Employment Law Articles
Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Employment.
The separation of church and state under the First Amendment of the Constitution met another recent challenge.
Sexual harassment falls under discrimination, and employers often find themselves treading on eggshells when it comes to sexual harassment.
As jobs and the economy become driving concerns for the country, a number of states involved in right to work issues also are grabbing American’s attention. Indiana became a battlefield for varying political views and signed into law a right to work act in 2011. Now the right to work debate is gaining momentum in Michigan as well. Without the right to work, employees working for a unionized employer must pay union dues or face job termination. They have no choice.
Legal Implications of Leaving a Company and Taking Your Twitter Followers with You
The latest slippery slope for the law and social media is whether employers have the right to ask employees or job candidates for their Facebook or Twitter account usernames and passwords.
The Washington Post recently reported that the federal government was the greatest violator of Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA). Labor Department Statistics obtained through Freedom of Information Act showed that in the fiscal year 2011, more than 18 percent of the 1,548 violation complaints filed through USERRA involved federal agencies.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) recently ruled in the case of a woman, Mia Macy, who filed a discrimination complaint based on gender discrimination.
As case law catches up with social media technology, more information becomes available to develop sound business practices. A recent report by Bloomberg BNA (http://www.bna.com/nlrbs-solomon-tackles-n12884909814/) unveils worthwhile policies described by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) Acting General Counsel, Lafe E. Solomon. The report focused on unfair labor practices that limit employees’ abilities to exercise their federal labor law guaranteed rights.
Veterans and military personnel face a number of issues when returning to civilian life.
Congress is currently considering draft legislation that would prohibit the National Labor Relations Board (NRLB) from ordering any employer to close, relocate, or transfer employment under any circumstance. The legislation would effectively prevent the NLRB from restricting where an employer can create jobs in the United States. The bill passed the House of Representatives on September 15, 2011 by a vote of 138-186. The legislation is currently pending before the Senate.
Workers’ Compensation Lawyer Discusses How Illinois Workers’ Compensation Act Changes Affects Employees
Interview with Howard Ankin – Ankin Law Office
Colorado’s version of the Federal False Claims Act (FCA)2 is the Colorado Medical Assistance Act (CMAA).3 It is also known as the “Colorado Medicaid False Claims Act.”4
The Connecticut False Claims Act (CFCA)2 is Connecticut’s version of the Federal False Claims Act (FCA).3 The federal and state statutes are similar in many aspects, but there are some differences between the two.
The Delaware False Claims and Reporting Act2 generally models the Federal False Claims Act (FCA)3. - 1. Liability and Damages Provisions - The liability and damages provisions under the DFCRA are similar to those under the federal FCA. Generally, an individual will be liable under the DFCRA for the same violations as the federal FCA.
Georgia’s version of the Federal False Claims Act (FCA)2 is the Georgia False Medicaid Claims Act (GFMCA).3 The statute was recently amended to look more like its federal counterpart. The changes became effective on July 1, 2012. Generally, the GFMCA models the federal FCA, although there are some differences.
Hawaii’s state version of the federal False Claims Act (FCA)2 is the Hawaii False Claims Act for False Claims to the State (HFCAS).3
If properly documented by a physician, obesity can be the basis or contributing factor in a disability finding. For obesity to factor in, it must be determined that it represents a “severe impairment” either by itself or with other medical impairments. Obesity will be deemed a severe impairment if it significantly limits an individual’s ability to do basic work activities.
Under the New York State Workers' Compensation Law, settlements under Section 32 are voluntary. The insurance carrier is not obligated or required to offer settlement. Nonetheless, in the vast majority of cases insurance carriers will be interested in trying to settle a claim.
For Wisconsin employers, a common question is "what happens if the job applicant refuses to sign the background check authorization form?" The obvious answer is, the employer cannot run a background check on the potential employee without a signed background check authorization form.
Many people make the mistake of disregarding notices from the Workers' Compensation Board because they are no longer missing time from work. Claimants believe that the paperwork cannot be important since their medical bills have been paid and they are earning their full wages. However, nothing could be further from the truth.
While industrial jobs are hard to find in this economy, service-based roles have increased, causing more employees to suffer from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, a painful disorder that is discomforting and sometimes there can be numbness of the hands.
Part VI – Reasonable Accommodation and its Interplay with OPM Disability The Rehabilitation Act/ ADA
Does the Federal Government Consider Me Disabled? As stated in previous posts, if you are disabled under the Rehabilitation Act (ADA) and you require a reasonable accommodation, the agency must provide you with that reasonable accommodation unless they can show that there is another less expensive effective accommodation, or they can show that accommodating you would be an “undue hardship” on the agency.
Last August we discussed lawsuits brought by over 75 ex-football players against the National Football League. The players sought unspecified amounts of damages for head injuries sustained over the course of their careers. The players alleged that the NFL knew of the harmful effects of multiple concussions as early as the 1920s, but kept that information from players until 2010. Riddell, the helmet maker, was also named in the lawsuit as a defendant.
An important Illinois workers’ compensation decision was handed down by the Appellate Court of Illinois, Third District, at the end of 2011. At issue in Will County Forest Preserve District v. Illinois Workers’ Compensation Commission, No. 3–11–0077WC, was whether a claimant’s shoulder injury qualified as a scheduled loss to the arm or a person-as-a-whole award.
If you are injured in the course of your employment, you may have a personal injury claim if the injury was caused by a third-party (not your employer). In Pennsylvania, the Worker's Compensation Act was passed to both protect employers and facilitate with worker's compensation claims. What does this mean?
Summer is here and many teens are receiving their first paychecks. As a parent there are a few things that you should be aware of regarding the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) which regulates hours and standards for minors.
In the continuing economic malaise, more and lower wage employees are experiencing problems with being properly paid by their employers.
In the workplace, there are several different types of discrimination which employees could have to deal with. From age to pregnancy to religion to gender, employees could receive lower wages, be passed over for promotions, or be wrongfully terminated based on these issues.
When Congress passed the L-1 Visa Reform Act of 2004 (the “L-1 Reform Act”) it did so to address a narrow and specific concern about some companies which had “outsourced” L-1B intra-company transferees to third party employers.
After the wave of I-9 audits in recent years, employers have become rightfully wary of not documenting their immigrant workforce. Everyone knows by now that the penalties for hiring undocumented workers can be stiff. But what many employers do not realize is that there is a risk to over-documentation as well.
A recent report by the National Foundation for American Policy has demonstrated that adjudicators for the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (the “USCIS”) have intensified their scrutiny of the popular L-1 and H-1B visa petitions utilized by domestic employers who need to import foreign workers with special knowledge or occupational experience.
The number of green card of immigrant visas available for individual workers from India and China will shrink in months to come, according to pronouncements by Charles Oppenheim, the Chief of the Visa Control and Reporting Division at the Department of State.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (“USCIS”) still has slots available in fiscal year 2013 for foreign workers in specialty occupations under the H-1B program, but petitions have been filed at a very brisk rate so far, and slots might not remain open for very long.
Each year, a large number of undocumented workers are deported who are parents of U.S. citizens. Many of these workers might have been able to avoid deportation and painful separation from their families by simply contacting a good immigration attorney who could help them to pursue a legal avenue to employment-based permanent residency.
After over 40 years of helping maritime workers, our firm has observed what it takes to get and keep an offshore job. If you are looking to tap into the oil and gas industry, then the following information may be helpful.
A natural segue from our last article regarding conviction records is to briefly touch on background checks and the requirements of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). For the truly ambitious, the you can read the complete FCRA text. Background checks are most commonly encountered during the hiring process. For that reason, we will focus on a scenario involving an employer and an applicant.
Every year, more than 10,000 construction workers suffer eye injuries, that are serious enough for them to miss work. In fact, this industry has a much higher rate of eye injuries compared to other workplaces. Flying debris, nails flying off nail guns, and welding sparks - all of these can increase the risks of an eye injury on a construction site. Workers may be at risk from tiny bits of splinters and metal, as well as debris that is generated as a result of grinding and chipping activities.
Dominican Republic has best legal framework for the Foreign Investment - Legal System - The Constitution of the Dominican Republic defines the government system as being democratic, republican and presidential. It also provides that the exercise of power is divided among three independent branches: executive, legislative and judicial.
The most recent version of the Criminal law that applies to youth in Canada, the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA), took effect in April 2003. Its predecessor was the Young Offenders Act (YOA) which came into force in 1984, and before that we had the Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA) of 1908. The YCJA is longer and more complex than what came before, and is meant to address the problems found in the previous regimes......
OPM Disability: How Can I be Sure that my “Physician’s Statement” Contains Everything I Need for OPM Approval?
If you’ve already begun the process of applying for CSRS or FERS disability retirement benefits, then you’re probably intimately familiar with Standard Form 3112, “Documentation in Support of Disability Retirement Application.” For those who aren’t, there’s a section in the application called “Physician’s Statement,” which must be completed by your doctor.
The State Administration of Taxation has issued the Notice regarding the Policy of the Individual Income Tax on the Work-related Injury Insurance Treatment (the “Notice”) on May 3rd, 2012, which has retroactively become effective as of January 1st, 2011. May 13rd, 2012.
It’s generally against the law for most employers to discriminate against job applicants on the basis of race and national origin, among other characteristics. But these same employers routinely refuse to even consider hiring someone with a criminal record. The applicant with a record goes to the bottom of the pile – or doesn’t get into the pile at all.
Like arrest record discrimination, conviction record claims are not under federal law, but rather only under the Wisconsin Fair Employment Act. Also like arrest record discrimination, the same “substantial relationship” exception can be applicable.
In this article, I briefly outline the legal requirements that apply when a group medical practice pays compensation to its members. My prior article, Compensation structures for a group medical practice, explained compensation plans from a non-legal perspective. This article talks about the law, specifically, medical practice compensation plans under California and federal referral laws (Stark and Anti-Kickback).
In this article, I talk about compensation plans for group medical practices. In general, a group practice pays its physicians in some combination of three ways: (1) salary, (2) productivity payments, that is, productivity bonuses or shares in profits or collections, (3) corporate dividends. Your balance of the three forms of payment determines in large part the culture of your group practice. Without further ado:
In this article, I first discuss when a physician is a contractor as opposed to an employee. Second, I look at the essential terms of a physician employment contract and a physician independent contractor agreement. Is you is, or is you ain’t, a contractor? - From time to time, to generate revenue, the IRS and CA EDD will audit medical practices on the issue of whether a physician is an employee or independent contractor.
Arrest record claims in Wisconsin are full of twists and turns, loopholes, and caveats. For this reason, they can easily get screwed up if you are not careful. We recommend that you always, always talk to an attorney about these situations.
When you become injured at work, you may assume that you are entitled to worker’ compensation benefits, but what happens when your claim gets denied? Work-related injuries are covered by your employer under what is called a workers’ compensation claim. These benefits are a type of insurance that provide things like wage replacement as well as coverage for medical expenses.
In selecting a law firm for an owner-operated small or medium sized business (aka “SMB’s”), we can start with some basic positions: 1. The law firm client is well advised to choose a lawyer, not a firm. Lawyers vary in aptitude, knowledge and experience in various practice areas, just as other businesses do. So, obviously, you need an attorney who actually practices business law.
Shanghai Human Resources and Social Security Bureau issued the New Standard of Social Security Payment in Shanghai (the “New Standard”) on March 31st, 2012. The New Standard has come into effect on April 1st, 2012 and will expire on March 31, 2013.
In January, Pepsi Beverages entered into a pre-litigation settlement of $3.13 million to resolve race discrimination charges that were filed with the Minneapolis EEOC. Through its investigation, the EEOC found reasonable cause that the criminal background check policy previously utilized by Pepsi had an adverse impact African Americans based on their race, in violation of Title VII.
For many years now, the Occupational safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has played a big role in making sure that the federal program governing workers’ compensation plans is up to par. However, it has paid far less attention to individual state plans – until now. As required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act that was established in 1970, the primary purpose of OSHA is to regulate the operation and effectiveness of state and federal workers’ compensation plans.
The idea behind a secondment arrangement is that the secondee will remain employed by the original employer during the secondment, and will, following the termination of the secondment, "return" to the seconder. However there is a risk that the secondee may (technically) become the host's employee, despite the parties' intentions. This depends on the facts of the particular case. This brief discusses the tax Implication of Secondment Agreement in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
When an employee is injured on the job, it's natural for that employee to assume that workers' comp will cover his or her expenses. Arizona workers' compensation attorneys know that obtaining the benefits you deserve is not always that easy, nor is it a straightforward process. Filing for benefits is actually quite complicated, and if not done right can result in delayed payment or even denial of benefits.
In a ruling that San Jose labor law attorneys are already criticizing, the California Supreme Court has ruled that employers are not required to enforce the rest and meal breaks taken by workers. The lawsuit was filed 9 years ago by employees of the Chili’s outlets, as well as other eateries run by Brinker International. The lawsuit alleged that the employer violated California laws when workers missed breaks, because of overwork or some other reason.
Employers Required to Provide Breaks, but not Required to Ensure no Work is Done - This morning, the California Supreme Court issued its long-awaited decision in the case Brinker Restaurant Corporation v. Superior Court of San Diego County. Employees who worked for Brinker Restaurants, such as Chili’s and Maggiano’s Little Italy, claimed that they were not provided the meal and rest breaks to which they were entitled.
The economic downturn since 2007 has affected many aspects of labor and employment law, including wage and hour matters. Efforts by employers to lower labor costs as one of the means to deal with budget shortfalls have included refusing to grant pay increases in collective bargaining negotiations, minimizing or eliminating overtime, and basically doing everything possible to ‘get more out of existing (or even reduced) staff’ without hiring more employees.
In an intense, heated basketball game, it is expected from players of both teams to express their emotions. It is considered normal for a player to express frustration on a referee’s call which he believes is contestable. In some instances, a player from the opposing team may instead keep mum whenever a heckling fan of the home team annoys him.
New Jersey is one of the few states that has been privileged with a large increase in job listings in the last five years. Over 94,000 jobs were listed for New Jersey early on in 2010, and among those highest in demand were physical therapists and occupational therapists. Both physical and occupational therapists play a huge role in the physical recovery of injury victims, and they provide structured methods and ways for them to return to normal living.
The Missouri Workers' Compensation law provides some relief from the financial strain of being injured on the job or if you are unable to return to work because of your injury. If you or someone you love has been injured or has been exposed to occupational diseases on the job please follow the guidelines below. These guidelines may prove beneficial in your Workers' Compensation case.
Sometimes leaving the TV on for background noise can yield results. About 2 weeks ago, I caught a brief teaser for an upcoming story about a former Indiana Catholic school teacher, Emily Herx, who was fired by her diocese after they learned she was trying to have a baby. More specifically, after they learned she was trying to conceive using fertility treatments. Here’s what happened:
Earlier this year, the Supreme Court gave religious organizations more freedom in hiring and firing by expanding the “ministerial exception” to anti-discrimination laws, meaning that churches and religious employers cannot be sued for discrimination by employees who qualify as a “minister.” According to the Supreme Court, a minister is anyone who conveys or promotes the religious organization’s message. That’s a very broad and flexible standard, but that is as specific as the Court would get.
The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security issued the Tentative Measures for Social Insurance Enrollment of Foreign Employees in China (Draft for Comments) (the "Tentative Measures") on June 10, 2011. The main contents of the Tentative Measures are as follows:
Recently in Wisconsin, Governor Scott Walker repealed 2009 Wisconsin Act 20, which allowed victims of employment discrimination in Wisconsin to seek compensatory and punitive damages in state court. There has been a lot of talk about this Act and its repeal recently (the vast majority politically slanted one way or another). We thought we’d provide you with the straight facts about Governor Scott Walker’s repeal and the practical effects it will likely have.
An outlook on the differences between night work, shift work and overtime in Malta employment law. The Employment and Industrial Relations Act (EIRA), Chapter 452 of the Laws of Malta, is Malta’s primary source of employment legislation. However, employees working in specific economic sectors are regulated by Wages Council Wage Regulation Orders.
Federal employee attorney Eric Pines tackles whether a federal employee will be considered disabled. In this series: Does the Federal Government Consider Me Disabled? We lay out the definitions of disabled under the Rehabilitation Act. In this post we will focus on whether a federal employee is entitled to his or her ideal accommodation? According to the Rehabilitation Act/ ADA says the answer is: Yes, but… not necessarily with the exact accommodation that you are seeking.
In the latest in a rash of cases striking down arbitration provisions in employment agreements, the California Court of Appeal has done it again. In Samaniego v. Empire Today, LLC, the court found that the following facts showed the arbitration provision to be unconscionable and unenforceable:
The author explains the concept of carpal tunnel syndrome in relation to worker´s compensation. Colorado lawsuits, much like in the rest of the country, hinge upon proving occupational disease or illness. When a person is diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome, he or she might be entitled to receive worker´s compensation.
Legal advice so that you know your rights and understand the legal procedures for a workers' compensation case. Workers' Compensation is the name given to a system of laws meant to protect injured workers. If a person is injured on the job, the goal is to make sure that the employee receives the appropriate medical care and lost wages compensation.
A foreigner and the potential employer should get proper permit before the foreigner starts his work in China. This article also give some basic guidance for the legal issues about the employment contract.
By Jaburg Wilk
ICE has stated that they intend to conduct 3,000 Form I-9 audits. Unsuspecting Arizona employers will receive a Notice of Inspection, giving them “at least three days” to produce the requested I-9 documents. Since 2008, I-9 audits have increased by more than 375%. Employers should not be fooled into thinking that the I-9 auditor is harmless.
Does improper employee training warrant a call to a Las Vegas workers’ compensation lawyer? In some cases employers try to say that the employee should have known better and that training has nothing to do with why she or he was injured. However in numerous cases, injury could have been prevented if the proper training was furnished.
Debbie Stevens, a 47-year-old divorced mother of two from Long Island, New York, has been fired from her job her at Atlantic Automotive Group after donating a kidney to save her boss’ life. In a Complaint, filed with the state Human Rights Commission, Stevens claims that she was set up by her boss, Jackie Brucia, 61.
Claiming for disability discrimination in the State of California is no easy task despite the implementation of laws protecting employees and applicants from workplace discrimination. There are two laws that protect individuals from employment discrimination based on disability—the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA).
We are often requested by companies to conduct pre-employment background investigations. These investigations typically fall within the confines of the Fair Credit Reporting Act and California’s Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act.
In a decision filed on April 10, 2012, the Ninth Circuit in United States of America v. Nosal, No. 10-10038 (9th Cir. 2012), put itself squarely in conflict with the Fifth, Eleventh and Seventh Circuits.
In the tragic circumstance where an employee is killed in the course of his employment, Workers' Compensation benefits may be payable to the surviving spouse and children. The maximum amount of death benefit payable is determined by the worker’s average weekly wage at the date of death and subject to the statutory maximums in place on the date of death.
If your doctor has recommended a lumbar fusion, you must secure prior approval from the insurance carrier. The New York State Workers' Compensation Board Medical Treatment Guidelines provide recommendations for specific circumstances when lumbar fusion is appropriate and those when it is not.
Since the introduction of the Workers' Compensation Board Medical Treatment Guidelines, the frequency of chiropractic care has diminished significantly. Chiropractors are still allowed to treatment for an exacerbation and, in many cases, will be paid for that treatment. However, it is crucial that the treating chiropractor document certain items at the time of the examination.
Workers compensation can be a minefield to tread through, but having a competent workers’ comp attorney at your side often makes all the difference. Claims are frequently denied because of employer or insurance carrier error; a skilled lawyer can investigate the reasons behind a claim denial and prepare an appeal for your case.
When an accident in the workplace occurs, employees can be left helpless with a number of restraints placed on them. Fortunately there are options that can help them get the full care they need. There is no telling what types of injuries a worker can sustain when they are on the job. Every work area has dangers that need to be dealt with and no matter where you work there is always the potential for an accident.
The Hong Kong Mandatory Provident Fund (“MPF”) Schemes has been in place since 2000 and as at December 2011, 85% of the total workforce in Hong Kong are covered under different retirement schemes. Pursuant to the MPF Schemes Ordinance, the Government has reviewed the MPF and is taking steps to amend the MPF Schemes in line with the interests of existing and potential scheme members.
The Egyptian Labor Law No. 12/2003 regulates the rules of investigation with employees and imposing the disciplinary penalties.
California Supreme Court Hands Employers a Victory and Provides Clarity on Meal and Rest Break Litigation
Today [April 12, 2012], the California Supreme Court, in Brinker v. Hohnbaum, handed employers an enormous victory, and brought clarity to the rules for meal and rest breaks. The Court also made important rulings on class certification of these lawsuits. This alert addresses only the clarification of the meal and rest break law.
If you have been injured on the job in Georgia, there are several things you need now to ensure you do not jeopardize your workers' compensation claim. 1) You don't report your injury in time. - If you are hurt while on the job in Georgia, you must report your injury as soon as possible.
Under the majority “American Rule,” parties are generally required to bear their own attorney’s fees in civil cases. For over 100 years, however, Texas has been in the minority that allows courts to award attorney’s fees to prevailing parties for certain claims, such as for breach of oral or written contracts.
Cyprus employment law is an amalgam of common law and statute law. Standard contract law principles principally govern employment relationships, statutory rights and obligations supplement them where appropriate.
As stipulated under art 10(C) of proclamation 377/96 an irregular work relating to permanent part of the work of an employer but performed on an irregular interval is considered to be a contract of employment for a definite period of time.
The mere fact that a certain employee was acquitted from a criminal charge brought against him in relation to his employment relation doesn’t give the employee the right to demand to return to work with payment of compensation.
By V&T Law Firm
On September 6, 2011, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security issued the Interim Measures for the Participation of Foreigners Employed in China in Social Insurance (the Measures) which came into effect on October 15, 2011.
An issue of concluding an employment contract by an employer and an employee, who is a foreigner or a person without citizenship (hereinafter referred to as “a foreigner”), is regulated by the national legislation of Ukraine, as well as international agreements of Ukraine, concluded with foreign states in the field of labour and social protection.
A recent meeting of court reporting firm owners from across the country began with an ice breaker. In two minutes each table was challenged to list as many things lawyers do that frustrate us. As a representative from each table read off their lists, among growing laughter and groans, clear trends were revealed. It seems the top five ways to sour your relationship with your court reporter are:
Being injured while on the job can be both a physically and emotionally draining process. Dealing with the physical pain as a result from an accident can be debilitating and frustrating—especially if it interferes with how you perform at work.
Many Alabama work place accidents are resolved through the workers' compensation claim process. However, certain industrial accidents are governed by federal legislation. This article provides a general overview of the application of the Federal Employers' Liability Act (FELA) and the Jones Act to Alabama work place accidents.
In a settlement agreement with the U.S. Attorney, the operator of 18 nursing homes in Tennessee and Mississippi has agreed to reimburse the government $ 2 million related to allegations of fraudulent billing practices at its facilities. Further, according to the terms of the settlement, the nursing home will implement an internal fraud-monitoring program and will train its employees on compliance with Medicare rules.
The extent of sexual harassment is sometimes overlooked. Many face serious issues at work that are unprofessional and unethical. Sexual Harassment is the sexual coercion or provocation of an individual that is unwelcomed by them. In the workplace this can be an all too common issue. When one employee harasses another in a sexual manner through repetitive or offensive behavior, it is not only inappropriate but can even be illegal depending on the circumstances.
The construction industry has one of the highest rates of fatal and injury workplace accidents in the United States. A construction site offers workers a unique set of hazards that was the cause of more than 800 construction fatalities in 2010, accounting for approximately one-fifth of all fatal workplace accidents of that year.
Federal employee attorney Eric Pines tackles whether a federal employee will be considered disabled. In the series: Does the Federal Government Consider Me Disabled (Part I)? We laid out the definitions of disabled under the Rehabilitation Act. In this post we will focus on what those definitions mean in the real world.
Recent decisions by the Texas Supreme Court have resulted in a “pro-enforcement” trend for covenants not to compete, and have eroded the holding in Light v. Centel Cellular Co. of Tex., 883 S.W.2d 642, 647 (Tex. 1994) requiring contemporaneous consideration to enforce a covenant not to compete against an at-will employee.
In the course of year 2011 the Hungarian parliament adopted significant new acts and the entire legal system faced significant revisions. Among other changes (e.g.: new Criminal Code, new Data Protection Act, draft new Civil Code) the parliament adopted a new Labor Code effective from 1 July 2012, namely: Act No I of 2012 (“NLC”). Some parts of the NLC are currently reviewed by the European Commission, by ILO and by the Hungarian Constitutional Court.