HG.org Legal Resources

International Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of International Law.


Limitation of Business Freedom in Poland

Economic freedom in Poland is guaranteed by article 20 of Polish Constitution. However, it does not mean that the Parliament cannot specify...

Surf’s Up: New Consumer Directive Makes some Waves - Malta

In Europe, online sales are set to reach 191 billion Euro by the year 2017. Faced with these numbers, businesses simply cannot afford to pass up...

Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements of Turkey

Starting with the trade liberalisation and opening up of the economies world over accordingly, each country has been trying to attract foreign...

China Simplifies Rules on Foreign Exchange Administration of Foreign Direct Investment

On May 10, 2013, State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) released the “Regulations on the Foreign Exchange Administration of Domestic...

Adjustment of Administrative Approval in China (Shanghai) Free Trade Trial Zone

On August 30, 2013, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (“Standing Committee”) issued a decision in which the State Council...

New Amendment of Company Law of PRC Simplifies the Establishment of A Company in China

On December 28, 2013, the Standing Committee of National People's Congress made a decision to amend the Company Law of PRC and the new amendment...

Employment Law in Israel

Significant Issues in Employment Law in Israel

More U.S. Taxpayers Admit to Secret Swiss Accounts

Why Swiss Bank Clients Who Can’t Stand the Heat Are Getting Out of the Kitchen.

New Corporate Governance Standards for Regulated Mutual Funds in the Cayman Islands

  By Loeb Smith
In response to feedback from its consultation with stakeholders in the Cayman Islands financial services industry (including feedback on a draft...

The Malta-Alderney MOU: Is It a Game-changer?

Following the announcement of the signature of a bilateral Memorandum of Understanding between Malta and Alderney between the Malta Lotteries...

Asymmetrical Arbitration Clauses Under the Portuguese Law

An asymmetrical, unilateral or non-mutual arbitration clause may be grossly defined as the one that grants one party to an agreement the right...

MOTIVATION OF ARBITRAL AWARDS: A FEW NOTES

Decide promptly, but never give any reasons. Your decisions may be right, but your reasons are sure to be wrong. -William Murray, 1st Earl of...

Schengen Visa Decisions of the German Embassy Can be Fully Controlled by the Berlin Administrative Court

A German embassy can only reject to issue a "Schengen-Visa" if this is expressly regulated in the EU Visa Code. The national authorities have a...

Argentina: Tax Havens - Publication of the List of Cooperative Jurisdictions for Tax Transparency Purposes

The National Tax Authority (“AFIP”) published today in its “web” site the list of countries, jurisdictions, territories, states and special tax...

Global Economic Uncertainties and The Expanding Sukuk Market in Turkey

It is no surprise that in times of global and local economic uncertainties, people are more tend to look for a safe haven to wait for the...

Alternate remedy to the Hague Convention on the Taking of Evidence & Pre-trial Discovery

Notwithstanding the earlier request to the Central Authority it is open to either party to request the judicial authority of the contracting...

A Tax Exempt Start up for Multinational Companies: Liasion Offices in Free Trade Zones of Turkey

Today, in global cash flow around the world made multinational companies to think more on tax benefits and cost effectiveness before they invest...

Actions the Retailer Must Take after Issuance the Order for a Ban on Circulation of Batches of Medicines - Ukraine

The issue of imposition of a ban (temporary ban) on medicine circulation is regulated, in particular, by the Procedure for imposing a ban...

Approval of the Amendments to the License Terms for the Importation of Drugs - Ukraine

The Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 960 dated November 8th, 2013, “On Approval of the amendments to the License terms for the...

Chinese Regulations for Investments in Germany

A rather detailed introduction of the legal aspects of outbound investment from China to foreign countries based upon the legal reality of China...

What Brings Bali Package to Global Traders?

The World Trade Organization (WTO) reached its first trade reform deal on Saturday with the approval of nearly 160 ministers, who had gathered...

What Attract FDI to Turkey and Why Investors Prefer to Make an Investment in Turkey?

Turkish government makes room for new investors as Turkish economy is open economy which impact Turkey’s growth positively over the last decade...

Challenges Dealing with Current Account Deficit for an Open Economy: Turkey Case in Point

Major countries can encounter the problem of current account deficit which bring economic problems in developing countries.

New Investment Opportunities for Master Funds Schemes in Turkey

Business world firstly threw master funds opinion into the pot in 2011. After two years, this attempt currently came into climax with government...

Incentives on Renewables in Turkey

As many other countries, Turkey also intends to increase the rate of renewable energy resources to 30 % in its power generation until 20231. In...

Dispute Resolution Forum Selection Uncertain with Arbitration Commission Secession - China

The Shanghai branch of the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC) recently split from CIETAC after the launch of...

Managing China Risk in a Changed Business Ecosystem

Cartoonist David Horsey earlier this year created an image of an anxious Uncle Sam asking a fortune teller, "Can you tell me about my future?"...

What Laws Affect Mail Order Brides?

  By HG.org
As the Internet makes the world a smaller and smaller place, unusual new ways of meeting people have become increasingly popular. While personal...

Are There Laws in the U.S. Against Importing Goods Made by Child Labor or Slaves?

  By HG.org
Ever stopped and wondered where your various household goods came from? Not just the country of origin, but who actually worked to produce it?...

Are There Laws Against Spying in the United States?

  By HG.org
Movies and television shows often glamorize the world of espionage. But, in reality, is it quite so exciting? Aside from the lack of martinis...

The Guide to Benefit from the New Turkish Incentive Scheme

The overriding concern behind the new Turkish incentive scheme is the resumption of the macro-economic stability of the Turkish economy.

How to Secure Projects: the Significance of Insurance in Project Finance

In the last 5 or 6 years some projects have had the benefit of insurance which is designed to pick up the risk after the contractor's liability...

Enforcement of a Foreign Judgment in Turkey - Is It Possible to Enforce Romanian Judgments in Turkey?

This article aims at explaining enforcement of foreign judgments obtained from Courts of Romania in Turkey. It explains the procedure of...

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act - Panama

In 2014, essentially all the financial institutions operating in Panama will be required to submit information to the United States (IRS)...

Advantages of E-GKS in Terms of Transparency - Turkey

There is a significant regulation with regard to the companies in Turkey and their shareholders in Turkey and abroad which has been promulgated...

What Do I Have To Declare At Customs When Entering the United States?

  By HG.org
When traveling abroad, one set of laws tend to concern and confuse people more than others: customs laws. When entering the United States,...

How Does U.S. Law View Offshore Bank Accounts?

  By HG.org
Perhaps you are one of the fortunate few who has achieved a level of wealth where you are legitimately concerned that the ebb and flow of the...

What is Sharia Law and How Does it Apply in America

  By HG.org
Sharia law is the Islamic system of moral codes that govern all aspects of Muslim life. Since 9/11, a wave of anti-Sharia legislation has swept...

Founding Partner Liable to Pay Compensation Even Though a Broker Was Used – Germany

According to the Federal Supreme Court (BGH), founding limited partners are liable for incomplete or wrong information given by the brokers they...

Overview of Cayman Islands Law Governing Hedge Funds – Q&A

  By Loeb Smith
The primary legislation regulating hedge funds in the Cayman Islands is the Mutual Funds Law (As Revised) (the “Funds Law”) and accompanying...

Turkey Construction Contracts Which Mean EPC Contracts in Project Finance

Project finance means the term applied to a variety of financing structures that have a few features in common. There are lots of participants...

No More Individual Application Will Be Allowed to Become "Angel Investor" in Turkey as of 01.01.2014

Turkey, as one of the pioneering countries that has particular regulation and tax reliefs for angel investment, has almost TRY 10 million volume...

The Way to Reach Global Markets: Free Trade Agreements in Turkey

Economic liberalization and the elimination of trade barriers are crucial for any country that is well integrated in to the world economy and...

Business Formation in Italy – Entering the Italian Market

When entering the Italian market, a foreign corporation is often confused about which legal form their presence in Italy should have. This...

A Corporate Guide for Private Equity Funds in Turkey: Shares and Shareholder Rights in Joint Stock Companies

In contrary to the decrease in European and U.S. markets the private equity funds in Turkey accelerating the volume of the investment day by...

A Corporate Guide for Private Equity Funds in Turkey: Board of Directors in Joint Stock Companies

The management of a company is one of the most crucial issues for private equity funds since it is the value of the acquisition itself. As a key...

Agents of Foreign Companies in Turkey

Since the last decade due to the increase in FDI which is positively affected by GDP growth, Turkey has attracted many investors from all around...

Construction Contract and Project Finance - Turkey

The construction contract in an international project financing serves to give the project company a fully completed and equipped facility. In...

The Emerging Turkish Sukuk Market: A Safer Way to Invest

Sharia compliant non interest paying Islamic instruments, Sukuk is on the rise throughout the global financial markets. The volume of the global...

Why Does Turkish Banking System Gain Importance?

Economic activities contribute to increase of banking sectors in Turkey since expectations have developed rapidly and there is a stability which...

An Overview of Turkish Defense and Aerospace Industry, Tendency to Domestic Production

Turkey as a member of NATO and due to its geographic location has been allocated the highest funds from the budget to defense industry for many...

Can Foreigners Buy Real Estate in the United States?

  By HG.org
As the real estate market in the U.S. has made a strong indication of recovery, some outside of the United States have begun to look again at...

New Facilities for Customs Clearance in International Trade

New regulations in Turkish International Trade Law came into effect on 10.01.2013 in order to simplify customs procedures for international...

When Does the Geneva Convention Apply?

  By HG.org
Often an argument raised by inmates or others who feel they have been wronged but are not sure what rights to call upon, the Geneva Conventions...

Polish and Turkish Legal Systems for Value Added Tax (VAT)

The value added tax (VAT), is a type of indirect turnover based tax that is levied during the final phase of the purchaser of the goods and is...

Buying Property in Cyprus Made Easier for Non EU Citizens

In an effort to boost the property market and enhance the attractiveness of Cyprus for foreign investment, Cyprus has implemented measures that...

Ukraine for Foreign Investors: High Risk - High Profit?

Recently, the press increasingly writes about the decrease of investment attractiveness of Ukraine. This is indicated by both politicians,...

How to Prevent Seizure of Properties Raiders?

The press increasingly writes about the decline of investment attractiveness of Ukraine, reducing the amount of investment, including investment...

Debt Collection in Italy - Judicial Phases

Nowadays, always more and more companies cannot avoid facing the threat of unpaid invoices which obliges them to spend time and energy in long...

World Economic Forum Confirms Malta’s Placing as a Top-20 Financial Services Jurisdiction

The Global Competiveness Report 2013-2014, prepared by the World Economic Forum, has ranked Malta’s financial services sector amongst the top 20...

What is International Law?

  By HG.org
Many have asked the question “what is international law?” It is an understandable question given the way that it is thrown around as though it...

Puerto Rican Island Residents Sue US Government for Human Rights Violations

  By HG.org
After decades of live fire exercises on the island of Vieques in Puerto Rico, the US government ceased to fire on the island in 2003....

Which Countries Score the Worst for Women's Rights?

  By HG.org
While American women are generally treated with little distinction from men under American law, it has not always been so. Indeed, it is still...

Wet Lease Agreements under Turkish Regulations

A wet lease is a leasing arrangement whereby the lessor (one airline or aircraft operator) provides an aircraft, complete crew/only cockpit...

New Opportunities for Sukuk in Turkey

The Arabic term for Islamic securities Sukuk , commonly refers to the Islamic equivalence of bonds. The Islamic ban on interest payments is the...

Insight into Turkey's Energy Market and New Energy Exchange EPIAS

Turkey proved its aspiration with the liberalization of electricity market for being an energy hub in the heart of Europe and Middle East...

Lessons on International and Constitutional Law Found in Current Syria Debate

  By HG.org
Whether you believe the current administration's handling of the dispute in Syria has been well handled or not, and whether you are for or...

Prospects for Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey

Most of the economic pundits are in agreement that Turkey has increasingly been playing a prominent role in the world economy and redefining...

Overview of US Import and Export Laws and Procedures

  By HG.org
In order to avoid potential problems in the clearance of your merchandise, understanding US customs laws is very important. In fact, this...

Enforcement of a Foreign (Poland) Judgment in Turkey - Is It Possible to Enforce Polish Judgments in Turkey?

This article aims at explaining enforcement of foreign judgments obtained from Courts of Poland in Turkey. It explains the procedure of...

Amendments to the Trade Descriptions Ordinance in Hong Kong

To promote fair trade, enhance protection for individual consumers and to prevent unfair business practices in Hong Kong, the Trade Descriptions...

Enforcement of a Foreign Judgment in Turkey - Is It Possible to Enforce Chinese Judgments in Turkey?

This article aims at explaining enforcement of foreign judgments obtained from Courts of China in Turkey. It explains the procedure of...

The Opportunities Behind Angel Investments in Turkey

When Turkey first acquainted with franchising system, it was 1991. From that day to this, Turkey's economic perspective was entirely amended and...

The Cayman Merger Law Regime

  By Loeb Smith
Amendments to the Companies Law (as Revised) of the Cayman Islands (the “Law”) has streamlined the mechanics for implementing mergers involving...

India's New Companies Bill - How It Impacts Foreigners Doing Business in India

The Companies Bill, 2013 has been passed by the two houses of Parliament of India and is awaiting the assent of the President, which, when...

Protection of Foreign Direct Investment in Cyprus

Cyprus had been the first Member State to experience and implement the resolution and bail-in approach with respect to failing banks, thus...

How Tax Treaties Allow Benefits from Double Taxation

Double tax treaties provide for relieving double taxation; sometimes double taxation relief is extend to tax paid by foreign subsidiaries and...

International Trade Laws: Delay in Clearance of Goods and Demurrage Charges

International trade transactions relate to the importation or exportation of goods or services from one country to another.

Jurisdiction over the Turkish Steel Cases at the U.S. Court of International Trade

U.S. domestic steel producers consistently raised concerns about the Turkish steel industry, alleging that it is subsidized and unfairly aided....

How to Incorporate in Panama

Panamanian corporations may be organized by two or more elderly (who may be Panamanian or foreign) as well as legal entities, for any purpose...

Myths & Facts about Panama Corporate Powers of Attorney

Corporate authority problems may arise occasionally, with Panama legal doctrine providing interesting solutions.

Business Strategy Series: IV. Branch/Representative Offices or Foreign Companies in the UAE

The Commercial Companies Law covers the formation and regulation of Branches and Representative Offices of foreign companies in the UAE, and...

FIAU Annual Report 2012 - Malta

On the 15th July 2013, the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) issued a Notice for the purpose of formally notifying all Financial...

Advantages of Using Cayman Islands Exempted Companies for Investment Purposes and Finance Transactions

  By Loeb Smith
The Cayman Islands exempted company is the corporate vehicle of choice among international investment fund managers and investors. The...

EC Proposal for New Investment Fund Framework - ELTIF

On the 28th June 2013, the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) issued a Circular to the Financial Services Industry on the proposal by the...

Opening Representative Offices in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Nowadays foreign investors seek to establish their legal presence in Uzbekistan in order to better explore and understand the Uzbekistan market....

Arbitration in Uzbekistan: Key Things to Know

The judicial system of Uzbekistan consists of the Constitutional Court, courts of general jurisdiction for civil and criminal cases, economic...

Opening Pepresentative and Branch Offices of Foreign Companies in Kazakhstan

As you know, most of the national companies in a certain period of their development set themselves the task to bring out their goods, works and...

Business Strategy Series: III. Offshore Companies in the UAE

Whether there is a need to restructure a business, to protect assets or simply develop an international presence for a business, one of the ways...

Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive – Implications for Non-EU Managers of Non-EU Funds

  By Loeb Smith
As 22 July 2013 looms ever closer, as part of our continuing legal update series on this topic, this Guidance Note seeks to consider the impact...

Panama Enacts New Tourism Law: Law 431 of 2012

Almost twenty years have passed since the enactment of Law 8 of 1994, which until the end of the year 2012 regulated tourism investments and...

Accession of the DRC to the New York Convention on Arbitration

After its adoption by the National Assembly and the Senate of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ("DRC"), the President of the Republic...

Suzhou Court Refuses to Enforce Arbitral Award Rendered by CIETAC Shanghai (Also Known as SHIAC)

As the CIETAC Shanghai and CIETAC Shenzhen have respectively declared to become a independent arbitration commission breaking away from the...

Incorporating a Commercial Company in the Democratic Republic of Congo under OHADA Law

There are different types of commercial companies that can exist in a member state of OHADA (the organization for the Harmonization of Business...

Malta Is AIFMD Ready

With approximately a month to go from the transposition deadline, Malta has announced that it is first member state to have fully transposed the...

Business Strategy Series: II. Providing Brokerage Services in Commodities in the UAE

Futures and Derivatives Trading To perform as a trader (broker) of commodities in the UAE the company (a legal entity incorporated according...

Gabon: The Council of Ministers Adopts a Draft Law Regulating the Mining Sector

On April 4, 2013, the Council of Ministers of Gabon adopted a draft law regulating the mining sector, which aims to reform the mining sector of...

GATT Code of Valuation: Transaction Value and the Role of List Prices

Importers and exporters often face harsh treatment through the hands of customs administration. Though there exists a class of traders which...

Nationalization, Expropriation, Deprivation and the Protection of Foreign Investors in Cameroon

Among the well-known commercial risk of today, expropriation seems to stand out as the most prominent. It represents the most dreadful form of...

Malta – Redefining Collective Investment Schemes

The Investment Services Act (CHAP. 370 of the laws of Malta) currently defines collective investment schemes as arrangements which, inter alia,...


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