Employment Law Articles

Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide
discussing legal aspects related to Employment.


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Essential Laws for Equal Compensation for Men and Women

The battle of the sexes continues and an ongoing war on equal compensation continues in today’s workplace.

Understanding Colorado Workers Compensation Benefits

We all work hard for our money to live, eat and play. So if we're injured on-the-job unexpectedly, we expect the promises afforded to use under Colorado's workers' compensation law to be fulfilled. Unfortunately, that isn't the case much of the time. Your employer and their workers' compensation insurance company try to find cracks in your story or situation – any avenue to avoid paying your benefits in full. They're a business, so their interests may not be entirely aligned with yours.

Understanding Your Rights to Equal Pay

Of all the federal laws that enforce equal opportunity in the workplace, there is nothing that defends an employee’s right to equal pay better than the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA).

California Wage and Hour Law

One of the employee’s many rights in the workplace is to be paid proper wages for hours of work rendered and the Wage and Hour Division (WHD) of the US Department of Labor is responsible for enforcing federal laws on these rights.

Racial Discrimination at Work Explained

As defined by the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, race discrimination is any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on an individual’s race, color, descent, or national and ethnic origin.

Frequently Asked Questions about NY Workers' Compensation

Workers' compensation laws can be extremely complex, and often difficult to understand for those unfamiliar with them. Here are just a few questions people often have about workplace injuries and receiving workers' compensation in the state of New York.

A Comparative Approach Regarding Applications of Turkey and of France for Employment of Expatriates

Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) are defined by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as an operation by which an investor acquires a lasting interest and a significant influence in the management of a firm that is situated abroad. Purpose of this article is to compare difficulties met by a French company willing to invest in Turkey and a Turkish company willing to invest in France, as regards to work permits and visas for expatriates.

German Employment Law Overview

German employment law is not consolidated into a single labor code. There are several different statutes covering most of the relevant employment law topics.

Determining Workers' Compensation Eligibility

Have you been seriously injured at work? Learn about how workplace compensation disability eligibility is determined, and how to properly file your claim.

Supreme People's Court's New Interpretation on the Applicable Law for the Trial of Labor Disputes Cases - China

New Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues concerning the Applicable Law for the Trial of Labor Disputes Cases

A Guide through California Pregnancy Discrimination

Being pregnant is a blessing but for some employees who experience discrimination, harassment, and retaliation at work because of their condition, it becomes a heavy curse. Many employers feel that a pregnant employee is a liability to their business – so either they terminate the employee or basically cut down their hours of work, rate of pay, or even try to avoid giving them benefits.

Getting Proper Care for Your Work Related Injury

What should you do if your workers compensation doctor is not providing the proper care you need. If the doctor your employer’s Workers’ Compensation insurance carrier sent you to draws a conclusion you feel will not adequately address your injuries, there IS a mechanism to make a change…albeit not quite as simple as changing your family doctor.

Understanding Hostile Work Environment and its Remedies

Under the law, a hostile work environment is defined as working conditions where unwelcome and discriminatory conduct is so severe and pervasive that it adversely affects the victim's employment.

Gender Wage Disparity Persists

The glass ceiling is still largely in place for women hoping to move into management positions, according to a new report by the Government Accountability Office.

Female CA Janitorial Workers Obtain $5.8M Sexual Harassment Settlement

ABM Industries, which provides building maintenance and parking services at office buildings and other commercial sites throughout the U.S. and Canada, has settled a class action suit with 21 female janitorial workers who were sexually harassed by co-workers for $5.8 million.

Medical Marijuana and the California Workplace

California will be casting votes on Proposition 19, which would legalize marijuana. If approved, local municipalities would be able to pass their own marijuana laws and collect taxes on sales. The measure is designed to help California raise additional revenue. The effect on California workers is still in question.

New Law Prohibits Genetic Discrimination in Health Care and Employment

In the 1920s, the so-called science of Eugenics encouraged discrimination based on a person's heredity. At the time, this was merely racism disguising itself as science. But thanks to modern genetic medicine, today we know that more than just physical appearance is passed from one generation to another-a propensity for developing certain diseases also appears to be hereditary. And, as with the Eugenics of yesteryear, discrimination based on heredity is once again a possibility.

Bills in Congress Aim to Combat Anti-Gay Bias

With several states legalizing same-sex marriages and President Obama announcing that "don't ask, don't tell" will become a thing of the past, the gay-rights agenda has moved to the political forefront. Following the Supreme Court's recent decision in Doe v. Reed, many lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) citizens have become more hopeful that some of these proposed bills will lead to lasting civil rights protections.

The Whistleblower with a Prison Sentence

In 2007, the Internal Revenue Service increased the size of the awards it gives to people who provide tips that lead to the collection of unpaid personal and corporate taxes. The bigger awards - between 15 and 30 percent of the total collected - opened the floodgates for whistle-blowers. What had been just a trickle of calls annually to the IRS grew to dozens per month.

What Workers Compensation Benefits Are Available for an on the Job Injury?

This article gives a basic overview of the Workers Compensation Benefits that are available and the process to receive a workers compensation settlement.

Fraudulent Medical Billing and the False Claims Act

Although the FCA was first enacted with dishonest defense contractors in mind, the FCA has become an effective weapon to fight healthcare fraud. Categories of facility healthcare fraud often involve allegations of total neglect or no services, worthless services, inadequate and inferior services and products, and aggressive patient treatment. [1]

Defective Medical Devices and the False Claims Act

Federal and state laws require medical devices shipped and sold in the United States to be safe, effective, and reliable, and to perform as represented and to specifications. Medical device manufacturers are subject to mandatory and stringent controls over product design, manufacture, process changes, rework, specifications, specifications changes, and quality control. [1]

Ex-Chicago Bears Players Receive Large Workers’ Comp Awards

Two former Chicago Bears players have received sizable workers’ compensation awards from the Illinois Workers’ Compensation Board.

Illinois Court on Workers’ Compensation Commission’s Authority to Subpoena Copies of Medical Records

The Appellate Court of Illinois, First District, recently addressed the issue of the proper scope of a subpeona duces tecum issued by the Workers’ Compensation Commission.

Illinois Injured Worker Awarded over $30 Million

A former employee of a popcorn plant was recently awarded the largest verdict of this type by a Chicago jury. The plaintiff, Gerardo Solis, had been a worker in a Chicago popcorn plant owned by Flavorchem Corp for 8 years from 1998-2006.

Retaliation: a Ground for Wrongful Termination

Wrongful termination is a prevalent complaint in employment law. While employers have the power to hire and fire their employees, wrongful termination or illegal discharge occurs when such termination of employment is against the law.

The Scope of Turkish Labor Law

This Article is aiming to shortly touch on the the scope of Turkish labor law. The article also described the main elements of the labor law.

Basic Principles of Turkish Labor Law

In this article, the author touched on the basic principles governing the Turkish employment relations. Readers of this article shall be enlightened about Turkish labor law and its elementary principles.

Family of Worker Killed on the Job Can Sue Third Party – ‘Logo Liability’ Imposed on Owner of Truck

Illinois attorneys might be surprised by the recent holding of the state Appellate Court that allowed tort damages in a case involving injuries on the job. The ruling shows that workers’ comp attorneys should routinely assess all potential third party claims before concluding the sole source of recovery is under the Workers’ Compensation Act.

Making and Breaking Employment Contracts with Foreigners Living in Estonia

The Employment Contracts Act is the main legislation regulating employers’ obligations and liabilities in labor relations and it is therefore of great importance for employers to be acquainted with its requirements. However, a number of other legal acts lay down employer obligations and liability. One of these is the Aliens Act.

Suspension From Work Without Pay

  By Hg.org
Suspension from work, without pay (unpaid suspension), is the temporary removal of an employee from performing his/her work duties and from receiving pay, as a disciplinary measure. Many employers who have progressive discipline policies use unpaid suspension for employee misconduct: such as theft, unsafe work behavior and company policy violations.

Trend in Non-Competition Agreements

There is an increasing amount of litigation between employers and former employees over non-compete agreements and other forms of restrictive covenants.

The New ADA Regs Change the Employment Landscape

On January 1, 2009, a new act known as the Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act went into effect, broadening the meaning of the word “disability”. Both employers and employees awaited the regulations from the Equal Opportunity Commission which would give guidance to the current state of the law. Many believe that the regulations have changed the employment landscape completely.

Workers' Comp Benefits in South Carolina for Repetitive Trauma Injuries

When people think of injuries covered by workers’ compensation, they often think of major accidents that happen in an instant. For example, a machine may malfunction thereby crushing a worker’s arm, or a worker may inadvertently touch a live wire resulting in electrocution.

International Civil Service Update: Challenging a Rule of General Application?

  By Lorenz
In this contribution, the authors comment on a recent decision of the Administration Tribunal of the International Labor Organization in which the principle is discussed whether a rule of general application can be challenged.

Enforcing an Employment Contract through an Employment Contract Lawyer

While “at-will employment” is prevalent and recognized in the United States, there are many employers and employees who prefer the security of working with an employment contract.

Monitoring Employee Electronic Communications: A Violation of an Employee’s Right to Privacy?

With the increasingly significant role that electronic communications such as email and text messages play in the work place, employers often face the question of whether they have the right to monitor these communications, or whether doing so would violate an employee’s right to privacy.

The Equality Bill 2010, New Fit Notes & Sickness during Holiday - UK

The Equality Bill received Royal Assent on 8 April 2010 and became the Equality Act 2010. Under the Social Security (Medical Evidence) Regulations 2010, with effect from 6 April 2010, the traditional sick note will be replaced with a ‘fit note'.

Sexual Orientation Discrimination Basics under Hawaii Employment Law

Hawaii employment law, HRS Chapter 378, expressly prohibits employment discrimination and harassment because of sexual orientation. In May 2011, Governor Abercrombie signed a bill into law establishing transsexuals, transgendered individuals and transvestites as a protected class under Hawaii employment law.

Termination of Contract of Employment under Ethiopian Law

Do want to know when you can validly terminate a contract of employment as per the Ethiopian Labor Law? If so here are the main points.

Non-Competition Agreements at 100 mph

Non-competition agreements go by a number of names, including “restrictive covenants” and “no-compete clauses,” but I’ll refer to them as non-competes.

Differences in Disability Discrimination under FEHA and ADA

Disability discrimination is currently prohibited under the federal law, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). The ADA makes it particularly unlawful for employers in the private sector and/or state and local governments to discriminate against a qualified person with a disability.

Hawaii Employment Law: Workers' Compensation Basics

Generally, recovery under Hawaii's workers' compensation law is an employee's exclusive remedy for work-related injuries or diseases. However, an employee generally cannot sue his or her employer or a co-worker for damages resulting from occupational injuries caused by the employer's or co-worker's negligence. This does not necessarily preclude injuries resulting from intentional acts, for example.

Employee Inventor Rights Under the New Chinese Patent Regulations

  By MMLC Group
The State Council of the People’s Republic of China issued the new Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Patent Law (the Detailed Rules) on January 9, 2010. The amended Detailed Rules causes some changes regarding the legal rights of service invention employees.

How to Prove Employer-Employee Relations

Determining employer-employee relations is an important part of business, not only because it determines the obligations and duties of both the employer and the employee but also because the existence of such relationship vests an employee with certain rights.

What Are the Disability Leave Laws

An employee can’t stay in tiptop shape all the time, sometimes he may get sick or even get involved in an accident that could force him to take time away from work in order to recuperate.

Ukraine Changes Some Rules Regulating Labor Relations with Foreign Element - Hope for the Rest

Ukraine remains one of the biggest suppliers of seafarers to the global maritime fleet. The estimated number of Ukraine’s seafarers is not less than 75 000, and according to some unofficial reports they are engaged on about 20% of the world fleet.

Did Your Employer Violate Leave Laws?

Many workers aren't familiar with their rights under the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which first became law in 1993 and has been amended since. This leaves the door open for employers to violate FMLA.

Employee Rights Under the False Claims Act and Qui Tam

Qui tam, under The False Claims Act (FCA) is short for the Latin term, "qui tam pro domino rege quam pro seipse", which means "he who sues for the king as for himself."

Labor and Employee Benefits Law in Poland - Q & A Guide

A Q & A guide to Labor and Employee benefits law in Poland. This chapter was first published in the PLC Mulri-jurisdictional Guide 2011/12 and is reproduced with the permission of the publisher, Practical Law Company.

Where to Find a Good Colorado Workers’ Compensation Lawyer

There are many ways you can locate a Colorado on-the-job injury attorney. Once you have a list of three or four referrals, consult with each regarding your case before hiring one. Here are some of the resources...

Hawaii Employment Law and Whistleblower Protection

Under Hawaii law, HRS § 378-62, an employer is prohibited from threatening to discharge, discharging, or otherwise discriminating against any employee or a person acting on behalf of the employee, who is a whistleblower.

Federal Qui Tam Litigation: The Governement's Watchdog

"If there has been any crime, it must be prosecuted. If there has been any property of the United States illegally transferred or leased, it must be recovered. . . . I propose to employ special counsel of high rank drawn from both political parties to bring such actions for the enforcement of the law.” Calvin Coolidge, Statement on the Teapot Dome Scandal.

3 Mistakes that May Impact your Workers' Compensation Benefits

What follows are 3 mistakes you should avoid that could cost you your benefits.

Spanish Labor Reform Thought - Royal Decree-Law 10/2010 from 16th June

On June 16, the Government of Spain passed Royal Decree-Law 10/2010, with urgent measures for reforming the labor market. This is a reform that has been developing over last three years, and where social agents, companies, and unions have not been able to reach any agreement.

Taxation of Individuals Working in Hong Kong and Mainland China

The Mainland and Hong Kong signed an Arrangement between them for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (the “Arrangement”) on 21 August 2006 to eliminate any situation of double taxation that might otherwise be faced by a Mainland or Hong Kong investor or resident in the conduct of cross border activities.

When Punitive Damages in Employment Cases are Applicable

Most workplaces are a melting pot of individuals with different races, culture, religion, and beliefs. While employment discrimination against workers is illegal, it is not exactly unavoidable as there are still people who cling to their bias and prejudice and create hostile work environments to employees.

Legalization of Foreign Employees in Russia

The Russian immigration system has changed significantly over the recent years. Some of the changes include several laws being amended and some new regulations being enacted to improve the procedures and make them more straight-forward.

Employment Dispute Under Thai Labor Laws

Introduction: Under the Thai Labor Protection Act 2541 (1998), employee rights are widely protected. Generally speaking, employers must remain considerate and defer to Thai and foreign employees. When disputes arise, they typically take the form of a wrongful termination claim. Thai law is clear in defining when and how an employee may be lawfully terminated. Additionally, standards for determining remedies are well established.

Hawaii Employment Personnel Records Law

Personnel and related records present risk to Hawaii employers if not stored, maintained and disposed of appropriately. Hawaii employers should designate at least three levels of security for access to employee information/records.

Bid Protests on California Government Contracts and Public Works Contacts in California Law

This Article describes general grounds for Bid Protests on City, County, Local Agency and State Government Public Contracts in the State of California and stresses the urgency to file a Bid Protest very, very quickly after bids are opened to avoid losing your rights to file a successful Bid Protest. Protest procedures vary so check the project manual, local statutes or ordinances on deadlines and procedures, and - immediately - consult a competent and experienced government contract attorney.

Types of Colorado Workers Compensation Benefits

Understanding workers compensation benefits available to on-the-job injury workers in Colorado.

Navigating through Maritime Injuries and Wrongful Death Cases

Under The Jones Act, a federal law which regulates the United States shipping industry, the workers contemplated and protected under it are not just merely seamen or ship employees but also other occupations and places of work.

6 Ways Illinois Worker's Compensation Cases Are Different From Civil Suits

Many injured workers are not aware of the differences between worker's compensation cases and civil lawsuits in Illinois. When they hear about how hard it is to "go to court" over a work-related accident, this discourages them from asserting their rights under the Illinois Worker's Compensation Act. The truth of the matter is that the worker's compensation system has been designed to make easier, not harder, for injured workers to assert their rights.

Which Worker's Compensation Claims for Injured Truck Drivers Can Be Filed in Illinois?

When representing injured truck drivers in worker's compensation claims, one important question that must be answered is whether the worker's compensation case can be filed in Illinois. For an injured truck driver, this is an important question because the worker's compensation laws in Illinois are more favorable to the employee than they are in many other states.

Choice of Doctor in Illinois Worker's Compensation Cases

The Illinois Worker's Compensation Act requires employers to pay for related and necessary medical care. Injured workers in Illinois are entitled to choose two doctors and then receive medical care from that doctor and any other physicians to whom he is referred.

Injured on the Job? How to Report a Work-Related Injury on Condition

There are two requirements for an injured worker who needs to report a work-related injury. First, the injured worker needs to report the injury in writing to his or her employer within four days of the injury. Second, the injured worker needs to file a Workers’ Claim for Compensation with the Colorado Division of Workers’ Compensation within two years of the injury.

Holding Employers Liable for Employee Wrongs

Recently, the Nevada Supreme Court upheld a multimillion dollar damages award against an employer after two of its employees were involved in a 2001 drunk driving accident that resulted in one woman's death.

Non-Compete Agreements under Chinese Law

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at how non-compete agreements and arrangements are regulated under Chinese law.

The New Labor Law of Kuwait

The old Private Sector Labor Law has been replaced by the new law with radical changes in the basic provisions, came into force on 21st February 2010.

Work Zone Accidents and Employer Responsibility for Workers’ Comp

This year, National Work Zone Awareness Week took place from April 19th to the 23rd. In South Carolina, the theme was “Let ‘em work. Let ‘em live.” Throughout that week, drivers across the state passed signs with the slogan.

3 Types of Colorado Workers’ Compensation Insurance

Coverage and protection for injured workers in Colorado can be obtained by an employer in three different ways.

Employee Rights and Eligibility Requirements under USERRA

The Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 better known as USERRA is a law that protects the civilian employment of employees who have been called to duty as non-full time military service members.

Common Defenses in Illinois Third-Party Liability Suits

Injured workers in Illinois have the right to file a third-party liability suit when their injuries are caused by someone other than a co-worker or their employer. However, unlike worker's compensation cases, fault is a crucial issue in third-party liability suits. This article sets forth some of the ways in which defense lawyers are likely to inject the issue of fault into the case and how it can impact the recovery of compensation by injured workers.

Employers’ and Employees’ Guide to California Wage Dispute Lawsuit

Sometimes, employees may have unreasonable expectations about their salary but more often, when it comes to California wage disputes, problems usually arise when an employer fails to pay minimum wage, overtime pay or would even make unnecessary deductions from the employee’s salary.

Employment Law in British Columbia - What's New? - Canada

The current economic climate, continued employment and employment relationships are more critical than ever. Loyal and productive employees afford and employer its best chance to emerge unscathed at the end of this lengthy recession. However, economic pressures may require an employer to reorganize or restructure its workforce. Doing so properly, and in accordance with the law, will ensure continued survival of your business, your profitability and your reputation.

Employment-related Consequences of Workplace Transfer - Turkey

This article mainly discusses employment related consequences in asset purchase deals in Turkey.

Striking a Balance Between Religious Expression and Discrimination

Religious freedom is one of the founding principles of the United States. Over time, the practice of celebrating diversity and discouraging discrimination has become an important representation of America and its core values.

Are "Off the Clock" Injuries Covered by the Illinois Worker's Compensation Act?

Many injure workers in Illinois have their worker's compensation claims improperly denied because they were "off the clock" when they were hurt. Kinds of cases that result in improper denials of worker's compensation benefits include: business travel, injuries in parking lots, injuries coming to and going from work on the premises, and injuries occurring during break or lunch.

Workers’ Compensation Rates Soar in Ohio

On January 28, Plain Dealer reporter Bob Paynter wrote a front page story on how the soaring rates of the workers’ compensation group- rating program was adversely affecting small businesses in Ohio.

Ohio Lawmaker Wants to Deny Workers' Compensation to Illegal Immigrants

Courts in recent years have upheld the workers' compensation rights of injured immigrant employees, regardless of legal status. Only one state — Wyoming — excludes illegal immigrants from the workers' compensation system. Ohio may become the second.

Family of Worker Killed on the Job can Sue Third Party – ‘Logo Liability’ Imposed on Owner of Truck

The Illinois Appellate Court allowed tort damages in a case involving injuries on the job. The ruling shows that workers’ comp attorneys should routinely assess all potential third party claims before concluding the sole source of recovery is under the Workers’ Compensation Act.

As Drilling Increases, Maritime Accidents Will Inevitably Rise

Increased crude oil production in the Gulf of Mexico has sparked hope that the recession will soon end. As the nation returns to economic health, shipping lanes, ports and the gulf oil and gas production and drilling industry will get busier with goods moving in and out.

Termination for Serious Misconduct: Enforcement and Recent Developments

It has been over 4 years since the Constitutional Court’s ruling on 26 October 2004 which declared that Article 158 and other relevant articles of the Manpower Law in relation to serious misconduct were against the Indonesia Constitution and therefore were not legally binding.

Injured Owner-Operators May Be Eligible for Illinois Worker's Compensation Benefits

Owner-operators who are injured on the job are regularly denied worker's compensation benefits. However, a 2007 decision from the Illinois Supreme Court shows that even though owner-operators have signed independent contractor agreements, they may be considered employees under the Illinois Worker's Compensation Act and can receive benefits for work-related injuries.

Hawaii Employment Law: How to Implement a Sexual Harassment Policy

There are several specific steps an employer should take to emphasize to employees that sexual harassment will not be tolerated in the workplace. An employer's managers and supervisors take on an important role at each of these steps. One of the most important steps is the effective implementation of a sexual harassment policy.

Occupational Injuries and Occupational Diseases

Wisconsin law recognizes two types of on-the-job injuries that are compensable under an employer's workers' compensation insurance policy: accidental injuries and occupational diseases.

Federal OSHA Officials Prepare for Active Role in Nevada OSHA Overhaul

The Federal Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) has had its eyes on the Las Vegas Strip since last year, when a sudden increase in construction worker deaths raised questions of safety at sites like the City Center.

Tort Law in China - China's New Tort Law

  By MMLC Group
A welcome development, has been the enactment of a new tort law in China in early 2010. This law has the potential to change the legal landscape in China in relation to negligence claims, IP infringement matters and labor matters.

New York Treatment of Non-Disclosure / Non-Compete Agreements

A non-disclosure or non-compete agreement is basically a contract between the employer and its employee where, for some valuable consideration (like a job and salary), the employee promises not to divulge any sensitive information learned during the course of employment or the employee promises not to go work for competitors for some period of time after the employment terminates.

RICA in the Workplace - South Africa

It is almost eight (8) years since the Regulation of Interception of Communication and Provision of Communication Related Act, 2002 (“RICA”) was promulgated and almost nine (9) months since the compulsory registration of cellular sim cards.

Pregnancy At Work: A Review Of California Employer Obligations

EEOC statistics show that pregnancy discrimination claims are on the rise. The rules in California are slightly different than under the federal FMLA. This article reviews two important distinctions.

Noncompete Agreements That Stick in Massachusetts

What can be included in a valid noncompetition agreement?

Worker's Compensation Lawyer Fees in Illinois

Many injured workers in Illinois who are considering hiring a worker's compensation lawyer are concerned about the issue of attorney's fees and how they are going to pay for legal assistance. The good news is that Illinois worker's compensation lawyers work on a contingency basis, and that the fees are very reasonable.

Employment Law in Texas

An article about what to do if you are fired in Texas.

Georgia Supreme Court Upholds Attorney Fee Law

In the case of Smith v. Salon Baptiste (S09A1543) (2010), the Georgia Supreme Court ruled that Georgia law § 9-11-68 requiring a losing party to pay the attorney fees of the winning party under certain conditions was constitutional.

Minimum Wage Changes in the Republic of Panama

According to article 66 of the constitution of the Republic of Panama, the law will establish the mechanism to adjust periodically the minimum wage. In fulfillment of this article the previous government created a “Minimum wage National Commission”, composed by the workers union and the private sector (employers). This commission historically has never concurred with a satisfactory decision for a new minimum wage.

What Employees Should Know about Arbitration Agreements

Employees agreeing to resolve disputes through binding arbitration may be giving up important rights and, as one recent study has found, may be less likely to receive compensation for their injuries.

Employment and Record Expungements

The struggling economy has made the job market even tougher for job seekers, as the rising unemployment rate has resulted in fewer jobs for more applicants. Having a criminal record can be one of the quickest ways for employers to eliminate you from the potential candidate list.

Due Process; Limits on Punitive Damages, not Civil Penalties

The Court of Appeal distinguished between remedial civil penalties and punitive damages in Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority v. Superior Court (2004) 123 Cal.App.4th 261, and held that a government entity is not immune from civil penalties imposed by the Unruh Civil Rights Act (Civil Code section 52 et seq.) under Government Code section 818, which bars imposing punitive damages against public entities.


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