the competitiveness of Hong Kong as an international financial center.

Euro-Mediterranean Convention on Preferential Rules of Origin

The Hungarian Presidency adopted the decision authorizing the signature for the convention on behalf of the EU on 14 April 2011 without any discussion at a meeting on the Agriculture and Fisheries Council.

EU Asks Cyprus Via Reasoned Opinion to Lift Restrictions on Property Purchases by EU Citizens

The European Commission called Cyprus to comply with EU rules which grant to nationals from the European Union as well as from Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein, the right to purchase property in the Republic of Cyprus. Cyprus is still maintaining its restrictive measures and as a result EU and EEA nationals cannot exercise their right.

Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation (Council Directive 2011/16/EU of 15 February 2011) - Cyprus

In April 2009, the European Commission issued a Communication on “Good Governance in Tax Matters” with the intention to launch a debate about concrete actions that could be taken to better promote the principles of good governance in the tax area (transparency, exchange of information and fair tax competition). The aim of the Commission to improve synergies between tax and development policies becomes concrete with the Council Directive 2011/16/EU of 15 February 2011.

Issuing Securities in U.S. Private Offerings – New Higher Standard for Accredited Investors - Israel

When issuing securities in private offerings to U.S. investors, issuers (from companies to investment funds) often look to the registration exemptions and safe harbors afforded by Regulation D of the United States Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”). One of the key components of an exempted Regulation D offering is the “accredited investor” – the individual with significant net worth and deemed to not be in need of the protections afforded by a registered offering.

Investment Incentives in Ethiopia

A brief note on investment incentives in Ethiopia.

EU Quality Policy Regarding Geographical Indications and Traditional Specialities

Since 1992, the European Union has operated three programs of product designations in order to promote and protect the names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. They fall into two categories: those linked to a territory and those relating to a particular production method.

Recent Changes to the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance

The Companies Ordinance of Hong Kong (“CO”) has been amended by the Companies (Amendment) Ordinance 2010 (“Amendment Ordinance”) in July 2010 and its principal purpose is to launch the electronic company incorporation and to implement a one-stop electronic company and business registration service in Hong Kong.

German Probate Law: Heirs are Personally Liable for Decedent's Debts and Obligations

Under German law heirs inherit both assets and debts at the time of death. Heirs are personally liable for decedent's debts. In order to avoid liability for decedent's debts in Germany you must disclaim the inheritance. Strict time lines and formal requirements apply.

China's Seed Industry

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the major legal issues associated with China's seed industry, as well as provides a snapshot of the main Chinese entities and government departments that are involved in the seed industry.

Enforcement of Foreign Judgements in China

  By MMLC Group
This article looks out a number of issues associated with the enforcement of foreign decisions of courts and arbitrators, in China.

The Case of the Problematic Developer - Russia

Investing in commercial construction projects is an entrepreneurial activity that, according the Article 2 of the Legal Code of the Russian Federation, is undertaken at the investor’s own risk. Herein lies the primary difference in the consequences of a poor monetary investment by a legal entity or a private entrepreneur and the consequences of a developer not fulfilling his obligations before to the investor of the construction project.

Foreign Investments in SEZs as the Most Perspective Mechanism of PPP - Russia

Relative quiet conditions in the investment market give time for reconsideration and principle restructuring of the elements of the given market sector. The participants again have a real opportunity to evaluate the efficiency of any given investment mechanisms.

Nigerian Mining Industry: Opportunities for Foreign Investors

Nigeria is endowed with numerous mineral resources such as talc, iron ore, bitumen, gold, rock salt, gypsum, lead/zinc, coal, gemstones, kaolin, tantalite, bentonite and baryte located in different parts of the country in commercial quantity

Capital Gains Tax in Nigeria: Exemptions and Reliefs

Capital Gains Tax accrues on an actual year basis.

The Nigerian Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act 2002

The Nigerian Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act 2002 (MLPA) was enacted at a period when money laundering was synonymous with drug trafficking.

Trademark Right in Action - Peru

In a successful infringement action, when an importer commits an infraction, it is possible to file a judicial demand, because bad faith has already been shown. This can result in a jail sentence.

German Tax Law: Estate Tax, Gift Tax, and Inheritance Tax in Germany

A brief introduction to German estate tax, gift tax, and inheritance tax law. Easy to follow explanation and information in plain English on taxation of estates, heirs, and beneficiaries in Germany.

German Law: Inheritance and Probate in Germany

Basic Information in English on German probate and inheritance law.

Shipowners' Risks in Ukrainian Ports

A lot of various incidents have been reported in the ports of Ukraine. The vessels calling the ports of Ukraine undergo numerous and serious perils. And we do not certainly mean perils of natural character. In the present publication we will try to cover some legal and operational risks foreign shipowners have to challenge in Ukraine.

A Dog Importer Will Compensate the "Let Animals Live” Movement - Israel

Recently, the court obliged an importer of puppies from Uzbekistan to pay over 100,000 NIS to the "Let Animals Live" (Tnu L'Chayot Lichyot) foundation, for various expenses that the foundation bore after the puppies were imported to Israel.

The Journey of Briefs of Claim Outside of the State of Israel

A decision was recently issued by the Central District Court ruling that under special circumstances, serving a brief of claim to a Palestinian importer via his customs agent will be acceptable service of papers.

Amendments on the ADR and RID Treaties Regarding Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Trucks and Trains - Israel

On the 1st of January 2011, amendments to the following existing amendments will enter into effect: 1. ADR - European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road. 2. RID - Regulation concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail.

Shipping Fees without a Written Agreement - A Dispute between an Importer and a Shipping Company - Israel

An action for the sum of 21,000 NIS was filed to the Magistrate's Court of Haifa for a debt concerning failure to pay for continental shipping.

The Court Decides on the Accounting between an Importer and an International Forwarder - Israel

A decision was recently issued by the Magistrate's Court of Tel Aviv deciding on the financial arrangements between an importer and an international forwarder, on a number of subjects.

Is There a Limit to an Interest Rate? The (Ongoing) Debate between a Customs Agent and an Importer - Israel

A customs’ agent filed an action for around 230,000 NIS against the Markel Stav Corporation (importers) for an alleged debt for customs agency services, credit, and financing. The action was also filed against two guarantors for the importer's alleged debt.

A Customs’ Agent Will Be Charged with Storage Fees - Israel

Recently, a decision was given by the Magistrate's Court of Tel Aviv, in which the court rejected a customs agent's objections to pay container storage fees.

The Indictment against Gottex Will Not Be Cancelled - Israel

The company imported bathing suits sewn in Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, knowing that the fabrics used for sewing the bathing suits were not of European manufacture, and therefore the finished product was not eligible, under the rules of origin, to be considered a product of European origin when imported to Israel.

Pistachios from Turkey Not From Iran - Customs Will Return Merchandise to the Importer - Israel

Recently, a decision was given by the Magistrate's Court of Tel Aviv, in which the judge instructed Customs to return pistachios to their importer after being confiscated, due suspicions regarding their country of manufacture.

Customs Will Refund Importer More Than 3 Million Shekels That Were Overpaid - Israel

In the present action, the importer requested a refund from Customs of the 3.3 million NIS that were overpaid. The Customs accepted the importer's stance regarding the classification, and the action focused on the question of the need to prove failure to roll-over the tax.

Creating a Branch (Representative) Office in Russia

There are different forms of a foreign company's presence in Russia, one of them is a branch (representative) office.

How to Enforce a Foreign Judgment in China

  By Amaris Law
A case study on enforcing a German judgment in P.R. China, showing exemplary pitfalls for foreign clients who intend to realize the enforcement of a foreign judgment in China.

Perspectives of the Eurozone’s Future

The presentation of a “Pact of Competitiveness” at the EU summit on 4 February by Germany and France was the plan for the Eurozone Member States to agree on a closer economic convergence in order to restore competitiveness to the euro area.

International Sales: Standard Forms and Incoterms

The author explains about the advantages of contracting on standard form contracts and using shipping terms, including Incoterms.

Disinfection of Wooden Packages and Surfaces – Israel

One of the subjects in the field of international trade which has international regulation that is not a taxes or tariffs matter, is the subject of disinfection of wooden packages.

Payment of Financial Forfeit and Payment under Protests - Notes and Clarifications - Israel

As we know, an importer who wishes to import goods into Israel must pay the charged import taxes on the subject. At the same time, depending on the subject, in many cases he must meet regulations set by the governmental body responsible for this matter – generally, the various governmental offices or the Standards Institute. The various requirements for each type of goods are specified, among other places, in the Free Import Order.

Duty to Report Money Being Brought Into or Out of Israel

According to the Money Laundering Prohibition Law, and the Prohibition on Money Laundering Ordinances (Methods of Reporting Monies Entering and Leaving Israel) 5761-2001, it is mandatory to report the flow of money in and out of Israel.

Jail Sentences for Those Who Lower Prices to Minimize Customs Payments - Israel

Recently a verdict was issued by the Magistrate's Court of Tel Aviv discussing the harshness of punishment for those convicted of tax offenses.

Missing Cargo: Low Compensation for Damaging One’s Reputation and Causing Him to Lose Future Clients - Israel

A decision was recently issued by the Magistrate's Court of Tel Aviv dealing with the question of how high should be a compensation given for loss of cargo.

The Damage to a Shipment of Peppers That Was Not Proven

Recently, a decision was given by the Magistrate's Court of Tel Aviv, in a case which raised the issue of proof of damage resting on an exporter, whose good were damaged due to a late arrival of the shipment.

Can an International Forwarder Enjoy the Status of an Air Carrier? Court Updates - Israel

As we know, the laws of aerial shipping grant various benefits to an air carrier, including limited liability and shortened limitation period.

The Romanian Trade Register

Regarding its organizational structure, the Trade Register shall be kept by “The Trade Register Office”, which is organized in every county and in Bucharest, near the local trial court.

The Meaning of Being an International Lawyer

What is the actual meaning of being an international lawyer nowadays? Clients do not only need an expert in law, but an interpreter for the international context.

Exequator/Exequatur - Recognition of a Foreign Court Decision in Romania by Court Order

Exequator is a procedure regarding the recognition of foreign judgments in Romania by court order.

The Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (Rome I Regulation) Concluded by Cyprus Companies

A summary and practical guidance on its impact on contractual obligations concluded by Cyprus companies.

European Private Company or Societas Privata Europaea - Cyprus

Thoughts on the question whether the born-to-be European private company could potentially compete with a private limited liability company under Cyprus law.

Arbitrage in the Post Soviet Zone

Problems of security for a claim within the frame of the foreign arbitrary procedure.

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