Environmental and Natural Resources Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of Environmental and Natural Resources.

Liguefied Natural Gas Market in Turkey

Currently, the importance of the Liguefied Natural Gas ("LNG") has come to the fore with the discussions concerning the probable problems in...
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How Does Malaysian Law Deal With Acts of Piracy at Sea?

Piracy is a prevailing problem with no reasonable solution in sight. How safe is your ship or consignment passing through the seas surrounding...

The Democratic Republic of the Congo New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22

“The DRC New Agricultural Law No. 11 /22 of December 24, 2011″ in Africa Law Today, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Ownership of a Mine After Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for...

Democratic Republic of Congo: Mining companies and the Value Added Tax (VAT)

In the following paragraphs, we do not have the pretention to review the legal meaning of the Ordinance-Act No 10/001 dated August 20, 2010...

Concessions in Albania / PPP in Albania

According to the assessment, the application of the laws of the PPP / concession in Albania is estimated to achieve "high efficiency" compared...

Guinea: Enactment of Law Amending the Mining Code of 2011

New perspectives for the mining sector in Guinea: enactment of the law amending the Mining Code of 2011.

Burkina Faso: The National Assembly Has Passed the New Environment Code

Located in the heart of West Africa, Burkina Faso, a Sahel country is among the group of least-developed countries.

Characteristics of Hydrocarbon in the Republic of Congo

The Republic of Congo is one of the hydrocarbon-producing countries in Africa. This production accounts for a larger contribution of around 75%...

Significant Changes Currently Taking Place in Electrical Power Law in the Democratic Republic of Congo

In article 48 of DRC Constitution of 18 February 2006 as amended to date, the right of access to electricity is enshrined and guaranteed to the...

Ratification of the Cooperation Agreement of September 9, 2010 Between Congo-Brazzaville and Angola

The Republic of Congo (“Congo-Brazzaville”) has authorized the ratification of the cooperation agreement of September 9, 2010, with the Republic...

New Exploitation License for Mining Operators in the DRC

The consideration of environmental issues by the International Community, and its consequences on the life quality, with tangible effects,...

The California Coastal Commission Reviews Fracking Along the California Coast

Whether the California Coastal Commission Eventually Regulates Fracking On the Outer Continental Shelf Will Have More to Do with Federalism than...

2013 Turkey Energy Report

Turkish economic growth that had been going on for more than a decade have created a strong economy that is based on high demand for energy.

Forest Legislation in the Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo, often called Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa that straddles the Equator line and covers a...

Legal Outlook of Turkish Gas Market

With rapidly growing economy, Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world. Turkey has been experiencing rapid...

Electricity Market Liberalization in Turkey: EU Directives and Harmonization

As is known, the Turkish energy sector has been in a liberalization process for a long time and compared to other energy markets, the...

Hydro Power Harnesses the Power Potential of the Congo River - Inga Falls

Following the energy cooperation agreement between the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of South Africa on 7 March 2013, the $ 80...

Implications of the Carbon Tax on South Africa’s transition into a greener economy

As developing countries, such as South Africa, transition into more industrialized countries, they face numerous problems relating to their...

Energy Sector in Turkey and the Central Importance of EPİAŞ

The demand has reached to such a high extend that energy sector had turned in to one of the most important sectors that have been contributing...

Energy regulation (electricity and gas) in Albania

Albania performs reasonably well overall with respect to the quality of its energy (electricity and natural gas) sector. The recent EBRD energy...

Hydroelectricity Power in Turkey

Turkey is rapidly becoming a very important market player in its own territory with ambitious targets in energy sector.

An Overview On Turkish Petroleum Market

As is known, the petroleum explorations have come to the fore in Turkey within the discovery of new oil wells. Even if its oil production does...

A Test for Turkish Electricity Market: Fraud-Based Manipulation

Turkish electricity market is rapidly transforming a competitive open market by consistent privatization and liberalization policies of Turkish...

Energy Privatizations as a Part of Energy Market Liberalization - Turkey

Apart from the legal reforms and establishment of an energy exchange, privatizations are one of the energy market liberalization stages.

What Are the Laws Regarding Animal Testing?

  By HG.org
In the United States, a number of products like pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and detergents are first tested on animals to determine what their...

Recent Legal Reforms in Energy and Market Expectations

For the purpose of meeting the energy gap of Turkey and of increasing of the energy production, adequate legal reforms have been made regularly...

Key Process-Plant Specific Clauses in Process-Plant EPC Contracts - Turkey

Mostly, EPC Contracts will not provide for the handover of the facility to the project company until all commissioning and reliability trialing...

A Perspective on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Regulations in The Turkish Market

The Draft of New Natural Gas Market Law provides incentives not only regarding the natural gas, but also regarding the LNG (Liquified Natural...

Moratorium on Ukrainian Land Not a Problem

Ukraine is the biggest country in Europe. It borders with Russia, Belorussia, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland. It has on area of...

Akkuyu as First Nuclear Power Plant Project of Turkey

Due to increase of energy demand, consumption and especially external energy dependence of Turkey, the requirement of new energy resources has...

Future Projection of Turkey Gas Market: Comparison with Germany Gas Market Structure

The natural gas market structure in Germany as an example. The liberalization of natural gas market in Germany has begun in 2006 with new...

An Alternative Financing for Renewable Energy Project in Turkey: ESCO Financial Modelling

Since the motivation of being energy hub between Middle East and Europe , energy resources diversification is adopted by Turkish policymakers....

Natural Gas Projects in Turkey: Tuz Golu Project as a Pioneer

Turkey intends to increase its natural gas storage capacity through natural gas storage projects. At present, the Natural Gas Storage Project in...

Which is Safer: Tap or Bottled Water?

  By HG.org
Each year, millions of Americans consume billions of gallons of water. The boom in the bottled water industry was fueled, in part, by beliefs...

Is it Legal to Raise Wild Animals or Keep Them as Pets?

  By HG.org
Anyone who has grown up near a park, nature preserve, or in a rural setting probably came across a wild animal that he or she wished to adopt....

Nebraska Department of Agriculture Laws and Regulations

Legal cases involving agriculture, cattle, dairy herds, poultry, and other herds may revolve around various issues which can range from disease,...

Lack Of Complete Diversity Of Citizenship Of Members Of Equine LLCs Requires Dismissal Of Federal Action

The issue of diversity of citizenship is of particular interest to equine ownership and contract disputes, because many equine-related entities...

New Advantages in Energy with the New Regulation: Unlicensed Electrical Energy Production - Turkey

As of 02.10.2013, everyone will be able to produce his/her own electrical energy in certain amounts. Due to the Regulation on Electrical Energy...

New Regulation in Renewable Energy: Regulation on Support and Certification of Renewable Energy Resources - Turkey

Renewable energy resources support mechanism is operated for support of renewable energy production in Turkey as price-purchase guarantee....

Untested Nature of Carbon Capture May Present Loophole for Coal and Electric Industry

  By HG.org
The Obama administration has been cracking down on environmental regulations, particularly with regard to global warming. Faced with this...

Insight into Turkey's Energy Market and New Energy Exchange EPIAS

Turkey proved its aspiration with the liberalization of electricity market for being an energy hub in the heart of Europe and Middle East...

Absurd Animal Cases in Homeowners Associations

  By HG.org
Few cases are more prone to absurd happenings, bizarre government policies, or overly expensive litigation than pet cases.

Failing to Disclose Environmental Defects in Property Sales

  By HG.org
Have you purchased a piece of land only to discover after the sale that there was pollution on the property? Are you thinking of selling a house...

Key Legislation and Regulatory Structure in the Angolan Oil and Gas Sector

This article offers an overview of the key legislation and regulatory structure governing the oil and gas sector in Angola and was written as...

A Q&A Guide to Electricity Regulation in Bulgaria

This Q&A guide gives a high level overview of the domestic electricity market in Bulgaria, including domestic electricity companies, electricity...

Update on Foreign Investment in Ukrainian Agricultural Land

The moratorium on alienation of Ukrainian farm land has long prevented meaningful foreign investment into the Ukrainian agricultural sector. To...

The DR Congo New Agricultural Law N° 11/022 of December 24, 2011 Is Currently Being Amended and Supplemented

On December 24, 2011, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (“DRC”) enacted a new agricultural Law, n° 11/022, (the “Law”) that sets broad...

Overview on Mining Law in Burkina Faso and Current Trends

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West-Africa and surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the...

The Ownership of a Mine after Termination of Mining and Quarry Rights - Democratic Republic of Congo

The purpose of granting of a Mining Permit, a Small Mine Exploitation License, and Exploitation License for Tailings or Authorization for...

LIBYAN INVESTMENT LAW: FOREIGN OIL COMPANIES

Forty-two years of the Kaddafi regime’s apathetic attitude and incoherent economic development strategies left Libya as one of the least...

Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building - Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
Local Government of DKI Jakarta has issued the Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta Number 38 of 2012 on Green Building (“Governor Regulation...

Shale Gas in Texas

Shale formations are an invaluable resource when it comes to natural gas and oil. The side effects of drilling in these shale deposits, however,...

Transferring Quarry and Mining Rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]

The mining code of the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] provides for a possibility of leasing and assigning mining and quarry rights. Since...

Environmental Audit, One of the Conditions for Mining Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Mining is a key sector and continues to grow in several part of the world including in the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Legislation for...

Environmental Laws and How They Can Protect You and Your Property

Environment laws protect our natural resources by regulating businesses that have the potential to impact them. Due to the importance of these...

Oregon Dog Bite Injury Claims

If you've been bitten by someone else's dog, and you are considering filing an injury claim against the dog's owner, you need to understand...

Exploitation of Hydrocarbon Resources in Cyprus

Geostrategic and financial interests regarding gas exploration and exploitation

EU Labor Law in Offshore Gas Drilling Operations

EU labor law in offshore gas-drilling operations has been recently challenged in the case of Salemink v. Raad van bestuur van het...

Texas Fracking Disclosure Law Will Help Analyze Water Concerns

Texas fracking disclosure law goes into effect February 1, 2012. According to reports, on February 1, 2011, Texas drilling operators will be...

Local Content Requirements for the Development of an Electric Power Infrastructure Project

To improve domestic production in Indonesia, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia (“GOI”) has issued regulations on the local content...

Renewable Energy: Turkey’s Hope for Energy Independence

Turkey is currently an energy-dependent country, with approximately 70% of its energy being supplied from imported sources. More investment in...

Access and Admission of Foreign Investors in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This articles discusses the Investment Legislation and its Reasoning; Foreign Investment Establishment, Registering and Licensing Processes;...

The Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo

This article shares the views on the Foreign Investment Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo including Employment, Business Taxation,...

What Were Some of the Issues Concerning Litigation over Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether?

Over the years, as high levels of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) were discovered in water supplies throughout California and other states...

Which Parties Could be Held Responsible for Listeria-Tainted Cantaloupes?

A listeria outbreak linked to cantaloupes has affected people throughout the United States and spread to California. California has long...

Offshore Oil Drilling, Gas Exploration and Production on Activities in the EU

Introduction - Environmentally sustainable management at an international level requires reliable information on the natural environment, as...

Renewable Energy Credits: Representations and Warranties Every Buyer Should Ask for

When buying renewable energy credits (RECs), purchasers should make sure to negotiate a short but critical set of REC-focused representations...

The Connecting Europe Facility Regulation

The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Regulation and its impact on Cyprus Republic. The European Commission adopted on October 2011, a plan...

Why Is the Department of Animal Services Seldom Held Liable for Dog Bites?

California law imposes a strict liability rule in dog bite cases, which means that an owner is always liable for any personal injury caused by...

China's Construction Laws

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the main regulators and laws involved in carrying out construction projects in China. It also provides some useful tips...

Energy Market: New Legislation on Wholesale Traders in the EU

New legislation to present abuses to the disclosure of deals. New rules were adopted September 14, 2011 by the European Parliament to prevent...

Energy Development Perspectives for the Republic of Cyprus

Based on Eurostat’s researches, the Republic of Cyprus disposes a very promising feedback from the energy saving and the renewable energy...

EU Environment Policy: Results and Next Steps

Following the implementation of the 6th Environment Action Program (EAP), which was adopted on 22 July 2002 and provided the framework of EU’S...

Energy Efficient Ukraine: Is There a Light at the End of the Tunnel?

  By Integrites
Much was said and written about the need for Ukraine to re-structure its energy sector and implement the best European practices in its energy...

A General Overview on Natural Gas Market Law in Turkey

Recently, many local and international investors request to obtain more information as regards Turkish Natural Gas Market Law. The main aim of...

Oil Market Law in Turkey

“A general overview on Oil Market Law in Turkey” by Att. Arzu Ongur Ergan

EU Energy Policy and Targets - Energy Efficiency Plan

In March 2011, the European Commission adopted a plan for saving more energy through concrete measures. Energy efficiency is a key tool to...

First Approved EU Sustainability Schemes for Biofuels

On 19 July 2011, the European Commission issued a list of the first sustainable voluntary schemes for biofuels recognized directly in the 27 EU...

Carbon Capture and Storage - Changes to the Danish Subsoil Act

On 30 May 2011 the Danish parliament adopted the proposal for amending the Subsoil Act to implement the applicable EU rules on CCS that were...

Administrative and Technical Requirements of the Construction of Strata Title - Indonesia

  By Leks&Co
In densely populated urban areas, where available land is very limited, it is necessary to develop residential in the form of strata title to...

Legal System for Foreign Investments in Saudi Arabia in the Field of solar power

It is not recommended to think, ...that the idea of using solar power for mechanical operations is recent. (1)

How to Invest in Mining Sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

The Democratic Republic of Congo has a name chiefly for its mining potentialities which make it a real “geological scandal”. It possesses an...

Recent Bankruptcy Court Decision May Illuminate Whether Electricity Will Be Considered a Good

I give the experimentalist’s answer to the very fundamental but very familiar query: “What is electricity?” His answer is naďve, but simple and...

EU Quality Policy Regarding Geographical Indications and Traditional Specialities

Since 1992, the European Union has operated three programs of product designations in order to promote and protect the names of quality...

California AB 32 Cap and Trade Law and Foreign Offset Credit Programs under Air Resources Board Regulations

Foreign Carbon Offsets under California’s AB 32 Cap and Trade Law by Memorandum of Understanding with Developing Countries and Least Developed...

China's Seed Industry

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the major legal issues associated with China's seed industry, as well as provides a snapshot of the main Chinese entities...

Production Sharing Contract in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector

Nigeria had in the past years engaged in Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) for the exploration of her petroleum resources.

Nigerian Mining Industry: Opportunities for Foreign Investors

Nigeria is endowed with numerous mineral resources such as talc, iron ore, bitumen, gold, rock salt, gypsum, lead/zinc, coal, gemstones, kaolin,...

A Dog Importer Will Compensate the "Let Animals Live” Movement - Israel

Recently, the court obliged an importer of puppies from Uzbekistan to pay over 100,000 NIS to the "Let Animals Live" (Tnu L'Chayot Lichyot)...

Ongoing Arbitration for Mobil Oil over Venezuelan Assets

Mobil Corporation's claims in international arbitration against Venezuela's national oil company raises issues common to all commercial...

Mining Duties, Royalties and Taxes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Mainly, the mining industry comes under the control of is the Mining Code and the ancillary Mining Regulation. This legislature is in general...

Energy Regulations in Bulgaria and Turkey: a Comparative Study

The main aim of this brief article is to give a bird view on energy laws of Turkey and Bulgaria in a comparative manner.

Why Is Renewable Energy Support Necessary? - Estonia

The Minister of Economic Affairs and Communication stated recently that support for renewable energy should be reduced. It is commendable that...

Qua Iboe Terminal Oil Spill: One too Many?

The effects of oil spills on human and aquatic life remains so grievous and almost irreparable if not properly handled. Effective clean-ups and...

The Ultimate Losses. Who Will Hold BP Liable?

No one lost more than those 11 workers who died on April 20 in the massive explosion that engulfed the offshore oil rig in flames and sent it...

BP Oil Spill and Exposure to Chemicals

There are myriad concerns surrounding the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, chief among them is the current and potential harm to the...

Families Await Answers Following Oil Rig Explosion off Louisiana Coast

The Coast Guard has called off its search for 11 oil rig workers missing after the explosion of Deep Water Horizon last Tuesday. Assumed dead,...

Electric Distribution And Transmission in Turkey

The article aims to explain the institutions and organizations which are responsible for electric distribution and transmission in Turkey and...

China's Animal Feed Industry

  By MMLC Group
This article looks at the key players in this industry, as well as summarizes the major regulations applying to this industry. It is a snapshot.


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