To consult State Legislation regarding robbery laws and regulations please see the Criminal Code by State page.
Robbery Law - US
- Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) - Robbery
Robbery is the completed or attempted theft, directly from a person, of property or cash by force or threat of force, with or without a weapon, and with or without injury.
- Center for Problem-Oriented Policing - Robbery of Convenience Stores
This guide begins by describing the problem of convenience store robbery and reviewing factors that increase its risk. It then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local convenience store robbery problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and what is known about these from evaluative research and police practice.
- Extortion - Overview
Extortion, outwresting, or/and exaction is a criminal offense which occurs when a person unlawfully obtains either money, property or services from a person(s), entity, or institution, through coercion. Refraining from doing harm is sometimes euphemistically called protection. Extortion is commonly practiced by organized crime groups. The actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense. Making a threat of violence which refers to a requirement of a payment of money or property to halt future violence is sufficient to commit the offense. Exaction refers not only to extortion or the unlawful demanding and obtaining of something through force but additionally, in its formal definition, means the infliction of something such as pain and suffering or making somebody endure something unpleasant.
- FBI Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program - Robbery
The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program defines robbery as the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.
- Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual - Robbery, Extortion and Blackmail
The Guidelines are the product of the United States Sentencing Commission, which was created by the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984. The Guidelines' primary goal was to alleviate sentencing disparities that research had indicated was prevalent in the existing sentencing system, and the guidelines reform was specifically intended to provide for determinate sentencing. This refers to sentencing whose actual limits are determined at the time the sentence is imposed, as opposed to indeterminate sentencing, in which a sentence with a maximum (and, perhaps, a minimum) is pronounced but the actual sentence is determined by a parole commission or similar administrative body after the person has started serving their sentence. As part of the guidelines reform, parole was abolished.
- Hobbs Act - Extortion by Force, Violence, or Fear
The Hobbs Act, named after Congressman Sam Hobbs (D-AL) and codified at 18 U.S.C. § 1951, is a U.S. federal law that prohibits actual or attempted robbery or extortion affecting interstate or foreign commerce. Section 1951 also proscribes conspiracy to commit robbery or extortion without reference to the conspiracy statute at 18 U.S.C. § 371. Although the Hobbs Act was enacted as a statute to combat racketeering in labor-management disputes, the statute is frequently used in connection with cases involving public corruption, commercial disputes, and corruption directed at members of labor unions.
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) Violent Crime - Robbery
Established in 1972, NCJRS is a federally funded resource offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide.
- Robbery - Definition
Robbery is a crime of theft and can be classified as Larceny by force or by threat of force. The elements of the crime of robbery include the use of force or intimidation and all the elements of the crime of larceny. The penalty for robbery is always more severe than for larceny.
- US Criminal Code - Bank Robbery and Incidental Crimes
18 USCS § 2113 makes Bank robbery and the crimes done incidental to the robbery a Federal Crime and offense. Bank as used in the section means any member bank of the Federal Reserve System, and any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, or other banking institution organized or operating under the laws of the United States, including a branch or agency of a foreign bank, and any institution the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Organisations Related to Robbery Law
- National Center for Victims of Crime - Robbery
Robbery has become one of the most feared crimes in our nation, as it not only entails loss of property, but also the threat -- or actual use -- of violence. Robbery occurs more frequently than either rape or homicide. Even when victims do not sustain extensive injury or loss, they are often forced to suffer threats of violence and bodily harm at the hands of their assailant. Both property and personal safety are placed at substantial risk during a robbery. The victim encounters the robber face-to-face; therefore, a person who is robbed is immediately aware of a total loss of control. When a weapon is involved, this loss is even more acute, and these circumstances can cause both short-term and long-term crisis reactions for the victim
- National Neighborhood Watch Institute
The National Neighborhood Watch Institute was formed to supply law enforcement agencies and individual’s better tools for their crime prevention dollar. This was in response to a local police department asking us for help in the 1980s. We were then, and still are, part of InterPrint Corporation which was incorporated in 1973.
- USAonWatch - Neighborhood Watch
Since its beginnings, Neighborhood Watch has grown from an "extra eyes and ears" approach to crime prevention to a much more proactive, community-oriented endeavor providing a unique infrastructure that brings together local officials, law enforcement, and citizens for the protection of their communities. Today's Neighborhood Watch programs incorporate activities that not only address crime prevention issues, but also restore pride and unity to a neighborhood. It is not uncommon to see members of Neighborhood Watch groups participating in community cleanups and other activities that strive to improve the quality of life for community residents.
Publications Related to Robbery Law
- Bank Robbery Blogs
This blogs presents a variety of subjects and comments related to bank robberies.
- National Sheriffs' Association - Robbery Publications
The National Sheriffs' Association, now in its sixty-eighth year of serving law enforcement and other criminal justice professionals of the nation, is a non-profit organization dedicated to raising the level of professionalism among those in the criminal justice field.
- Robberies and Thefts - The New York Times
News about robberies and thefts, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.
Articles on HG.org Related to Robbery Law
- Restitution Award in DUI Case Reversed and Vacated Because Trial Court’s Calculation Not RationalIn the following 2009 case, a DUI matter, O.M. was driving his car when hit by DUI Defendant R.P. on Beach Boulevard in Orange County. O.M. sustained broken ribs, back fractures and a serious knee injury.
- Expungement of Petty Theft Conviction a Mistake, Although Defendant Consequently Faces DeportationIn 2011, he again attacked his 1997 petty theft conviction, by way of an “invitation” that the court dismiss the judgment of conviction under Penal Code § 1385. It merits mention parenthetically that only prosecutor can move to dismiss a case under section 1385. Thus, a defendant must instead “invite” the judge to exercise his discretion under 1385 to dismiss the case.
- Juvenile Commits First Degree Residential Burglary by Stealing Guns from Closet Near Home EntryIn San Diego County, a juvenile (“M.A.”) entered a house with the owner’s permission without any intent to commit a felony therein. While inside, he learned that there were guns in a closet and then decided to steal then. The closet was three feet by four feet and in the home’s entry way, but not in the home’s interior.
- First Degree Burglary Conviction Upheld When Residential Home Uninhabited and Realtor’s Wallet is Stolen.Under Penal Code § 460, every burglary of an inhabited dwelling is first degree burglary. Burglary of a structure that is not an “inhabited dwelling house” is second degree burglary. On June 27, 2010, realtor Janice Konkol was conducting an open house of a home in Irvine. Rodney Little and his girlfriend walked into the house.
- First Degree Residential Burglary is a Crime of Violence Under Immigration LawsIn 2007, Ramiro Ramos-Medina was convicted after a jury trial of First Degree Residential Burglary, a violation of Penal Code § 459. The judge sentenced him to two years in state prison. Mr. Medina was not a U.S. citizen. Immigration officers told him that his conviction was a “crime of violence” under 8 U.S.C. § 16(b) and thus, an “aggravated felony” under the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(43) and § 1227(a)(2)(A)(iii).
- Conviction Reversed for Possession of Burglary Tools (Penal Code § 466)In newspapers, one often reads of someone being arrested and charged with the possession of burglary tools. Perhaps one has even more personal knowledge of such charges. Rhetorically speaking, just what are “burglary tools?” If one is arrested while attempting to begin a residential burglary and is found to have blue latex gloves and a large black bag, are these “burglary tools?”
- What is Robbery?In movies and television, robbery is often portrayed as someone using a gun to take money from someone operating the cash register at a liquor store. The legal definition of robbery, however, is much broader. It is the taking of another’s property from his person or his immediate possession, against his will, by force or fear, with the intent to permanently deprive the owner.
- What is Carjacking?Carjacking is the theft of a car by means of force or fear (Penal Code § 215). Force or fear requires that the defendant actually inflicts physical force upon the victim or that the defendant threatens to inflict imminent physical harm upon a driver or passenger, or even someone outside the car. The key is that the threat be made or physical force be used to gain control of the car. For such reasons, carjacking is a strike offense.
- What is Commercial Burglary (Penal Code § 459) and What Are the Defenses?Commercial burglary, defined at Penal Code § 459, is the entering of a shop, store; office building, or any other commercial building with the intent to steal and then stealing something. This crime is also defined as entering a commercial building with the intent to commit a felony other than stealing the property of another.
- Five Men Charged with Armed Robbery in Newport BeachThe consequences of armed robbery in the state of California can be severe. Much of the penalties are determined on whether or not it was first degree robbery or a second degree robbery. If the suspect was carrying a dangerous weapon that obviously worsens the verdict.
- All Criminal Law Articles
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