What is Assault Law?
Assault law deals with the consequences of the wrongful act of causing fear of physical contact to another person. It is treated as a crime and a tort, meaning offenders can be prosecuted by the government, or sued for civil damages by the victim, or both. The purpose of assault law is to deter people from exhibiting aggressive, threatening behavior toward others, even if physical contact does not actually occur. If contact does occur, the act is usually treated as the separate offense of battery.
Most state criminal codes make assault a misdemeanor punishable by fines and up to one year in the county jail. Cases involving threats of death or serious bodily harm are charged as “aggravated assault.” The crime of aggravated assault is a felony, usually punishable by fines and a maximum of 10 to 20 years in prison. In civil tort cases, the size of the monetary damage award will likewise escalate based on the seriousness of the defendant’s conduct.
Elements of a Criminal Conviction
Describing assault as the act of causing fear of physical contact is sufficient for general purposes. But those facing prosecution will want to closely examine each specific element of the crime, as a failure by the state to prove any one element will result in acquittal. The elements of the crime of assault differ slightly from state to state. Defendants should examine the exact language of the assault statute that applies in the jurisdiction where the charges were filed.
That said, there are certain elements common to the crime of assault in all states. Foremost is the element of intent. Intent is a central issue because, as one might expect, defendants charged with scaring someone will often assert that the entire incident was an accident or the result of a misunderstanding. To overcome such a claim, the prosecutor will have to show that the defendant meant for the victim to become scared. The subjective knowledge of the defendant may or may not be relevant to this inquiry.
For example, if the defendant is charged with assault for pointing a gun at the victim, it will not matter what was going on inside the defendant’s mind at the time. Intent will be inferred from the circumstances, because it is common knowledge that people fear for their safety when a gun is pointed at them. On the other hand, consider a defendant with a dog who approaches an individual who, unbeknownst to the defendant, is deathly afraid of dogs. In this situation, the defendant’s ignorance of the victim’s phobia will defeat the assault charge. Of course, if the defendant knew about the phobia, then the intent requirement is satisfied and the defendant can be convicted.
Another element of criminal assault that commonly arises at trial is the “imminent bodily harm” requirement. Not only must the defendant intentionally cause the victim to fear harm, but the fear must be for a particular type of harm. To begin with, it must be bodily harm. Thus, threats to steal property or damage the victim’s reputation will not qualify. The fear must also be of imminent harm. This means that threats to cause physical harm at a later time, no matter how menacing, cannot result in a conviction.
Defenses to the Crime of Assault
Besides challenging the prosecutor’s ability to establish any of the statutory elements of assault, defendants can avoid conviction by establishing an affirmative defense. Affirmative defenses to assault include the victim’s consent to the activity, or in some cases, intoxication of the defendant. Self-defense will also negate a charge of assault. To prove self-defense, the defendant must show the assault was reasonably necessary to protect the defendant against equal or greater bodily harm that would have been inflicted by the victim.
Civil Remedies for Assault Victims
Not everyone in need of assistance with an assault law issue has been charged with a crime. Victims of assault can turn to the justice system to obtain compensation for the harm they suffered. While the elements of the tort are generally the same as required for a criminal conviction, civil plaintiffs need only prove their case “by a preponderance of the evidence.” This standard is easier to satisfy than the “beyond a reasonable doubt” burden of proof that applies in criminal court.
A number of issues can arise in a civil assault case that will affect the defendant’s liability. First, indirect conduct is sufficient. The defendant does not need to make the threat in person. Setting a trap to injure the plaintiff would qualify, for example. However, phone calls or text messages do not constitute assault. Verbal threats must be accompanied by some additional action that puts the victim in fear of imminent physical harm. Also, a defendant can be held liable for the tort of assault even if an apparent threat is not real. Hence, a victim threatened with a fake or unloaded weapon can recover damages, as long as the victim perceived the threat to be legitimate.
Hiring the Right Lawyer
The facts surrounding the defendant’s conduct, and how they are presented in court, will make all the difference in an assault case. Criminal defendants and civil plaintiffs should therefore choose an experienced trial attorney. When the circumstances of an assault are in dispute, it may very well require a trial to expose the truth.
Know Your Rights!
Articles For Assault Law
- Could Missouri's New Expungement Law Help You Clean Up Your Criminal Record?Missouri Senate Bill 588 (also referred to as SB 588) goes into effect on January 1st of 2018. If you have been convicted of a crime, how may the passage of this bill affect you? Is it possible you could have your criminal record expunged or essentially erased?
- Navigating Ezekiel Elliott’s Legal PlaysEzekiel Elliott of the Dallas Cowboys has been fighting a 6 game misconduct ban since the start of the football season. His legal moves have allowed him to delay his suspension but on October 12th, the NFL won a motion to reinstate the suspension. Since this leaves most of us navigating a fairly confusing legal struggle, here is what we understand so far about the suspension and whether it can be enforced.
- Defending Assault Charges in PhiladelphiaAssault charges in Philadelphia are actually quite complex. The successful defense of any assault-related charge will be based upon the circumstances surrounding the assault, the premeditation or intent of the defendant as well as the presence or absence of “Serious Bodily Injury.”
- Florida Criminal Law: Domestic Battery ViolenceDomestic violence is a serious dynamic that happens in all states and crosses all racial, cultural and socioeconomic lines. It occurs when a person is in a certain relationship as defined under state law and inflicts certain physical harm or makes certain threats that rise to a criminal level.
- Florida Criminal Law: Resisting an Officer Without ViolenceIn Florida, it is a crime to resist an officer who is carrying out a legal duty such as an arrest even if the resistance is not violent in nature. The elements for the crime can be complex and require a trained legal eye to respond to charges of this nature.
- What's the Difference between Probation and Parole in Texas?The criminal justice system is confusing, and it’s easy for people to mix up words or use them interchangeably. “Probation” and “parole” are two legal terms that are often used incorrectly. While they share some similarities, they are definitely not the same. Here’s a look at the key difference between probation and parole in Texas.
- Is It Time for a Change in Texas' State Jail System?Some lawmakers think modifications are needed to lower recidivism rates.
- Rape and Sexual Assault Crimes in MinnesotaRape and sexual assault crimes are considered some of the most heinous crimes in Minnesota. Convictions are associated with severe penalties.
- Expert Witness: Lifelong Consequences of Child AbuseChild abuse is often a lifelong concern once it has been suffered through the abuses by an adult or other child. Most often, when a youth suffers from these malignant experiences, he or she is harmed by someone he or she loves.
- Understanding Simple and Aggravated Assault in FloridaIn Florida, assault may be defined as a misdemeanor (simple assault) or a felony (aggravated assault), depending on the circumstances surrounding the incident itself. Read on to learn more about the differences.
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Assault Law – US
- Assault - Overview by the Law Digest
Assault is an intentional attempt or threat to inflict injury upon a person, coupled with an apparent, present ability to cause the harm, which creates a reasonable apprehension of bodily harm or offensive contact in another.
- Assault and Sexual Assault - Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) - US Department of Justice
The Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), a component of the U.S. Department of Justice, provides national leadership in developing the nation's capacity to reduce violence against women through the implementation of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA).
- Assault, Conditional Assault and Aggravated Assault
An assault is classified as either an attempted battery or an intentional frightening of another person; physical contact is not an element of the crime in either of these situations. Many states do not define assault, and some states list it under attempt rather than under assault.
- US Code: Title 18, Part I - Chapter 7 - Crimes - Assault
Assault Law - International
- Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault
- Criminal Code Act - Part V - Chapter 25 - Nigeria
- Offences Against The Person - Common Assault - England and Wales
- Offences Against the Person Act 1861 - Assaults - UK
- Penal Code - Chapter XVI - Assault - Singapore
- Personal Safety & UK Laws
- Section 265 to Section 272 of the Canadian Criminal Code - Assault
- Sexual Assault Laws in the CEE/FSU Region