Definition, State Laws, Publications, Organizations
Corporate Law (corporations law, company law) deals with the formation and operations of corporations and is related to commercial and contract law. A corporation is a legal entity created under the laws of the state it’s incorporated within. State laws, which vary from state to state, regulate the creation, organization and dissolution of their corporations. A corporation creates a legal or “artificial person” or entity that has standing to sue and be sued, enter into contracts, and perform other duties necessary to maintain a business, separate from its stockholders.
Corporations are taxable entities, which shields the individual owners or shareholders from personal liability for the liabilities and debts of the corporation, with some limited exceptions – such as unpaid taxes.
Corporations are often used in tax structuring, as they are taxed at a lower rate than individuals. Until formally dissolved, a corporation has perpetual life; the termination or deaths of officials or stockholders does not alter the corporate structure. States have registration laws requiring corporations that incorporate in other states to request permission to do in-state business.
There are also federal laws relevant to corporations. Corporations in certain industries are subject to federal regulation and licensing, such as communications and public transportation. The Securities Act of 1933, which is federal law, regulates how corporate securities (stocks, bonds, etc.) are issued and sold.
Corporate law professionals are trained in the legal formation of corporations. These attorneys also construct joint ventures, licensing arrangements, mergers, acquisitions, and the countless other transactions entered into by corporations. Other areas of practice include business formations, securities law, venture capital financing, business agreements, internal forms, and business tax consultations.
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- What Do Lawyers Look For When Evaluating Contracts?
Corporate attorneys are frequently asked to assess various contracts that their clients bring to them. Generally, clients only want to know whether it is a “good” contract, or if it “covers everything.” But, this is only a small fraction of what an attorney should analyze. So, what do lawyers look for when evaluating contracts?
- When a Business Folds, Who Is Responsible for Its Debts and Other Obligations?
A common question among small business owners is who will be responsible for debts and other obligations if a business entity folds or reorganizes. Many things can happen in the life of a business entity, whether a corporation, LLC, partnership, or sole proprietorship, and this can lead to questions about who will be left holding the bag.
Articles on HG.org Related to Corporate Law
- Federal and State Agency Hearing Defense for San Diego EmployersEmployers in San Diego and across California face an ever-increasing landscape of employee based claims and litigation. Federal cases with the U.S. Department of Labor or U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission are often based upon violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act or FLSA or violations such as discrimination or wage discrimination in lower income jobs.
- Ins and Outs of Buy Sell AgreementsBuy-sell agreements establish important rules regarding when co-owners are able to buy each other out, when an owner can sell an interest, when an owner can buy another owner’s interest and what price is ultimately required to be paid. Carefully preparing a buy sell agreement can protect business owners’ interests for years to come. The agreement guides the buyout process.
- Using a Transactional Law Expert Witness to Get Ahead in LitigationTransactional law experts may be utilized for litigation through disputes, class actions with securities, intellectual property violations and family law through a variety of documents and interactions between parties. Those with a strong background in the field of disputes and similar matters may be experts in transactional law cases.
- Why Is Texas an Attractive State to Set Up a Business?The attraction to Texas is often due to the size of the state, the variation of businesses and the possibility of numerous venues. There are tourists in Texas year round, groups that hold conventions and various other sizable meetings with thousands that spend millions each year, and this attracts the business owner to the state.
- Uncertainties Associated with Series LLCsSome states permit businesses to have numerous company organizations built and managed under one entity called a series LLC. This limited liability company may alter how business interactions and transactions work, and it may permit a wider range of liability coverage for the owners without the need to create corporations or expand the LLC into something larger.
- What are my Options to Repay Unpaid Sales Tax Debt?Unpaid taxes are potentially dangerous to the individual or company. It is imperative that one of several options is taken to ensure this tax debt has been paid, or the person or business could face severe consequences from the Internal Revenue Service.
- Outsourcing Innovation and Ideas: Legal Considerations for Crowdsourcing and FreelancingCommerce that involves knowledge is rapidly growing, along with new models for businesses that are emerging as thought leaders in their fields. New vocabulary describing these knowledge workers and thought leaders, and new models of knowledge acquisition for business use are becoming more common.
- Potential Liabilities When Purchasing a BusinessPurchasing a business poses several risks to the person buying. There are various liabilities that could affect the new owner based on certain actions, but the purchase itself could have negative consequences such as equity over asset buyouts and if there debts that must be satisfied by the previous owner.
- Do Family Businesses Need an Operating Agreement?The need for an operations agreement in business arrangements is crucial to ensure transactions are able to continue even when disagreements and conflict arise. A family business is run with loved ones, and this may cloud judgment, so an operations agreement should be included in the necessary documentation to avoid future problems.
- What Do I Need to Know before Buying an Existing Business?Buying a company requires various processes before the documentation has been finalized and the ownership papers exchange hands. This means due diligence, going over provisions, understanding the financial data, asking and receiving answers to questions and knowing what is being purchased.
- All Business and Industry Law Articles
Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide discussing legal aspects related to Business and Industry including: agency and distributorship, agency law, business and industry, business formation, business law, commercial law, contracts, corporate governance, corporate law, e-commerce, food and beverages law, franchising, industrial and manufacturing, joint ventures, legal economics, marketing law, mergers and acquisitions, offshore services, privatization law, retail, shareholders rights and utilities.
Division of Corporations by State
Corporate Law - US
- ABA - Model Business Corporations Act
The laws governing every aspect of a corporation exist within the Model Business Corporation Act. The law lays out in detail the steps required to form a corporation and the reasons for which a corporation may be formed. In addition, the MBCA describes various voting procedures for making decisions and provides insight on the rights of shareholders and directors. The code provides for the rules that govern mergers and acquisitions as well as the sale and issuance of stock. The act itself has 17 chapters and covers almost 200 pages.
- Corporate Law - Wikipedia
Corporate law in the United States is a collection of 50 different systems of corporate law, or one law for each state. Two sources of law are, however particularly important. Firstly, the Model Business Corporation Act (MBCA), which is drafted by the American Bar Association was influential and adopted by twenty four states. Secondly, because, under the US Constitution, companies are free to incorporate in any state, regardless of whether they are doing any business there or have their headquarters there, states have competed on various rules to attract business, and many corporations found Delaware's laws and specialized courts attractive. More than half of US corporations are incorporated under the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL), and Delaware corporate law is particularly influential.
- Corporations - Overview
A corporation is a legal entity created through the laws of its state of incorporation. Individual states have the power to promulgate laws relating to the creation, organization and dissolution of corporations. Many states follow the Model Business Corporation Act.
- Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL)
The Delaware General Corporation Law (Title 8, Chapter 1 of the Delaware Code) is the statute governing corporate law in the state of Delaware. Delaware is well known as a corporate haven. Over 50% of U.S. publicly-traded corporations and 60% of the Fortune 500 companies are incorporated in that state.
- Different Types of Corporations
Anyone who operates a business, alone or with others, may incorporate. This is also true for anyone or any group engaged in religious, civil, non-profit or charitable endeavors. You do not have to be a business giant to be able to have the financial and other benefits of operating a corporation. Given the right circumstances, the owner(s) of a business of any size can benefit from incorporating.
- Uniform Commercial Code
The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) is a set of suggested laws relating to commercial transactions. The UCC was one of many uniform codes that grew out of a late nineteenth-century movement toward uniformity among state laws.
Organizations Related to Corporate Law
- National Corporate Research, Ltd. (NCR)
National Corporate Research, Ltd. ("NCR") is a professional registered agent company that has been providing nationwide statutory representation, corporate and secured transaction services since 1980. NCR also provides legislative and government agency research services and offers a variety of services for law librarians.
- NRAI Corporate Services
NRAI Corporate Services located in St. Louis opened its doors in 2006 as National Corporate Services with a veteran staff which have a combined 70 years of corporate transaction expertise. Our team of industry veterans knows what to do and how to do it. We serve major law firms and corporations across the county and our daily objective is to make your day easier. We pride ourselves on offering the highest level of personalized service while delivering quick turnarounds and a more cost-effective solution to your corporate, UCC and registered agent needs.
Publications Related to Corporate Law
- American Business Law Journal
The American Business Law Journal (ABLJ) is a quarterly law review published on behalf of the Academy of Legal Studies in Business (ALSB). The journal explores the whole range of topics related to business and corporate law and is an essential resource for students, professors and all professionals in the field.
- Journal of Corporation Law
Articles cover corporate legal topics and development important to businesses, scholars and practicing lawyers.