Human Rights Law



Human Rights are the basic rights and freedoms to which all human beings are entitled, like civil and political rights, the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and speech/expression, equality before the law, social, cultural and economic rights, the right to food, the right to work, and the right to education. In short, human rights are freedoms established by custom or international agreement that protect the interests of humans and the conduct of governments in every nation.

Human rights are distinct from civil liberties, which are freedoms established by the law of a particular state and applied by that state in its own jurisdiction.

Human rights laws have been defined by international conventions, by treaties, and by organizations, particularly the United Nations. These laws prohibit practices such as torture, slavery, summary execution without trial, and arbitrary detention or exile. Many human rights are secured by agreements between the governments and those they govern, such as the U.S. Constitution. Others are protected by international laws and pressure.

For more information on Human Rights laws, please refer to the materials below. Additionally, should you need the assistance of a human rights attorney, you may find lists of legal professionals on our Law Firms page.

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Human Rights - US

  • ABA - Rule of Law Initiative

    The Rule of Law Initiative is a public service project of the American Bar Association dedicated to promoting rule of law around the world. The Rule of Law Initiative believes that rule of law promotion is the most effective long-term antidote to the pressing problems facing the world community today, including poverty, economic stagnation, and conflict.

  • ABA - Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities

    Created in 1966, the Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities provides leadership within the ABA and the legal profession in protecting and advancing human rights, civil liberties, and social justice. The Section fulfills this role by 1) raising and addressing often complex and difficult civil rights and civil liberties issues in a changing and diverse society, and 2) ensuring that protection of individual rights remains a focus of legal and policy decisions.

  • Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

    Promoting freedom and democracy and protecting human rights around the world are central to U.S. foreign policy. The values captured in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in other global and regional commitments are consistent with the values upon which the United States was founded centuries ago.

  • Human Rights - Definition

    The human rights record of the United States is a controversial and complex issue. The United States has been praised for its progressive human rights record by international watchdog organizations and is considered to be among the world's most free nations, although it has faced some criticism for certain policies and practices.

  • Human Rights First - Law and Security Program

    Human Rights First promotes national security policies that respect human rights, focusing primarily on U.S. counterterrorism measures. The Law and Security program works to bring government counterterrorism and related national security efforts into compliance with international humanitarian law (laws of armed conflict) and human rights law.

  • Human Rights USA

    Human Rights USA is dedicated to preventing torture and other major human rights abuses through bold and innovative litigation in U.S. courts. What sets us apart from other human rights groups is that we focus primarily on the United States’ compliance with international human rights norms, using litigation as the primary tool for securing compliance and for bringing public attention to these problems.

  • National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) - Charters of Freedom

    The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is the nation's record keeper. Of all documents and materials created in the course of business conducted by the United States Federal government, only 1%-3% are so important for legal or historical reasons that they are kept by us forever.

  • The USA and Human Rights

    The leaders of the United States of America are proud to present the picture of being the foremost bearers of human rights. Yet, they have often been heavily criticized for advancing their own interests and of double standards.

  • US Department of State - Human Rights

    The protection of fundamental human rights was a foundation stone in the establishment of the United States over 200 years ago. Since then, a central goal of U.S. foreign policy has been the promotion of respect for human rights, as embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United States understands that the existence of human rights helps secure the peace, deter aggression, promote the rule of law, combat crime and corruption, strengthen democracies, and prevent humanitarian crises.

  • US Human Rights Network

    Underlying all human rights work in the United States is a commitment to challenge the belief that the United States is inherently superior to other countries of the world, and that neither the US government nor the US rights movements have anything to gain from the domestic application of human rights.

Human Rights - Europe

  • EU Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

    The text of the Convention had been amended according to the provisions of Protocol No. 3 (ETS No. 45), which entered into force on 21 September 1970, of Protocol No. 5 (ETS No. 55), which entered into force on 20 December 1971 and of Protocol No. 8 (ETS No. 118), which entered into force on 1 January 1990, and comprised also the text of Protocol No. 2 (ETS No. 44) which, in accordance with Article 5, paragraph 3 thereof, had been an integral part of the Convention since its entry into force on 21 September 1970.

  • European Convention on Human Rights

    Rome 4 November 1950, and its Five Protocols: Paris 20 March 1952, Strasbourg 6 May 1963, Strasbourg 6 May 1963, Strasbourg 16 September 1963 and Strasbourg 20 January 1966.

  • European Court of Human Rights

    The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms was drawn up within the Council of Europe. It was opened for signature in Rome on 4 November 1950 and entered into force in September 1953. Taking as their starting point the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the framers of the Convention sought to pursue the aims of the Council of Europe through the maintenance and further realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms. The Convention was to represent the first steps for the collective enforcement of certain of the rights set out in the Universal Declaration.

  • Human Rights Act 1998 - UK

    An Act to give further effect to rights and freedoms guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights; to make provision with respect to holders of certain judicial offices who become judges of the European Court of Human Rights; and for connected purposes.

  • Human Rights Law in Scotland

    Guide to laws related to Human Rights in Scotland and UK.

  • The AIRE Centre

    The AIRE Centre (Advice on Individual Rights in Europe) is a specialist law centre whose mission is to promote awareness of European law rights and assist marginalised individuals and those in vulnerable circumstances to assert those rights. This London based charity provides free legal advice on European human rights law and European Union law.

Human Rights - International

  • African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

    The African Charter came into force in 1986, and has been ratified by more than forty African states, thus becoming the most widely accepted regional convention.

  • American Convention on Human Rights "Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica"

    Reaffirming their intention to consolidate in this hemisphere, within the framework of democratic institutions, a system of personal liberty and social justice based on respect for the essential rights of man.

  • Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

    The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices are submitted annually by the U.S. Department of State to the U.S. Congress in compliance with sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (FAA), as amended, and section 504 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended.

  • Introduction to the UN Human Rights Treaty System

    This free website includes an extensive documents library organized by country and subject matter. You can find information on ratification, reservations and declarations, state reports, and other key documents.

  • Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

    The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) represents the world's commitment to universal ideals of human dignity. We have a unique mandate from the international community to promote and protect all human rights.

  • United Nation Humanitarian Affairs

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); Documents, news, statistics, publications, REFWorld database, etc;. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA); Recent disasters, relief assistance, maps. ; Landmines; Chernobyl Disaster; Documentation, UN and specialized agencies and plan of action, etc.

  • United Nations Human Rights

    Virtually every United Nations body and specialized agency is involved to some degree in the protection of human rights. One of the great achievements of the United Nations is the creation of a comprehensive body of human rights law, which, for the first time in history, provides us with a universal and internationally protected code of human rights, one to which all nations can subscribe and to which all people can aspire.

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."

  • Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action

    Text of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, as adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993.

Organizations Related to Human Rights

  • Amnesty International

    Amnesty International is a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights for all. Our supporters are outraged by human rights abuses but inspired by hope for a better world - so we work to improve human rights through campaigning and international solidarity. We have more than 2.2 million members and subscribers in more than 150 countries and regions and we coordinate this support to act for justice on a wide range of issues.

  • Business and Human Rights Resource Centre

    The Business & Human Rights Resource Centre has become the world’s leading independent resource on the subject. Our website is updated hourly with news and reports about companies’ human rights impacts worldwide – positive and negative. We seek responses from companies to allegations of misconduct: thus ensuring that our coverage is balanced and encouraging companies to address concerns raised by civil society.

  • Freedom House

    Freedom House is an independent nongovernmental organization that supports the expansion of freedom in the world. Freedom is possible only in democratic political systems in which the governments are accountable to their own people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, and belief, as well as respect for the rights of minorities and women, are guaranteed.

  • Human Rights Internet (HRI)

    Human Rights Internet (HRI) is committed to social justice, good governance and conflict prevention. It seeks to accomplish these goals through human rights informed policy formation, knowledge transfer and development, promotion of dialogue, training, and information distribution. HRI works with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental actors to disseminate information, empower marginalized groups, stimulate reflection, and initiate policy change and institutional development.

  • Human Rights Watch

    Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. They stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to justice. They investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable. They challenge governments and those who hold power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law. They enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

  • Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)

    The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) is one of two bodies in the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights. The Commission has its headquarters in Washington, D.C. The other human rights body is the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which is located in San José, Costa Rica.

  • International Committee of the Red Cross

    International Committee of the Red Cross an independent, neutral organization ensuring humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of war and armed violence.

  • International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW)

    The International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) was organized in 1985 at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya, to promote recognition of women’s human rights under the United Nation’s Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (the CEDAW Convention), an international human rights treaty.

  • Mental Disability Rights International (MDRI)

    Mental Disability Rights International (MDRI) is dedicated to promoting the human rights and full participation in society of people with mental disabilities worldwide.

  • OSCE Legislation on Human Rights

    Legislationline.org provides direct access to international norms and standards relating to specific human dimension issues (see list of topics on left-hand column) as well as to domestic legislation and other documents of relevance to these issues. These data and other information available from the site are intended for lawmakers across the OSCE region.

  • UNICEF

    UNICEF is the driving force that helps build a world where the rights of every child are realized. We have the global authority to influence decision-makers, and the variety of partners at grassroots level to turn the most innovative ideas into reality. That makes us unique among world organizations, and unique among those working with the young.

  • Vital Voices

    Vital Voices Global Partnership is the preeminent non-governmental organization (NGO) that identifies, trains, and empowers emerging women leaders and social entrepreneurs around the globe, enabling them to create a better world for us all. We provide these women with the capacity, connections, and credibility they need to unlock their leadership potential.

Articles on HG.org Related to Human Rights

  • Cops, Guns, and Marijuana in Hawaii
    Medical marijuana has been legal in Hawaii for quite some time, and as with most medical states, this means screening individuals to allow them to obtain a prescription and also registering them as medical marijuana patients. But Hawaii’s medical registry is different in that it not only confirms the medical access for the patient, but the list is accessible for other purposes.
  • My Ex Harassed and Stalked Me Using His Employer’s Computer. Do I Have a Case against the Employer?
    When someone is harassed by and individual through a work computer, it is possible that the employer is held liable in these instances due to the work email, computer and other electronic or network involved. However, it is important to seek the help of a lawyer to determine if there is enough strength in the claim to proceed.
  • Car Dealer Ran Several Hard Credit Checks Without my Consent – Is that Legal?
    When attempting to lease or purchase a vehicle, many individuals travel to local car dealerships, and it is then that some negative behavior may occur that affects the person adversely. If the dealership runs a credit check, it is possible that this activity could harm the person seeking a vehicle when attempting to secure a loan.
  • Use of Force Experts Testify in Police Brutality Cases
    Police brutality cases are often experienced when officers are not trained properly, have been subjected to pressure or abuse in their lives or have certain views such as racism or sexism. When these incidents occur, it is generally important to hire an expert witness that is able to explain why they actions occur and how the victim needs compensation to recover.
  • Contesting the Use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Testing in New Jersey Criminal Cases
    Like several other states, New Jersey may use the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) when evaluating a defendant. However, serious concerns regarding this test have been raised. An effective defense may include challenging the results of any such tests.
  • Data Privacy Cases Pending in Front of U.S. Supreme Court
    The United States Supreme Court will decide whether American courts can issue warrants for data stored on servers overseas.
  • HIPPA Violation: Non-Medical Staff Accessed and Shared Medical Records. Who Do I Sue?
    When a violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act occurs, severe penalties may be issued against the perpetrator when he or she is discovered due to the confidentiality of the records. However, if proper measures are not in place to ensure the data has been secured, the medical facility could be at fault in the incident as well, and a claim may be possible.
  • Possible Actions for Expert Witnesses on Equifax Data Breach
    The Equifax data breach caused several million individuals complications when private information was released online to various locations with free access. However, with the rise of private and class action lawsuits against the company, experts have been hired en masse to assist with these issues and explain why certain evidence corresponds to actions and behavior.
  • New Cybersecurity Executive Order Imposes Additional Requirements on Government Contractors
    Government contracts are complicated when certain procedures must be included alongside the regulatory hurdles that must be passed after the contract has been won. Cyber terrorism and electronic complications through hackers and attacks in the digital world have increased since the computer age began, and new cybersecurity measures are being imposed for contractors.
  • Can We Sue a Website like Airbnb if They Are Hacked and Personal Information Is Stolen?
    When a website is hacked, and the user account information is stolen, the question becomes who is responsible, and then the matter shift into if it is possible to litigate against the company that owns the website. Hacked websites could render the company or network administrator responsible for damages to those affected.
  • All Civil Rights Law Articles

    Articles written by attorneys and experts worldwide discussing legal aspects related to Civil Rights including: constitutional law, consumer law, discrimination, human rights, native populations, privacy law, public law and sexual harassment.




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