HG.org Legal Resources

Employment Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Employment.

Pre-existing Injuries and New York State Workers' Comp Fraud

Section 114 (a) of the New York State Workers' Compensation Law governs fraud and carries significant penalties. If an injured worker is found to have committed fraud, he or she runs the risk of a permanent ban on receipt of indemnity benefits and a permanency award. Claimants may be unaware that a failure to disclose a prior similar injury or condition can result in a fraud finding.

Holiday Pay Calculations Must Include Commission - UK

Where a worker is paid commission on the basis of sales made this commission must be included in the calculation of holiday pay.

Corporation Ordered to Pay €205,694, in Lieu of Salaries and Repatriation Expenses

Last month Judge Padovani Grima ordered the Ladybug Corporation to pay the 22 crew members, the sum of €205,694, in lieu of salaries and repatriation expenses, after that the owners had stopped communication with the International Transport Workers’ Federation, refused to take calls and had abandoned the crew and vessel.

What Happens After Filing an Initial Claim for Long Term Disability

What happens after filing an initial claim for Long Term Disability: The agony of ongoing and periodic LTD eligibility reviews. Throughout the duration of your LTD claim, you will be subject to ongoing and period eligibility reviews.

Starting a Business in Azerbaijan

Some of the legal issues that a person starting business in Azerbaijan would need to consider. This article covers corporate registration, tax and employment aspects of starting and operating business in Azerbaijan.

Missouri Workers Compensation and Hearing Loss

Injured employees, including those with hearing loss, are entitled to benefits under workers' compensation.

Workers Memorial Day Sheds Light on Workplace Safety Issues

Each year, more than 4,000 workers die from workplace accidents, and an additional 50,000 die from occupational diseases, which averages to 150 worker deaths every day in this country, according to Jessica Martinez, deputy director of NCOSH.

The Primary Culprit of Workplace Fall Injuries

Construction workers are particularly susceptible to ladder injuries, making up an estimated 81% of fall injuries treated in emergency departments throughout the country.

Taking a Medical Leave of Absence from Work

If you or your family is faced with a medical condition or issue that requires you to take leave from your job, you may have more protection than you think. Many employers must offer employees 12 weeks of leave for their medical conditions and medical conditions of their families necessitating leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).

Should You File a Workers' Comp Claim?

The New York State Workers' Compensation Law is designed to protect injured workers. Employers are required to have insurance coverage or risk significant and severe penalties. In addition, one could argue that the law provides an equal benefit to employers by preventing a direct lawsuit by employees. In spite of this, a general perception persists among some injured workers that claims should be avoided for fear of retaliation.

The Powerful Patient: Documentation Before Applying for Medical Leave or Disability Benefits

Disabled individuals, or those with medical conditions that impair their ability to work, are often frustrated with the process of proving their disability or understanding what and how much of their medical information they must disclose. Frequently, they also express frustration with their doctor’s office in providing the necessary information. But patients are more powerful in these situations than they realize.

The Most Dangerous Job in New York State

Recent studies reveal that a logger is the most dangerous job in America as it has the highest fatality rate. However, it has been my experience as a New York State workers' compensation practitioner that the highest injury rates can be found in the medical profession, a contention which now seems supported by a recent study.

Most Workplace Deaths Are Preventable

Most workplace deaths in this country may be preventable, according to a new report from the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health (NCOSH). More than 4,000 workers die every year from workplace accidents, and an additional 50,000 die annually from occupational diseases, which averages to 150 worker deaths every day in this country, according to Jessica Martinez, deputy director of NCOSH.

April 2014 Personal Injury and Worker’s Compensation Law Round-Up

There is never a shortage of issues to discuss in the world of personal injury, and April 2014 has been no exception. Current topics include mammography and its coverage by the media, dysfunction in healthcare, schools near dangerous chemical facilities, and a potentially record-breaking rate of car recalls this year.

Supreme Court Upholds Michigan Ban on Affirmative Action

A common law system (one where previous court opinions define the meaning of the law) can be very useful. It can also result in some rather bizarre arguments being taken seriously, and even garnering the support of some members of the Supreme Court. Case in point: the plaintiffs position in Schuette v BAMN which the Supreme Court decided this week.

Aetna Disability Benefit Denial Overturned by Court Due to Flawed Vocational Assessment Report

An Arkansas Court recently overturned an Aetna denial of long term disability benefits because Aetna relied on a flawed vocational assessment report which listed jobs that the claimant was not actually qualified to perform.

Number of Work-Related Injuries in Certain Industries Is Under-Reported

Unfortunately, some industries do not necessarily have accurate reporting mechanisms on work-related injuries and illness, which make it more difficult for regulators and lawmakers to identify and address occupational health problems.

Is Work-Related Hearing Loss Putting You at Risk of other Injuries?

Workers who are exposed to high levels of noise while on the job may be at risk of developing hearing loss and other occupational hazard injuries. Not only are these workers at a higher risk of hearing loss injuries, but a new Canadian study from the Institut National de Santé Publique shows that workers with noise-induced hearing loss may also be at a higher risk of other injuries in the workplace.

Salaried Workers and Overtime Rights

  By HG.org
With a salary usually come many benefits. A salaried worker may receive paid time off, additional medical days, holidays off and other distinct advantages. This position is often associated with a position higher in the company. However, there can be some drawbacks to being a salaried worker. In some situations, employers give this status to employees in order to avoid paying more money for overtime benefits. However, doing so can be a violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Prevalence of Work-Related Back Injuries

Back injuries, such as a herniated disc, sprain, or fractured vertebrae, continue to be one of the most common work-related injuries. In the workplace, back injuries can occur when lifting or carrying heavy objects, or due to repetitive motions.

Employees Habitual Absence from Work? How do Employers Deal with It ?

  By HG.org
Absenteeism is a common vocabulary faced by almost all employers. Continued absenteeism can be damaging to an organisation, as there is potential loss of efficiency and effectiveness as well as a fall in customer service and not to forget a strain on the absent employee’s co-workers. Absenteeism not only impacts on production levels; it impacts on other staff.

How Workers’ Compensation Impacts Social Security Disability Benefits

Disability payments from private sources, such as private pension or insurance benefits, do not affect your Social Security disability (“SSD”) benefits.

Opiate Testing

  By HG.org
An opiate is a medicine that contains opium, a naturally occurring narcotic present in the poppy plant. Law enforcement officials use opiate testing to detect the presence of codeine or morphine. Codeine is a type of pain reliever while morphine is a substance that is injected as it is in a metabolic state.

What Temp Workers Need to Know about Workplace Injuries

If you are one of the millions of temp workers in this country, you may be unsure of your employment rights, including protections against discrimination, eligibility for workers’ compensation benefits, and wage and hour rights. Temporary workers can rest assured: while you may not have the same job security that full-time employees have, you do have a number of employment rights and protections.

Putting College Back in Prisons

Going to prison should not mean the end of someone’s potential. However, upon re-entering society, many released prisoners find fewer opportunities than when they entered the prison system.

Wisconsin Changes Unemployment Insurance Law To The Detriment of Employees

As of January 5, 2014, Wisconsin’s unemployment insurance laws changed dramatically. The new law codifies and expands the definition of misconduct and creates a lesser standard which employers may use to prevent a n employee from collecting benefits. This article will briefly outline the changes to Wisconsin’s unemployment insurance law related to discharged employees.

Common Workplace Injuries

Workplace accidents and injuries can happen in any job and in any industry. But just like there are some jobs and industries are more prone to workplace accidents, certain work-related injuries occur more often than others.

Whistleblower Reward Is $63.9 Million In JP Morgan Mortgage Fraud Case

A whistleblower will receive $63.9 million for providing information to the government that lead to a recovery.

Workplace Accidents: The 10 Most Dangerous Jobs in America

According to Forbes, some of the jobs that are commonly thought of as dangerous actually result in the fewest fatalities. For instance, firefighting and tractor operation are safer jobs than being a car mechanic.

Federal Whistleblower Complaints Can Be Filed Online

Whistleblowers are now able to file certain complaints online. Whistleblower complaints that are overseen by OSHA can be filed online.

“Unacceptable” High Rate of Accidents and Injuries on Communication Towers

The high rate of accidents and injuries on communication towers is “unacceptable,” according to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) administrator David Michaels. Michaels issued his remarks at the National Association of Tower Erectors’ conference, which took place February 24-27, and he stressed the need for proper safety precautions related to communication towers.

OSHA Issues 2014 Site-Specific Targeting Program for High Injury Employers

Pursuant to its annual inspection plan under the Site-Specific Targeting program, OSHA plans to direct enforcement resources to those workplaces that have the highest rates of injuries and illnesses.

Personal Injury and Worker’s Compensation Law Round-Up – February 2014

Personal injury and workers' compensation lawyers have been discussing several important topics in the last few weeks, including the safety of surgical robots, the inadequacy of temp worker laws, employer abuse of the workers' compensation system, and the idea that doctors seek locations with lax regulations on professional liablility. This article is a brief summary of four separate articles detailing those topics.

Whistleblower False Claims Case Settles for $6.5 Million

A $6.5 million dollar settlement has been reached in a federal whistleblower lawsuit. There were allegations that a military contractor had submitted inflated bills to the government.

Workers' Compensation Dependents

Not everybody is entitled to survivor benefit. Individuals who might be thought about dependents for the purposes of workers' compensation death benefits are specified in Labor Code. It enumerates two classifications of people who might certify as dependents: (1) those who are good-faith members of the departed staff member's family or family, and (2) those with specified marital, blood or embraced relationships with the decedent.

Three Convictions in Medicare Fraud Case

A federal jury recently convicted three people on charges related to Medicare fraud. The fraud took place during the time frame of 2006 - 2011. The defendants in the case operated a durable medical goods company out of the Los Angeles area.

Employment Law in Israel

Significant Issues in Employment Law in Israel

Adjustment of the Standard of Social Security Payment - China

Shanghai Human Resources and Social Security Bureau issued the New Standard of Social Security Payment in Shanghai (the “New Standard”) on April 3rd, 2013. The New Standard has come into effect on April 1st, 2013 and will expire on March 31st, 2014.

The People’s Supreme Court Issued Interpretation IV on Applicable Laws in Labor Dispute Cases - China

The People’s Supreme Court (“Supreme Court”) released the Interpretation IV on Certain Issues regarding Applicable Laws in Labor Dispute Cases (hereinafter the “Interpretation”) on December 31, 2012, which came into effect on February 1, 2013.

Labor Contract Law Revision: Stricter Regulation over Labor Dispatch - China

On December 28th,2012, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) approved a Decision on the Revision to the Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the “Decision”) which shall come into force on July 1st, 2013. The Decision focused on the provisions related to labor dispatch and was designed to strengthen the administration of labor dispatch agencies and protect the rights and interests of the dispatched employees.

Study Shows Construction Workers Exposed to Silica Are at Risk of Disease

Construction workers are exposed to a number of occupational hazards, such as scaffolding injuries, noise hazards, and equipment injuries. But a new report shows that construction workers who are exposed to crystalline silica dust are also at risk of developing occupational diseases over the long term.

Injured While Commuting? What You Need to Know

Millions of people in and around Chicago commute to work each day. Most commuters use public transportation or drive in their own car to get to their jobs, but some Chicago area workers also bike to work or carpool. When commuters are injured on their way to work, complex issues can arise regarding liability.

Proposed Legislation Seeks to Cut Benefits for Traveling Employees

Commuting and traveling is often a necessary part of a person’s job. While work-related travel and lengthy commutes are commonplace in today’s labor force, when a worker is injured while commuting or traveling for work, several issues can arise regarding workers’ compensation.

The Dangers of Working the Night Shift: How to Recover the Workers’ Compensation Benefits You Deserve

Night shift work – though a necessity for many American workers – comes with a unique set of health risks and hazards. For instance, according to an article on WebMD, night shift work is related to a number of serious health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.

Time for Heroes or Villains? New Legislation Brings Rules for Whistleblowing in Hungary

“Whistleblowing”, i.e. the reporting of misconduct occurring in an organisation, has a considerable history in the United States and the United Kingdom. The legislation of these countries has already elaborated the process, how employees can report anomalies discovered at their workplace to their employer.

Survivor Death Benefits

The death of an injured worker does not influence the liability of the employer for payment of benefits. If an employee dies as a result of an industrial injury, a company’s liability for momentary or irreversible disability terminates, but the employer remains liable for various other benefits.

Workers' Compensation Claim Denial: Hardship Hearing Versus Final Hearing

In a perfect world, all workman’s compensation claims would be honored without scrutiny. Employees would be honest about the cause and extent of their injuries, and employers would willingly pay for all of the medical care necessary for their injured worker to recover. Despite its being a no-fault insurance, many claims are denied by employers and/or their insurance carriers.

Who Qualifies as a Dependent for Workers' Compensation Death Benefits?

Determining who qualifies as a dependent for workers' compensation death benefits can be a complicated issue.

When Do I Need to Retain an Attorney for a Workers' Compensation Claim in Salt Lake City?

The Utah Workers Compensation system makes claim filing easy for injured workers, who can leave the paperwork to other parties after notifying their employers of an injury.

When Is a Restaurant Liable for Injuries or Illnesses?

Every day restaurant customers and employees are injured in restaurant accidents. Injuries happen in restaurants for a number of reasons, including hazards such as food or drink spills, poor lighting, lack of or broken railings on stairways, failure to maintain the premises, burns by hot food or drink, food poisoning, sharp kitchen tools and utensils.

Health Care Industry the Target in Whistleblower Lawsuits

The United States Department of Justice has provided the public with some information regarding recent whistleblower cases. In one of the cases there have been allegations made against Health Management Associates.

$48 Million Settlement in Medicare Fraud Case

A California based nursing home operator has agreed to pay $48 million dollars in a settlement related to two whistleblower lawsuits.

The Financing of Claims in the Employment Tribunal in the United Kingdom

Various ways of financing the bringing of an Employment Tribunal claim in the UK and Wales.

Employment Non Competition Covenant Advice Note

The effect of existing employment non competition covenants when setting up your own business in competition with a former employer.

No Dismissal Allowed Due To The Loss Of A Doctoral Title – Germany

If it is discovered in the course of an employment relationship that an employee is unjustly using a doctoral title, this alone does not justify dismissal.

Due Compensation for an Employee

Due compensation in case of termination of a definite-term and indefinite-term employment contract in accordance with the provisions of law 12 of 2003 and its amendments.

Notice Periods for Sales Representatives May Be Inappropriate – Germany

Under certain circumstances, standard provisions regarding agreed-upon notice periods for sales representatives may be inappropriate.

Lack of Specific Regulation for Harassment Will Continue to Affect the Efficiency of Work Relations

Although according to European Union reports, all Member States must deal with the regulation of bullying with top priority, the Romanian legislature has not included in the new Criminal Code provisions criminalizing bullying. The need of integration was stated in the Romanian doctrine to adjust legislation and regulation of moral harassment at work by making it consistent through all national laws and regulations.

Securities and Exchange Commission Saved $439 Million For Whistleblower Rewards

The Securities and Exchange Commission has saved money to spend on it's whistleblower rewards program. It is likely that there will be larger rewards in the future as tips have increased recently.

The Claim That Additional Pay Is Voluntary May Be Ineffective if There Is a Contractual Arrangement - Germany

If an employee is granted a Christmas bonus and the employer does so with the reservation that it is a voluntary benefit, this reservation may not hold under certain circumstances.

Sutter Health Settles Whistleblower Case for $46 Million

Sutter Health decided to settle a whistleblower case before trial. The case involved allegations of double billing for anesthesia services at hospitals in California.

Ninth Circuit Outlines Boundaries of Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

In United States v. Nosal, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals was asked to determine the boundaries of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), 18 U.S.C. § 1030. It ultimately concluded that violations of an employer's computer use policy did not amount to "exceeding authorized access" under the CFAA.

Egyptian Labor Law

The new Egyptian Labor Law promulgated by law n°12 of 2003 favors employees. Some of its features are set forth in this article.

Whistleblowers Programs Could Help Regain Funds From Tax Dodgers

According to the California Franchise Tax Board, the state is owed more than 6.5 billion dollars in tax revenue. Some contend that implementation of a whistleblower rewards program could help to bring in some of that lost revenue.

Whistleblower Comes Forward to Talk About Experience at SunFirst Bank

A whistleblower recently spoke at a conference in Las Vegas to discuss her experiences. She was the compliance officer at a bank where gambling funds were processed. She cooperated with federal regulators and exposed the illegal operations at the bank.

Occupational Disease and Missouri Workers’ Comp: Who’s Entitled?

An occupational disease is one that has been contracted as a direct result of a persons employment.

Long Term Disability ("LTD") Appeals and Lawsuits -- Frequently Asked Questions

If your claim for Long Term Disability ("LTD") benefits has been denied or terminated, this article may answer some of your questions and concerns.

Termination of Employment in Turkey Based on Economical Reasons

The Turkish Labor Law No. 4857 ('the Law') sets forth the procedures and the circumstances for termination of employment contracts of employees by employers. With the confines of the Law, two separate termination mechanisms, namely rightful (just) termination and termination based on justifiable cause are available.

Claimant Unsuccessful in Disability Insurance Lawsuit against Boston Mutual in a Louisiana Lawsuit

In an ERISA disability lawsuit against Boston Mutual, Federal Judge upholds decision to deny Southside Machine Works employee’s long term disability benefits.

Employee Can Successfully Bring Intentional Tort Claim against Employer City

The usual avenue for employees seeking compensation is through a worker's comp claim. An exception to this is an intentional tort claim. This case examines a man suing a city for an assault he suffered while working for the city.

Missouri Commission Rejects First Aggressor Defense

The Missouri workers’ compensation commission has made an unexpected decision by allowing a man to receive workers’ comp benefits. The man and his supervisor had gotten into a physical fight. The case was heard by the Commission in order to determine whether or not what happened constituted a workplace accident.

Liability for Intentional Wrongdoing Cannot Be Excluded by an Acceleration Clause – Germany

Legal provisions cannot be circumvented by acceleration clauses in employment contracts.

Notice Periods for Sales Representatives May Be Inappropriate – Germany

Under certain circumstances, standard provisions regarding agreed-upon notice periods for sales representatives may be inappropriate.

Going to Court for a Missouri Workers’ Compensation Claim

Having to go to court to prove a workers’ compensation claim is not ideal. Resolving the case through settlement or mediation is often preferred because of the expense and stress of going to court. However, in order to receive the compensation you are entitled to, sometimes taking your case to court is necessary.

Problems with California's Bill Limiting Workers' Compensation for Out-of-State Athletes

California has moved one step closer to making its controversial workers’ compensation bill a reality. Earlier this month, the California Senate voted to pass the bill, which restricts most professional athletes playing for out-of-state teams from filing workers’ compensation claims in California. The bill is now awaiting the signature of Gov. Jerry Brown.

Employment Relationship after Years of Contract Work – Germany

An employment relationship can be established regardless of whether a service contract was signed, even after contract work under instructions.

A Substitute Official Working on Call May Be Entitled to Compensatory Time Off – Germany

If an official working on call is entitled to compensatory time off, this also applies to his/her appointed substitute.

Flight Crews Can Deduct Driving Expenses in Full – Germany

The driving expenses of flight crews between their home and their assigned airport can be deducted in full.

Employment Relationship with Transferred Employee Despite Transfer Agreement – Employment Law - Germany

An employment relationship with the host business can be assumed under certain circumstances despite any transfer agreement.

Establishment of an Employment Relationship after Longstanding Deployment of External Employees - Germany

Irrespective of any contract to produce a work, an employment relationship can emerge even in the case of external employees deployed and bound by instructions if integrated into the business.

Polish and Turkish Legal Systems for Maternity Leave of Employees

Maternity leave (also referred as parental leave, paternity or adoption leave) is a form of an employee benefit that provides paid or unpaid time-off from work for the purposes childbirth or child welfare. Maternity leave is guaranteed mostly by the constitutions or by statutory regulations in all EU states including Poland, as well as in Turkey. This brief information note aims to summarize the systems in Turkey and in Poland.

Contractual Forfeiture Clause Does Not Lead to the Exclusion of Liability for Deliberate Acts - Germany

A contractual forfeiture clause included in an employment contract may not necessarily apply in the case of already legally regulated cases.

Immediate Termination of a GmbH Managing Director - Germany

In determining the valid grounds of immediate termination of a Managing Director, the knowledge available to the parties in regards to the reasons for making the termination effective are decisive.

Entitlement to Part-Time Work after Parental Leave - Germany

The employer of an employee returning after parental leave must provide for a part-time employment option.

Works Council’s Right to Refuse Borrowing on More than a Temporary Basis - Germany

The works council of company hiring temporary workers can reject the borrowing of a temporary worker on more than a temporary basis.

In Deciding on a Secondment All Employees Must Be Included - Germany

Employers may not set iniquitous parameters when choosing employees for the purposes of a secondment. Thus, the restriction solely to formerly temporary employees is impermissible.

Termination of a Compliance Manager in Regards to Monitoring Measures - Germany

Circumstances may lead to the termination of a compliance manager when it comes to monitoring measures taken with regard to an employee.

Unreasonable Discrimination in Relation to an Extended Period of Notice of Termination - Germany

The Federal Supreme Court has issued a decision in regards to the termination of a commercial sales agent which has been determined to represent unreasonable discrimination only due to the provision of a termination notice period of 12 months.

How Disabled Do You Have to Be to Get Social Security Disability Benefits?

You do not have to be "totally disabled" or an invalid! For many claimants, you only have to be disabled from your former type of work. The Social Security Administration will take into consideration your age, education and past work experience in deciding if you are disabled under their rules. Every case is unique.

Extension of an Employee's Probationary Period

An employer’s extension of a recently-retained employee is not an action employers summarily or frequently take. Oftentimes the employer is afraid to modify its probationary period policy for fear of repercussions if it/he/she does so. Other times, the employer simply does not have sufficient information to form a viable decision.

New Amendments to Foreign Work Permit Procedure in Ukraine

On July 5, 2013, the Cabinet of Ministers’ Resolution No. 437 regarding “Issuance, Prolongation of the Validity Term and Annulment of Permissions for the Use of Labor of Foreigners and Stateless Persons”, dated May 27, 2013 (the “Resolution”), came into force. The Resolution establishes the new list of documents required for obtaining work permits for foreign individuals hired for labor in Ukraine.

Ukrainian Government Simplifies List of Documents Required for Temporary Residency

Once again, the Ukrainian government has introduced amendments to the Ukrainian immigration rules. This time, the amendments are designed to decrease the volume of documents required for foreign work permits and temporary residency permits.

Ordinary Dismissal: Reference to Statutory Deadlines Should Suffice - Germany

A reference in the dismissal to the relevant statutory deadline provisions is sufficient, if it is possible to identify the date on which the employment relationship is supposed to come to an end.

Permanent Residency Option for Applicants under Specific Labor Programs - Panama

Any applicant hired by a company within the 10% of the Panamanian payroll or 15% (Technicians) will be entitled to opt for a permanent residency status as long as the process is completed.

Dismissal of a Director without Notice Knowledge of the Board Decisive - Germany

In the view of the Federal Court of Justice, the level of knowledge of the board deciding on the dismissal is decisive in determining the reasons for a dismissal of a GmbH director without notice.

Rights to Information of Applicants in the Recruitment Process - Germany

A rejected job applicant should not have a right to information vis-à-vis the employer regarding whether the employer has hired another applicant or on the basis of which criteria people were hired.

Compensation Payments for Vacation or Holiday Leave Time Entitlements According to Labor Law - Germany

If an employee waives compensation for leave in the context of a settlement with the employer, EU law cannot stand in opposition to such a waiver.

Industrial Tribunal Decision – Maria C. Debono vs Foster Clark Products – Injury Leave - Unfair Dismissal

On the 4th June 2013 the Industrial Tribunal, following a claim for unfair dismissal filed by Mrs Maria Concetta Debono, awarded a decision in her favor and ordered her re-instatement with Foster Clark Products Limited and the payment of wages for the duration of her unemployment.

Insurers Balk At The Prevalence of Narcotics In The Workers’ Comp System

The prevalence of narcotic prescriptions in the workers’ compensation system is receiving a lot of attention currently because insurers are becoming uncomfortable with assuming the cost of these prescriptions when it comes to long term use.

A Q&A Guide to Doing Business in Angola

An overview of key developments affecting doing business in Angola and an introduction to its legal system for foreign investment, currency regulations and incentives, business vehicles and relevant restrictions and liabilities. It provides short overviews on the laws regulating employment relationships including redundancies and on competition law, data protection, product liability/safety, taxation/tax residency and IP rights over patents, trade marks, registered and unregistered designs.

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