International Law Articles

Articles written by lawyers and expert witnesses worldwide
explaining the different aspects of International Law.

Record Fine For Truck Cartel – Enforcing Damages Claims in EU and Germany

Members of the truck cartel will have to pay a fine totaling approx. 2.9 billion euros, and things could become even more expensive if damages...
FIND LEGAL ARTICLES

The Necessity and Some Problematic Aspects of the Choice of Law Clauses for International Transactions

In their day by day practice business entities very often conclude transactions that have cross border nature for example a company may conclude...

New and Updated Regulation on the Naturalisation (Citizenship) of Investors in Cyprus by Investment

The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Cyprus, on the 13th of September 2016 has issued an amended Regulation in relation to the Scheme for...

"Failure to Use" as a Legal Ground to Cancel the Registration of the Trademark ‘’McDonald’’ in Armenia

In 2014 WEST LLC company registered in the Federation of Russia, has submitted a number of applications to the Administrative Court of RA,...

Corporations in Panama

Panama has a Corporations Act, which facilitates business and investment, so it is recommended to entrepreneurs take advantage offered by this...

Enforcement and Registration of Judgements in Romania

The court system in Romania is still to many a confusing impenetrable system. In the past the rules and regulations seem to have a mind of their...

The Ship Arrest Concept

According to the provisions of the International Convention on the Arrest of Sea-Going Ships, signed at Brussels 10 May 1952, capture means the...

Cyprus: Implementation of the EU Regulation No. 655/2014

The EU Regulation No. 655/2014 establishes a European Account Preservation procedure to facilitate cross-border debt recovery in civil and...

Improvements in Panama Corporation Law for Redomiciliation

Decree Law 5 of 1997 included several improvements for the redomiciliation and powers of attorney for corporations which are still useful today

China Simplifies Administrative Procedures for Foreign Invested Enterprises

  By MMLC Group
On September 3, 2016, the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) released a draft of the Interim Measures for the Administration of the Recordation of...

Retail Trading and Distribution in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia’s economy showed an impressive performance in the retail sector as per survey of 2015. Saudi Arabia’s retail sector is the largest...

Taxation in Agriculture in Ukraine

The main provisions of the Ukrainian legislation governing taxation in agriculture are embodied in the Tax Code of Ukraine, which regulates the...

Invest in Ukraine: Protection of Foreign Investment

One of the means for protection of foreign investment is the conclusion of international agreements on promotion and protection of investment.

Taxes in Ukraine: Corporate Income Tax

Corporate Taxpayers: Corporate Income Tax (CIT) is paid by the resident companies, which receive income in Ukraine as well as abroad. CIT is...

Bank in breach of duty of care in the case of excessive lending in the Netherlands?

In the current economic climate, more and more people in the Netherlands have problems repaying consumer credits. To protect consumers, lenders...

Setting Up a Company in Italy

Doing Business in Italy - It should be noted that there are subtle differences compared to other countries and it is important that these are...

What is International Adoption?

International adoption laws and procedures are complicated. It is important to consult with an experienced immigration attorney who has...

Company Formation in Romania

The first question international clients usually ask lawyers in Romania is how long will it take to incorporate a company. For an experienced...

Clearing the Mist for Good: New EU Code of Conduct on Privacy

Individual developers as well as SMEs across the world are currently developing a Cambrian explosion of business activity on mobile. This in...

New Directive in EU Law on Trade Secrets and Know-how

Whilst the protection of Know-how and Trade Secrets is usually covered in local law there is often confusion as to how this will translate...

Purchasing a Ukrainian Bank: Obtaining Approval from the National Bank of Ukraine

In 2015 Ukrainian legislation related to the acquisition of a significant shareholding in a bank was substantially amended. This was due to the...

Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in Turkey under the New York Convention

Although arbitration is considered as a reasonable form of alternative dispute resolution, foreign arbitral awards are subject to an enforcement...

Registration of Companies in Ukraine with the Participation of Non-Resident

In accordance with the Constitution of Ukraine, foreigners and stateless persons who are in Ukraine on legal grounds enjoy the same rights and...

Features of Registration of Foreign Investments in Ukraine

Foreign investments are invested by foreign investors’ values in objects of investment activities in order to make a profit or to achieve social...

Ukraine: Legal Regulation of the Labor Migration

There are internal and external labor migrations. Internal migration is implemented within a country, while foreign migrant workers involve...

New Domain Extensions: Benefits and Opportunities for Businesses in Latin America

The Internet has become an important business tool for brand promotion. Any company that wants to successfully put its products or services...

New General Data Protection Regulation in Romania

In Romania, and perhaps in the rest of Europe, little attention seems to be paid to Data Protection and the implication of the regulations which...

Setting Up a Foreign Company's Branch Office or Corporate Presence in Pakistan

Is your foreign company trying to set up a business arrangement in Pakistan?

The Magna Brexit? Potential Implications on Trade & Export Compliance

The United Kingdom’s (“UK”) 40-year relationship with the European Union (“EU”) is ending due to the historic British vote to leave the EU on...

U.S. Customs Audits 101

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“CBP” or “Customs”) determines the import compliance levels of importers through audits. Simultaneously,...

End-to-End Encryption and a New Understanding of Technology and Software Export Controls

On June 3, 2016, the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) and the State Department’s Directorate of Defense Trade...

Export Compliance Programs

Compliance with the U.S. export control regulations is a significant issue for companies and their legal and compliance teams.

Deemed Exports and Reexports under the Harmonization Rules

One objective of the Export Control Reform Initiative is to harmonize the definitions of terms or concepts that appear in both the International...

How to Claim Refunds for Overcharged Import Taxes Due to Surveillance Certificate Requirements in Turkey

Ministry of Economy determines certain minimum thresholds for certain products in order to force the exporters to pay higher taxes on the...

Tax Investigators Trawl Through Panama Papers – Submitting a Voluntary Declaration

Tax investigators have apparently been sifting through the Panama Papers in the hope of rumbling suspected tax dodgers. There is still time to...

Should We Expect Immigration of Turkish Citizens, and will Ukraine be Interesting for this Purpose?

Where could Turks immigrate? It is unlikely that many Turks will immigrate to Muslim countries, because the level of freedom there does not...

Go Realtime - Foreign Depositions

Litigation involving foreign witnesses can be challenging. Paralegals will no doubt find that their cases will require the services of both...

BREXIT, EU & International Arbitration

1. The Legal Instruments Utilized on International Arbitration in the UK: A very important point that needs to be made as an introductory...

Fighting Fraud and Corruption: The DOJs New FCPA Pilot Program

The Department of Justice (DOJ) recently announced its creation of a new pilot program designed to encourage companies to voluntarily...

European Competition Authorities Take Aim at Internet Giant

The European Commission has expanded its proceedings against an internet company on account of possible infringements of antitrust law. The...

The Customs Reauthorization Bill: The Most Immediate and Practical Impacts

Initially introduced in April 2015, the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act (the Act), also known as the Customs Reauthorization Bill,...

(Not Quite) Open for Business: Recent Changes to Cuba and Iran Policy Tease New Opportunities

The United States government has maintained for some time a strict economic sanctions regime targeting Iran and a comprehensive embargo...

Trade Through a Single Window

On February 19, 2014 President Obama signed executive order 13659. This executive order titled “Streamlining the Export/Import Process for...

International Investments in Panama

Panama is a land blessed by God, where you can enjoy on the same day the tropical heat of its beaches and the fresh air from the high lands.

Investment Guarantees and Incentives in Egypt

In general : Business entities in Egypt that have been incorporated after the enactment of the Law 8 of 1997 enjoy further guarantees and...

Denial of Entry into the Philippines Must Not Be Arbitrary

While the immigration officers have the prerogative to decline entry of foreigners, they must do so without arbitrariness, that is, the ground...

Fight Online Libel in the Philippines

Internet postings are subject to Philippine jurisdiction. Under Section 21 of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10175),...

Taxation in Egypt

Tax system :As a result of enactment of the Tax Law 91 for the year 2005, and its amendment by the Presidential Decision No. 96 for the year...

Indirect Business Activity in Egyptian Market

Consider: the case of foreign entities marketing their products to Egypt directly without the requirement of business entity incorporation in...

Important Facts of Franchise and Licensing Agreements in Latin America

Franchise agreements: In general terms, a franchise agreement is a contract in which one part known as franchiser, allows the use of its...

Privatization: Attracting Foreign Investors to Ukraine

The long announced plans of Ukraine in relation to massive privatization are being gradually implemented. The importance of privatization is...

Misuse of Authority in Company’s Own Bankruptcy Application in Amsterdam

In a recent case before the Court of Appeal of Amsterdam, a dismissal of a company’s own application for bankruptcy was upheld in appeal. The...

Mandatory Mediation to Help Foreign Investment in Bangladesh

In 2012, the Bangladeshi Parliament, feeling the need to enforce mandatory mediation in all civil cases, made an amendment to its Civil...

Investment in Egypt

Legal Framework: Post 25th of January, 2011 Revolution Direction following Revolution of 25th of January, 2011, Egypt has been heading towards...

How to Avoid Sanctions in Ukraine for Breach of Terms of Settlements in Foreign Currency

Many Ukrainian companies actively import goods and services. Frequently, their foreign counter-parties require prepayment for delivered goods or...

Restrictive Agreements Permissible under Certain Circumstances in Germany

It is possible under certain circumstances according to German and European antitrust law for agreements restricting competition to be...

BREXIT and the Impact on British and European Companies

The result of the British referendum has shocked the whole world. However it must be remembered that an official withdrawal from the EU has not...

Enforcement and Seizure Proceedings in Romania

The Romanian courts do not necessarily operate with the speed and efficiency that may be found in Western Europe or the USA but this should not...

World Bank Group v. Wallace: International Organizations' Immunities and the Fight Against Corruption

Was this a great victory or a near miss? Much has been written about the recent Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) judgment World Bank Group v....

Import & Export in Egypt

Import is strictly regulated by the Egyptian government permitting Egyptian nationals only and fully owned and managed Egyptian companies to...

New EU Regulation Regarding Data Protection

A new EU regulation regarding data protection came into force on 24 May 2016 and, following a two year transition period, it will apply to all...

According to European Commission and Deloitte, Belgium is a Heaven for Business and Tax Immigration

  By Lexial
There is a Belgian paradox insofar as, every year, Belgium is ranked by OECD among the highest taxed countries, based on the ratio of the tax...

Medicated Feed: A New Area for Legislative Revision in the EU

On March, 15th, 2016 the European Parliament Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development adopted by a large majority the report on the...

Personal Data Protection and Medical Research: The New Legal Fframework in the EU

On May 4th 2016, the official text of Regulation 2016/679 “on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data...

Green Light on the New Veterinary Medicinal Products Legislation in the EU

Last June, the EU Parliament started discussions and issued amendments on the European Commission’s Proposals for two new Regulations....

Pesticide Residues in Food and GM Foods in the EU - Latest Developments and Questions

The use of pesticides in food, especially when growing fruit and vegetables, is now commonplace; farmers use pesticides in order to preserve or...

The New MedTech Code of Ethical Business Practice – Ethics at its Best in the EU

Medtech Europe represents the medical technology industry in Europe. It is the alliance of the two leading medical technology industry...

Blow the Whistle without Fear: The Importance of Whistleblowers’ Protection in the EU

Whistleblowing as corruption-fighter, is also known as a practice that deals with one of the most serious social issues of our time. A...

Key Points on Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 on Cinical Trials on Medicinal Products for Human Use

The Regulation 536/2014’s purpose is the growth acceleration of pharmaceutical research via clinical trials in the European Union. Its...

Enforcement of Judgments in the EU under the New Recast Regulation 1215/2012 and the Issuance of Protective Measures

In accordance with the New Recast Regulation 1215/2012, any judgment obtained in one Member State will be automatically recognised and...

EGC: Winnetou to Retain Trademark Protection for Time Being in the EU

On March 18, 2016, the General Court of the European Union ruled that the well-known novel character Winnetou shall continue to enjoy trademark...

Health Apps: The Challenge of Digital Health for European Legislators

Health apps have a significant impact on the provision of medical care globally. In our previous article we focused on the legal protection of...

Mobile Health Apps and Big Data: The Legal Map in the EU

The use of mobile applications in healthcare has been rapidly growing, globally. Meanwhile, a long and intense discussion has emerged between...

Medical Devices & In-Vitro Diagnostics in the EU: What’s Next?

On October the 5th, 2015, the EU Council of Ministers agreed on its baselines on the looming two Regulations on medical devices and in-vitro...

Bundeskartellamt Investigates Ticket Allocation in Germany for Euro 2016

The allocation of tickets for the UEFA European Championship in France has triggered the involvement of the Bundeskartellamt, Germany’s Federal...

EGC: “Spa” Not A Community Trademark For Cosmetics in the EU

The term “Spa” is not a generic name for cosmetics and cannot be registered as a Community trademark. That was the verdict of the General Court...

A Forwarder Is Not Required to Question an Importer's Declaration Regarding the Contents of Forwarded Cargo in Israel

Monetary disputes between clients (importers or exporters) and the various entities that form the logistic chain of transporting goods (such as...

Sino-Foreign Joint Venture Company’s Deadlock in China

Company’s Deadlock is, sadly speaking, a sort of very-often-seen disputes between Chinese and foreign shareholders and/or directors in a...

Private Automobile Importer Will Not Receive Information on Other Importers in Israel

Among the most common disputes between importers and the Customs Authority are disputes regarding the valuation of the transaction. In other...

New Customs Code of the European Union

The Customs Code establishes the general rules and procedures applicable to goods brought into or out on the customs territory of the Union and...

Regulating Cyber Activity in Israel - Establishing a National Registry of Cyber Practitioners

Recent developments in the regulation of the cyber domain in Israel relating to defense export control of the cyber domain.

Not Every Delay in Customs Warrants Compensation

The Customs Authority is authorized to delay the release of imported and exported goods if it suspects a related offense has been committed,...

A Customs Debt Notice which Is Not Backed by Tangible Evidence May Be Annulled in Israel

The Tel Aviv Magistrate Court determined that an importer proved his claim regarding the essence of the goods and accepted the importer's...

Increased Enforcement of Defense Export Control in Israel - First Criminal Trial Ruling

The intent behind the Defense Export Control law, 2007 ("the law"), and the various regulations and orders enacted thereunder, is to regulate...

Illicit Funds in Offshore Accounts: Avert Prosecution with Timely Voluntary Declaration in Germany

Hesse’s Finance Minister, Dr. Thomas Schäfer, has announced that the fight against tax evasion will continue. Voluntary disclosure is still the...

Armenian Citizens Will Not Pay VAT on the Cars Imported from the EEU Countries

An amendment was made to the RA Law on "Value-Added Tax" on March 17, 2016. The citizens will no longer pay VAT on the cars imported from the...

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea - ITLOS

  By M F Ejchel
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the...

Construction Contracts in Iran’s Body of Law: Post-Sanctions Strategy

Although there are several similarities between construction law in Iran and other countries, it has its own rules and regulations which are...

Oil and Gas Industry in Iran’s Body of Law Post-Sanctions Strategy

The legal aspects of Iran’s petroleum rules and contracts, especially for post-sanctions era, have been analyzed.

Ukraine “Green” Energy Tax Benefits

Starting from April 2009 Ukraine makes efforts to financially stimulate generation of electricity from alternative sources of energy. Such...

Cayman Islands Private Equity Funds and the use of Exempted Limited Partnerships

Structure of Cayman Private Equity Funds. The most common structure for a Cayman Islands domiciled private equity fund (“PE Fund”) is as an...

Shareholder Disputes in the Cayman Islands

Shareholders of a Cayman Islands company may petition the Grand Court for an order that a company is wound up pursuant to section 92(e) of the...

Uganda: Benefits of an Investment Licence to the Government

The licensing of investments in Uganda provides vital information for the Government in the following areas:

Benefits of an Investment Licence in Uganda

According to the Investment Code Act 1991, Section 15 (1 and 2), Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) shall issue to the applicant an investment...

Cayman Islands Shareholder Disputes and Corporate Insolvency: Applications for Validation Orders by Solvent Companies

On 9 February 2016, Clifford J., sitting in the Financial Services Division of the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands gave Judgment in In Re...

Processing Investment Licence in Uganda

After a company has been incorporated registered (foreign company) in Uganda, it is eligible for an investment license provided its capital...

Investment Incentives in Uganda

The absolute exemption on plant and machinery only applies to plant and machinery used in the agricultural sector.

Authentication, Simplification, Granted IP Status in Latin America

The Hague Apostille Convention of 5 October 1961 was born out of the need to simplify the circulation of documents between different states and...

Economic Sanctions Against the Isalmic Republic of Iran from the Human Rights Perspective

Since the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran has always exposed to various international sanctions due to different reasons...

Arbitration - Does Signed Mean Sealed in UAE

Article 215 and 217 of the Civil Procedures Law of the UAE states that a person does not have the right to enter into an arbitration agreement...


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