International Law Firm in Tripoli, Libya specializing in Oil & Gas and Maritime Law

Karbal & Co.

Suite 163, 16th Floor
Section No. 1, Tripoli Tower

Tripoli 73868

Phone+971 (4) 3432611
Fax +971 (4) 3435644

Articles Published by Karbal & Co.

 Libyan Oil Contracts: Negotiating the Future Generation of EPSA

There are issues of concern for the International Oil Companies (IOCs) with the Exploration and Production Sharing Agreement (EPSA IV) signed with the National Oil Corporation (NOC) of Libya.

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 Liability for Collisions under UAE Maritime Law

Hosting one of the world’s largest ports, Dubai has rapidly expanded to become a leading maritime hub. As an expected consequence of the growth of Dubai’s maritime industry, the number of marine accidents has steadily increased over the past few years, as Dubai Port police have reported that there were 53 maritime accidents in 2013, 37 accidents in 2012, and 34 accidents in 2011. According to Marasi News, 9 of the 37 accidents that had taken place in 2013 were collisions.

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 UAE Commercial Company Law and Legal Reforms - General Rules

Federal Law No. 2 of 2015 “The New Commercial Company law” (CCL), which came into force on July 1, 2015, replaced the Federal Law No. 8 of 1984. The purpose of the new legislation was to bringing the UAE up to speed with corporate legislation currently enacted in many developed nations.

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 Liability of a Freight-Forwarder Before the Dubai Courts

There has been a debate in many countries on the degree of liability of the carrier and a freight forwarder on the issue of cargo claims; is a freight forwarder a principal or an agent?

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 Liability for Collisions under Libyan Maritime Law

It is a known fact that the Libyan people are still struggling to establish a strong central government in order to fulfill the hopes and aspirations that inspired the revolution of February 17, 2011.

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 Health Insurance Law Dubai & Abu Dhabi: Employer Responsibilities and Duties

Prior to the growth of the foreign workforce in the United Arab Emirates at the beginning of the millennium, an employer was only required to pay a few hundred dirhams to obtain a health card for its employees to be treated at medical facilities.

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 Medical Malpractice Litigation in the U.A.E.

Federal Law no. 10 of 2008 on Medical Liability regulates medical liability in the United Arab Emirates. Article 15 of the Federal Law no. 10 of 2008 establishes the High Committee on Medical Liability (the “Committee”) and it is made up of consultant physicians selected by the Cabinet.

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 Arrest of Ships in Accordance with Libyan Law

Libya is largely dependent on imports, consisting mainly of industrial and food commodities. Libya’s biggest trading partner is the European Union and Italy leads with 30% of Libyan imports. This significance of the Libya/EU trade-link across the Mediterranean is undisputed as the seaports of Libya are invigorating their connections to the southern European seaports.

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Forty-two years of the Kaddafi regime’s apathetic attitude and incoherent economic development strategies left Libya as one of the least developed of the oil producing countries.

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The Libyan Civil Transactions Code of 1953 imposes liabilities on both the contractor and the architect. Article 650 of the Civil Code holds the contractor and the architect (or supervising engineer) jointly liable for any minor or major collapse of the building even if the collapse was due to ground defects and/or the building had been approved and accepted by the owner.

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At a time when Libyans are eagerly gearing up towards the task of rebuilding their country, previous international contractors are gathering their records to calculating their losses during the Libyan revolution. Although, these claims have a legitimate place in commerce, it is unfortunate at time of rebirth; Libyans are left to deal with the uneven commercial legacy of the old regime. Yet, this is the insistent nature of commerce.

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During the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, Libya was the leading state among the Developing Countries. Due to Gadaffi’s arbitrary economic policy, Libya became the least developed among oil producing countries.

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