Tax Law - Guide to Taxation Law
The intricate body of tax law covers payment of taxes to a minimum of four levels of government, either directly or indirectly. Indirect taxes are assessed against products and services that are meant to be consumed, but are paid to an intermediary. For example, when you buy coffee at a local corner store, the retailer charges you tax on your coffee, which he/she subsequently pays to the government. Direct taxes are those you pay directly to the government and are imposed against things like land or real property, personal property, and income.
There is a seemingly endless list of entities that create and enforce tax laws and collect tax revenues. They range from the local government level, such as cities and other municipalities, townships, districts and counties to regional, state and federal levels. They include agencies, transit districts, utility companies, and schools, just to name a few.
The area of tax law is exceedingly complex and in constant flux largely due to two reasons. The first is that the tax code has been used increasingly more often for objectives other than raising revenue, such as meeting political, economic and social agendas. The second reason is the manner in which the tax code is amended.
The Federal tax law is administered primarily by the Internal Revenue Service, a bureau of the U.S. Treasury. The U.S. tax code is known as the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as amended (Title 26 of the U.S. Code). Other federal tax laws are found in Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations; proposed regulations issued by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS); temporary regulations issued by the IRS; revenue rulings issued by the IRS; private letter rulings issued by the IRS; revenue procedures, policy statements, and technical information releases issued by the IRS; and federal tax court decisions. Tax law for state and local government is also contained in codes sections, regulations, administrative codes, procedures and statements issued by the respective government authorities, as well as state court decisions.
There is a special trial court which hears disputes between the IRS and taxpayers regarding federal income, estate and gift tax underpayments - the U.S. Tax Court. This federal court is based out of Washington, but its 19 presidentially appointed judges travel to preside over trials in courts located in several designated major cities. The Tax Courts’ decisions may be appealed to the Federal District Court of Appeals and final review is retained by the highest court in the land, the U.S. Supreme Court.
Tax attorneys serve many important functions in the complicated arena of tax law. They may represent you throughout the various stages of tax disputes, from an initial audit to IRS administrative appeals, Tax Court and final review by the Court of Appeals, or even the U.S. Supreme Court. They are also invaluable in helping you navigate the intricate and bewildering laws in this area of practice.
Tax Law Definition
Taxation is a governmental assessment upon property value, transactions, estates of the deceased, licenses granting a right and/or income, and duties on imports from foreign countries. It includes all contributions imposed by the government upon individuals for the service of the state. Taxes are usually divided into two main classes: direct and indirect. Generally speaking, direct taxes are those assessed against income, land or real property, and personal property, which are paid directly to the government; whereas indirect taxes are assessed against articles of consumption, such as products or services, but collected by an intermediary, such as a retailer.
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Taxation Law - US
- ABA - Section of Taxation
The American Bar Association Section of Taxation serves it's members by educating about taxes, and by providing leadership to support the development of an equitable, efficient and workable tax system.
- Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau develops regulations, conducts product analysis and ensures tax and trade compliance with the Federal Alcohol Administration Act and the Internal Revenue Code.
- Internal Revenue Code
The Internal Revenue Code is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States implemented by the IRS.
- IRS - Tax Exempt Bond Division
The mission of the Tax Exempt Bond function of TE/GE is to fairly administer the Federal tax laws applicable to tax-exempt bonds and to provide our customers with top quality service by applying the tax law with integrity and fairness.
- IRS - Taxpayer Advocate Service
The Taxpayer Advocate Service's (TAS) job is to ensure that every taxpayer is treated fairly, and that you know and understand your rights. We offer free help to guide you through the confusing process of resolving your tax problems.
- Taxpayer Bill of Rights
The Taxpayer Bill of Rights is to help you understand what legislative rights and protections are available to you.
- United States Excise Tax
Excise taxes are taxes on a specific good, such as gasoline, and are often included in the price of the product.
- United States Federal and State Corporate Tax Legislation
An analysis of the legal and taxation characteristics of legal forms for doing business in the USA.
- United States International Trade Commission - Harmonized Tariff Schedule
The HTSA provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all merchandise imported into the United States; it is based on the international Harmonized System, the global system of nomenclature that is used to describe most world trade in goods.
- United States Sales Tax
Sales taxes are taxes placed on the sale or lease of goods and services imposed by state and local administrations.
- United States Tax Court
Congress created the Tax Court to provide a judicial forum in which affected persons could dispute tax deficiencies determined by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue prior to payment of the disputed amounts.
- US Department of the Treasury - Taxes
Collecting taxes in a fair and consistent manner is a core mission of the Treasury Department. Treasury's priorities in tax administration are enforcing the nation's tax laws fairly and efficiently while balancing taxpayer service and education to promote voluntary compliance and reduce taxpayer burden.
- US Internal Revenue Service
The IRS mission is to provide America's taxpayers top quality service by helping them understand and meet their tax responsibilities and by applying the tax law with integrity and fairness to all.
State Tax Agencies
Taxation Law - International
- Canada Revenue Agency (CRA)
The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) administers: * tax laws for the Government of Canada and for most provinces and territories; and * various social and economic benefit and incentive programs delivered through the tax system.
- EU Tax Policy Strategy
The European Commission's tax policy strategy has been explained in a Communication of 23 May 2001 on "Tax policy in the European Union - Priorities for the years ahead" (COM (2001) 260). See also the press release IP/01/737Press Enter or click to choose translations of the previous link and frequently asked questions MEMO/01/193
- HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)
HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) was formed on the 18 April 2005, following the merger of Inland Revenue and HM Customs and Excise Departments. Work is still continuing on our office restructuring programme. We are here to ensure the correct tax is paid at the right time, whether this relates to payment of taxes received by the department or entitlement to benefits paid..
TaxWorld provides free of charge tax information from around the world to all internet users. The history of taxation, tax stats, tax terms in different languages, a tax directory... and more.
- Worldwide Tax Guide
This web site is a very comprehensive site that deals with taxation and financial subjects. It is constructed according to countries and, in all, sites are in the process of being setup for some 70 countries. The site is dedicated to managers and business people at all levels. Most of the material is provided free of charge, is presented in uncomplicated language and needs no prior knowledge of taxation in order to understand it.
Organizations Related to Taxation Law
- American Accounting Association
The American Accounting Association promotes worldwide excellence in accounting education, research and practice.
- American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants is the national, professional organization for all Certified Public Accountants. Its mission is to provide members with the resources, information, and leadership that enable them to provide valuable services in the highest professional manner to benefit the public as well as employers and clients.
- Americans for Tax Reform
ATR opposes all tax increases as a matter of principle. They believe in a system in which taxes are simpler, fairer, flatter, more visible, and lower than they are today. The government's power to control one's life derives from its power to tax. We believe that power should be minimized.
- Citizens for Tax Justice
CTJ fights for: Fair taxes for middle and low-income; families; Requiring the wealthy to pay their fair share; Closing corporate tax loopholes; Adequately funding; Important government services; Reducing the federal debt; Taxation that minimizes distortion of economic markets;
- Federation of Tax Administrators
The FTA improves the quality of state tax administration by providing services to state tax authorities and administrators. These services include research and information exchange, training, and intergovernmental and interstate coordination. The Federation also represents the interests of state tax administrators before federal policymakers where appropriate.
- Multistate Tax Commission
The Multistate Tax Commission is an intergovernmental state tax agency working on behalf of states and taxpayers to administer, equitably and efficiently, tax laws that apply to multistate and multinational enterprises. Created by the Multistate Tax Compact, the Commission is charged by this law with: * Facilitating the proper determination of State and local tax liability of multistate taxpayers, including the equitable apportionment of tax bases and settlement of apportionment disputes; * Promoting uniformity or compatibility in significant components of tax systems; * Facilitating taxpayer convenience and compliance and compliance in the filing of tax returns and in other phases of tax administration; * Avoiding duplicative taxation.
- National Tax Association
The National Tax Association is a nonpartisan, nonpolitical educational association that fosters study and discussion of complex and controversial issues in tax theory, practice and policy, and other aspects of public finance. NTA is a 501(c)(3) organization and does not promote any particular tax program or policy. The enormous public benefit that can come from sound tax policy and wise administration is a prime reason for the work of NTA.
- National Taxpayers Union
The National Taxpayers Union's Number One job has been helping to protect every single American's right to keep what they've earned. Their guiding principle has always been: "This is your money and the government should return it to you."
- Policy and Taxation Group - Estate and Death Tax
Policy and Taxation Group is dedicated to the elimination of the estate and gift taxes ("death taxes") and the elimination of the destructive effect that those taxes have on families, family businesses, job creation, the national economy and government revenues.
- Tax Foundation
The mission of the Tax Foundation is to educate taxpayers about sound tax policy and the size of the tax burden borne by Americans at all levels of government. From its founding in 1937, the Tax Foundation has been grounded in the belief that the dissemination of basic information about government finance is the foundation of sound policy in a free society.
Publications Related to Tax Law
- National Tax Journal
The goal of the National Tax Journal (NTJ) is to encourage and disseminate high quality original research on governmental tax and expenditure policies. The focus of the NTJ is economic, theoretical, and empirical analysis of tax and expenditure issues, with an emphasis on policy implications. The NTJ is published quarterly under the auspices of the National Tax Association (NTA).
- Tax Analysts
Tax Analysts is a nonprofit publisher that provides the latest and most in-depth tax information worldwide. By working for the transparency of tax rules, fostering increased dialogue between taxing authorities and taxpayers, and providing forums for education and debate, Tax Analysts encourages the creation of tax systems that are fairer, simpler, and more economically efficient.
Articles on HG.org Related to Taxation Law
- Tax Avoidance - CameroonTax avoidance like tax evasion is a worldwide phenomenon, prevalent in all countries including Cameroon. It is not a modern device, neither merely resulting from the present day imposition nor necessarily brought about by the strong and popular resentment of taxation. The origin o f tax avoidance can be traced to the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries England where the “Use” and the ‘’Trust’ were employed to avoid the incidence of manorial tenure.
- Federal Supreme Court Judgment Makes Things Harder for Tax Evaders - GermanyFinancial criminal offenses may occur more readily and more frequently than most people expect. In a recent decision, the BGH seems to have tightened its jurisdiction on tax misdeeds.
- Sales Tax Law in GermanySales tax is a tax incurred when deliveries or other services are exchanged. For this reason, sales tax is incurred with respect to nearly every service and every product.
- A Q&A Guide to Doing Business in AngolaAn overview of key developments affecting doing business in Angola and an introduction to its legal system for foreign investment, currency regulations and incentives, business vehicles and relevant restrictions and liabilities. It provides short overviews on the laws regulating employment relationships including redundancies and on competition law, data protection, product liability/safety, taxation/tax residency and IP rights over patents, trade marks, registered and unregistered designs.
- Bad Times for Tax Dodgers after Federal Supreme Court Judgment - GermanyThe German Federal Supreme Court (BGH) is said to have tightened its jurisdiction on tax offenses in a recent ruling. In some cases, a suspended sentence is excluded.
- Immediate Tax Deducts for Accrued Property Transfer Taxes - GermanyWhether real estate is being acquired entirely new in the context of property acquisition or if it was already in the partnership’s possession is an important fact.
- The Application of VAT Exemptions on Commercial Yachts Registered Under the Malta FlagIn the judgement S&D Yachts Limited vs MY Nautonnier delivered by the Court of Magistrates in Malta on the 3rd May 2013, it was held among other things that a vessel registered as a commercial yacht was not automatically entitled to an exemption from VAT.
- Malta and India Renegotiate Double Taxation Avoidance AgreementIndia and Malta renegotiated the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) between the two countries with the intention of aligning to changes in domestic laws.
- Tightening of Jurisprudence on Criminal Code for Tax Offenses - GermanyThe Federal Court of Justice (BGH) has seemingly tightened the jurisprudence on tax evasion. This shall particularly concern tax evaders who have failed to pay tax on multi-million euro amounts.
- Change in Place of Supply Rules Affects the Maltese Leasing StructureThe 2013 amendments to the VAT legislation brought about changes to the place of supply rules in relation to long-term leases of yachts (leases for more than 90 days) to a non-taxable person.
- All Tax Law Articles
Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide discussing legal aspects related to Taxation including: corporate taxation and tax planning.