International Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of International Law.

European Economic Interest Groups in Italy (EEIG)

EEIG in Italy ("Gruppo Europeo di Interesse Economico", GEIE) is an associative organization. GEIE or EEIG can exclusively be used within...
FIND LEGAL ARTICLES

Establishing Business in Turkey

The New Turkish Commercial Code numbered 6102, published in the Official Gazzette on February 14,2011 came into effect on July 1, 2012.

Willfulness and the Civil FBAR Penalty

  By Brown, PC
In 2008, when it was revealed that wealthy individuals around the world were utilizing accounts and trusts in Liechtenstein to evade taxes, the...

The Regulation of Virtual Currencies - A Positive Step Undertaken by the EBA

On Friday the 4th of July the European Banking Authority (EBA) published an opinion addressed to the EU Council, European Commission and...

Can You be Held Responsible for Texting a Driver Who Causes an Accident?

Texting people is extremely common. Now, one might just be liable, if you do so to someone who is driving, and causes an accident. An Appellate...

Prospective Pitfalls in the TTIP

The United States and the European Union are readying themselves to celebrate the formation of the biggest single market to date which is...

IRS Changing Terms for Offshore Account Holders

  By Brown, PC
U.S. taxpayers hiding assets abroad should take note of the Internal Revenue Service’s plan to sharply increase penalties for such acts, while...

Licence and Registration, Please! – New Licensing and Registration Regime for Directors of Cayman Companies

On 4th June 2014, the Directors Registration and Licensing Law, 2014 (the “Law”) came into force in the Cayman Islands. The Law requires all...

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and The American Defense Industry

TTIP, the free trade agreement that is currently being negotiated between the United States and the European Union, if successfully concluded by...

Limitation in International Trade

One of the legal instruments and security accreditation of the rights and interests of the parties in the liability is the mechanisms of...

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: An Answer to the Shift of Global Economic Balances?

Long gone are the days the American economy by itself producing almost the 50% of the total world economic output immediately following the...

Arbitration: Your Counterparty is a Resident of Ukraine

Particularly, Ukraine, as the successor of the USSR, is the co-signatory of the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign...

Technology & Communications Law - Malaysia

A basic insight into the laws of technology and communications in Malaysia.

New Law Passed to Modify Contract Law in the Cayman Islands

The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Law, 2014 (the “Law”) has now been passed into law in the Cayman Islands and is expected to enter into...

Newest Legal and Tax Implications When Purchasing Real Estate in Spain

In real estate transactions in Spain it still happens more often than not that acquired objects or extensions have to be dismantled because...

Company Formation in Albania - Business Licensing

Foreign nationals are entitled to take up economic activities in Albania as self-employed persons, and to set up undertakings, in particular...

Malta Individual Investor Program – Facilitating Citizenship Through Investment in the Republic of Malta

The Republic of Malta allows investors to apply for citizenship, with all of its advantages. Acquiring Maltese citizenship also confers the...

When Will the Cayman Courts Pierce or Lift the Corporate Veil of a Cayman Company

The general legal principles regarding corporate personality under the law of the Cayman Islands are similar to those under English law.

MFSA Clarifies the Limits Applicable to Cross Sub-Fund Investments

Subject to certain conditions, a sub-fund of a PIF or of an AIF which is constituted as a SICAV is allowed to invest up to 50% of its assets...

MH370 - The Montreal Convention from a Malaysian Perspective

An insight for the unfortunate whose relatives were traveling on MH370.

Remedies Against EU Sanctions Targeting Russian and Ukrainian Officials

In the wake of new turmoil in eastern regions of Ukraine, the European Union has decided to expand the list of sanctioned persons subject to a...

Bilateral Arbitration Treaties: A Few “Bits” More and No “Buts” within the Portuguese Jurisdiction

In his “Kiev Arbitration Days” after-dinner speech in November 2012 (“BITS, BATS and BUTS”), Gary Born presented a suggestion that can leave no...

Marriage Features Between Ukrainian Citizen and Non-resident

Another, as we may say, and at least an adult step in the life of almost every person is marriage. As they say, love knows no age boundaries and...

Cross-Border Cooperation with Ukrainian Constitute

The cross-border cooperation in its actions submits the implementation of common programmes in different fields such as economic, social,...

Enforcement of Foreign Awards in India

Prior to the enactment of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (“Act”) the enforcement of foreign awards were governed by the Arbitration...

General Observations Regarding the Greek Real Estate Market

With the support of an extensive network of professionals (tax advisors, architects, civil engineers, business consultants), a complete series...

The Greek Real Estate Market for Foreign Investors

Our practical guide to real estate in Greece covers the entire spectrum of legal and tax issues which arise in practice when purchasing,...

Obtaining a Residence Permit in Greece

Greek government instated a procedure to obtain permanent residence permits, which can be renewed every five years, for third-country citizens...

How Does Malaysian Law Deal With Acts of Piracy at Sea?

Piracy is a prevailing problem with no reasonable solution in sight. How safe is your ship or consignment passing through the seas surrounding...

Concessions in Albania / PPP in Albania

According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared...

Democratic Republic of the Congo Postpones Ban on Export of Copper and Cobalt Concentrates

Democratic Republic of the Congo’s ban on export of copper and cobalt concentrates postponed until December 31, 2013.

Accession of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the New York Convention on Arbitration

After its adoption by the National Assembly and the Senate of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (“DRC”), the President of the Republic...

Guinea: Enactment of Law Amending the Mining Code of 2011

New perspectives for the mining sector in Guinea: enactment of the law amending the Mining Code of 2011.

Congo-Brazzaville: Adoption of Bill on Single Window for Cross-Border Operations

Congo-Brazzaville: Bill on the creation of a single window for cross-border operations has been adopted.

Comparative Legal Analysis on the Legislations regarding Corruption and Bribery in Turkey

This article is a comparative legal analysis, which points out the adaptability of the legislation in Turkey and the international agreements on...

The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Bill, 2014 proposes changes to Cayman contract law

The Cayman Islands Government has published a new bill that will modify contract law in the Cayman Islands when it is passed into law by...

Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements of Turkey

Starting with the trade liberalisation and opening up of the economies world over accordingly, each country has been trying to attract foreign...

Limitation of Business Freedom in Poland

Economic freedom in Poland is guaranteed by article 20 of Polish Constitution. However, it does not mean that the Parliament cannot specify...

Surf’s Up: New Consumer Directive Makes some Waves - Malta

In Europe, online sales are set to reach 191 billion Euro by the year 2017. Faced with these numbers, businesses simply cannot afford to pass up...

China Simplifies Rules on Foreign Exchange Administration of Foreign Direct Investment

On May 10, 2013, State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) released the “Regulations on the Foreign Exchange Administration of Domestic...

Adjustment of Administrative Approval in China (Shanghai) Free Trade Trial Zone

On August 30, 2013, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (“Standing Committee”) issued a decision in which the State Council...

New Amendment of Company Law of PRC Simplifies the Establishment of A Company in China

On December 28, 2013, the Standing Committee of National People's Congress made a decision to amend the Company Law of PRC and the new amendment...

Employment Law in Israel

Significant Issues in Employment Law in Israel

New Corporate Governance Standards for Regulated Mutual Funds in the Cayman Islands

In response to feedback from its consultation with stakeholders in the Cayman Islands financial services industry (including feedback on a draft...

The Malta-Alderney MOU: Is It a Game-changer?

Following the announcement of the signature of a bilateral Memorandum of Understanding between Malta and Alderney between the Malta Lotteries...

Asymmetrical Arbitration Clauses Under the Portuguese Law

An asymmetrical, unilateral or non-mutual arbitration clause may be grossly defined as the one that grants one party to an agreement the right...

MOTIVATION OF ARBITRAL AWARDS: A FEW NOTES

Decide promptly, but never give any reasons. Your decisions may be right, but your reasons are sure to be wrong. -William Murray, 1st Earl of...

Schengen Visa Decisions of the German Embassy Can be Fully Controlled by the Berlin Administrative Court

A German embassy can only reject to issue a "Schengen-Visa" if this is expressly regulated in the EU Visa Code. The national authorities have a...

Argentina: Tax Havens - Publication of the List of Cooperative Jurisdictions for Tax Transparency Purposes

The National Tax Authority (“AFIP”) published today in its “web” site the list of countries, jurisdictions, territories, states and special tax...

Global Economic Uncertainties and The Expanding Sukuk Market in Turkey

It is no surprise that in times of global and local economic uncertainties, people are more tend to look for a safe haven to wait for the...

Alternate remedy to the Hague Convention on the Taking of Evidence & Pre-trial Discovery

Notwithstanding the earlier request to the Central Authority it is open to either party to request the judicial authority of the contracting...

A Tax Exempt Start up for Multinational Companies: Liasion Offices in Free Trade Zones of Turkey

Today, in global cash flow around the world made multinational companies to think more on tax benefits and cost effectiveness before they invest...

Actions the Retailer Must Take after Issuance the Order for a Ban on Circulation of Batches of Medicines - Ukraine

The issue of imposition of a ban (temporary ban) on medicine circulation is regulated, in particular, by the Procedure for imposing a ban...

Approval of the Amendments to the License Terms for the Importation of Drugs - Ukraine

The Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 960 dated November 8th, 2013, “On Approval of the amendments to the License terms for the...

Chinese Regulations for Investments in Germany

A rather detailed introduction of the legal aspects of outbound investment from China to foreign countries based upon the legal reality of China...

What Brings Bali Package to Global Traders?

The World Trade Organization (WTO) reached its first trade reform deal on Saturday with the approval of nearly 160 ministers, who had gathered...

What Attract FDI to Turkey and Why Investors Prefer to Make an Investment in Turkey?

Turkish government makes room for new investors as Turkish economy is open economy which impact Turkey’s growth positively over the last decade...

Challenges Dealing with Current Account Deficit for an Open Economy: Turkey Case in Point

Major countries can encounter the problem of current account deficit which bring economic problems in developing countries.

New Investment Opportunities for Master Funds Schemes in Turkey

Business world firstly threw master funds opinion into the pot in 2011. After two years, this attempt currently came into climax with government...

Incentives on Renewables in Turkey

As many other countries, Turkey also intends to increase the rate of renewable energy resources to 30 % in its power generation until 20231. In...

Dispute Resolution Forum Selection Uncertain with Arbitration Commission Secession - China

The Shanghai branch of the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC) recently split from CIETAC after the launch of...

Managing China Risk in a Changed Business Ecosystem

Cartoonist David Horsey earlier this year created an image of an anxious Uncle Sam asking a fortune teller, "Can you tell me about my future?"...

What Laws Affect Mail Order Brides?

  By HG.org
As the Internet makes the world a smaller and smaller place, unusual new ways of meeting people have become increasingly popular. While personal...

Are There Laws in the U.S. Against Importing Goods Made by Child Labor or Slaves?

  By HG.org
Ever stopped and wondered where your various household goods came from? Not just the country of origin, but who actually worked to produce it?...

Are There Laws Against Spying in the United States?

  By HG.org
Movies and television shows often glamorize the world of espionage. But, in reality, is it quite so exciting? Aside from the lack of martinis...

The Guide to Benefit from the New Turkish Incentive Scheme

The overriding concern behind the new Turkish incentive scheme is the resumption of the macro-economic stability of the Turkish economy.

How to Secure Projects: the Significance of Insurance in Project Finance

In the last 5 or 6 years some projects have had the benefit of insurance which is designed to pick up the risk after the contractor's liability...

Enforcement of a Foreign Judgment in Turkey - Is It Possible to Enforce Romanian Judgments in Turkey?

This article aims at explaining enforcement of foreign judgments obtained from Courts of Romania in Turkey. It explains the procedure of...

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act - Panama

In 2014, essentially all the financial institutions operating in Panama will be required to submit information to the United States (IRS)...

Advantages of E-GKS in Terms of Transparency - Turkey

There is a significant regulation with regard to the companies in Turkey and their shareholders in Turkey and abroad which has been promulgated...

What Do I Have To Declare At Customs When Entering the United States?

  By HG.org
When traveling abroad, one set of laws tend to concern and confuse people more than others: customs laws. When entering the United States,...

How Does U.S. Law View Offshore Bank Accounts?

  By HG.org
Perhaps you are one of the fortunate few who has achieved a level of wealth where you are legitimately concerned that the ebb and flow of the...

What is Sharia Law and How Does it Apply in America

  By HG.org
Sharia law is the Islamic system of moral codes that govern all aspects of Muslim life. Since 9/11, a wave of anti-Sharia legislation has swept...

Founding Partner Liable to Pay Compensation Even Though a Broker Was Used – Germany

According to the Federal Supreme Court (BGH), founding limited partners are liable for incomplete or wrong information given by the brokers they...

Overview of Cayman Islands Law Governing Hedge Funds – Q&A

The primary legislation regulating hedge funds in the Cayman Islands is the Mutual Funds Law (As Revised) (the “Funds Law”) and accompanying...

Turkey Construction Contracts Which Mean EPC Contracts in Project Finance

Project finance means the term applied to a variety of financing structures that have a few features in common. There are lots of participants...

No More Individual Application Will Be Allowed to Become "Angel Investor" in Turkey as of 01.01.2014

Turkey, as one of the pioneering countries that has particular regulation and tax reliefs for angel investment, has almost TRY 10 million volume...

The Way to Reach Global Markets: Free Trade Agreements in Turkey

Economic liberalization and the elimination of trade barriers are crucial for any country that is well integrated in to the world economy and...

Business Formation in Italy – Entering the Italian Market

When entering the Italian market, a foreign corporation is often confused about which legal form their presence in Italy should have. This...

The Emerging Turkish Sukuk Market: A Safer Way to Invest

Sharia compliant non interest paying Islamic instruments, Sukuk is on the rise throughout the global financial markets. The volume of the global...

Why Does Turkish Banking System Gain Importance?

Economic activities contribute to increase of banking sectors in Turkey since expectations have developed rapidly and there is a stability which...

An Overview of Turkish Defense and Aerospace Industry, Tendency to Domestic Production

Turkey as a member of NATO and due to its geographic location has been allocated the highest funds from the budget to defense industry for many...

A Corporate Guide for Private Equity Funds in Turkey: Shares and Shareholder Rights in Joint Stock Companies

In contrary to the decrease in European and U.S. markets the private equity funds in Turkey accelerating the volume of the investment day by...

A Corporate Guide for Private Equity Funds in Turkey: Board of Directors in Joint Stock Companies

The management of a company is one of the most crucial issues for private equity funds since it is the value of the acquisition itself. As a key...

Agents of Foreign Companies in Turkey

Since the last decade due to the increase in FDI which is positively affected by GDP growth, Turkey has attracted many investors from all around...

Construction Contract and Project Finance - Turkey

The construction contract in an international project financing serves to give the project company a fully completed and equipped facility. In...

Can Foreigners Buy Real Estate in the United States?

  By HG.org
As the real estate market in the U.S. has made a strong indication of recovery, some outside of the United States have begun to look again at...

New Facilities for Customs Clearance in International Trade

New regulations in Turkish International Trade Law came into effect on 10.01.2013 in order to simplify customs procedures for international...

When Does the Geneva Convention Apply?

  By HG.org
Often an argument raised by inmates or others who feel they have been wronged but are not sure what rights to call upon, the Geneva Conventions...

Polish and Turkish Legal Systems for Value Added Tax (VAT)

The value added tax (VAT), is a type of indirect turnover based tax that is levied during the final phase of the purchaser of the goods and is...

Buying Property in Cyprus Made Easier for Non EU Citizens

In an effort to boost the property market and enhance the attractiveness of Cyprus for foreign investment, Cyprus has implemented measures that...

Ukraine for Foreign Investors: High Risk - High Profit?

Recently, the press increasingly writes about the decrease of investment attractiveness of Ukraine. This is indicated by both politicians,...

How to Prevent Seizure of Properties Raiders?

The press increasingly writes about the decline of investment attractiveness of Ukraine, reducing the amount of investment, including investment...

Debt Collection in Italy - Judicial Phases

Nowadays, always more and more companies cannot avoid facing the threat of unpaid invoices which obliges them to spend time and energy in long...

World Economic Forum Confirms Malta’s Placing as a Top-20 Financial Services Jurisdiction

The Global Competiveness Report 2013-2014, prepared by the World Economic Forum, has ranked Malta’s financial services sector amongst the top 20...

What is International Law?

  By HG.org
Many have asked the question “what is international law?” It is an understandable question given the way that it is thrown around as though it...

Puerto Rican Island Residents Sue US Government for Human Rights Violations

  By HG.org
After decades of live fire exercises on the island of Vieques in Puerto Rico, the US government ceased to fire on the island in 2003....

Which Countries Score the Worst for Women's Rights?

  By HG.org
While American women are generally treated with little distinction from men under American law, it has not always been so. Indeed, it is still...

Wet Lease Agreements under Turkish Regulations

A wet lease is a leasing arrangement whereby the lessor (one airline or aircraft operator) provides an aircraft, complete crew/only cockpit...

New Opportunities for Sukuk in Turkey

The Arabic term for Islamic securities Sukuk , commonly refers to the Islamic equivalence of bonds. The Islamic ban on interest payments is the...


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