Prenuptial Agreement Law
What is Prenuptial Agreement Law?
Prenuptial agreement law sets forth the rules couples must follow when agreeing beforehand how assets and financial responsibilities will be handled at the end of their marriage. People who intend to marry are free to enter into legal contracts regarding these matters. But due to the potentially harsh results of a prenuptial agreement for the spouse against whom it is enforced, the law imposes specific requirements about what can and cannot be agreed to as a matter of public policy.
Like other aspects of matrimonial law, the rules governing prenuptial agreements are the subject of state law. More than half of the states have adopted model legislation known as the Uniform Premarital Agreement Act (UPAA). Some of the legislatures in these states have modified the act to reflect their state’s goals and priorities, such as extending the act’s provisions to same-sex couples.
When deciding prenuptial agreement cases, judges have demonstrated a willingness to deviate from the terms an agreement to protect a disadvantaged party, at least more so than in other types of contract cases. This can come as a surprise to those with experience litigating contracts in the business world. Because of the risk that a prenuptial agreement will be held void for violating public policy, couples are strongly encouraged to consult an attorney for advice in this area of the law.
The Reason Prenuptial Agreements Exist
The purpose served by prenuptial agreements is one of the most misunderstood concepts in the entire legal system. Married and unmarried people alike often subscribe to the idea that these agreements come about as a result of distrust between future spouses, or that they are a means for wealthy individuals to protect themselves from potential spouses who are looking to marry for financial reasons only. Hence the notion that asking one’s fiancé to sign a prenuptial agreement is a romance-defeating gesture. All of this is incorrect.
To better understand the reason prenuptial agreements exist, consider that state legislatures are faced with the task of enacting divorce and inheritance laws that apply to every married couple living in the state. That is the way laws work – they are designed to apply to everyone. Unfortunately, not all couples have the same feelings about property rights, alimony, and other such issues.
Prenuptial agreements are nothing more than a way for couples to modify the laws of their state to bring them into accordance with the couple’s own views. Not everything about the law can be altered – future child support obligations cannot be done away with, for example. But generally, the one-size-fits-all divorce laws that would otherwise apply can be totally modified to suit the couple’s wishes. This can be especially useful to couples living in the handful of “community property” states who do not want to be subject to that system of property law.
Commonly Types of Agreements
Most people who enter into prenuptial agreements are interested in having their property treated a certain way in the event the marriage comes to an end. Agreements may state that certain items that belonged to one spouse before marriage will continue to belong to that spouse upon divorce, or pass to the spouse’s children at death. Many family homes and other heirlooms have been passed to the next generation in this manner. Prenuptial agreements can also include provisions regarding how assets accumulated during the marriage will be divided, and which of the spouses has the right to manage, control, encumber, or dispose of specific assets during the marriage.
Steps for Creating an Enforceable Contract
Drafting a prenuptial agreement must be done such that its validity cannot be successfully challenged in a subsequent divorce or other court proceeding. While this is true of any kind of contract, the emotional resentment that accompanies many divorces makes it all the more important in this context. The best way to avoid legal challenges is to make sure the terms of the agreement and the process of signing it are fair to both parties.
Specifically, the terms of the agreement must be conscionable. If one spouse stands to leave the marriage wealthy and the other spouse will become dependent on welfare, a judge will likely toss out the entire agreement. Prior to executing the document, each individual should have access to legal counsel (two lawyers must be hired), and there must be ample time to review the paperwork before the wedding. Most importantly, the two individuals must fully disclose the extent of their personal assets and income to one another.
Hiring a Prenuptial Agreement Lawyer
Even for couples who understand the benefits of a prenuptial agreement, discussing the topic can be awkward. If you and your future spouse are in need of assistance, an attorney specializing in matrimonial law can make the experience much more pleasant. Speak with a lawyer now to learn more.
Prenuptial Agreements and Estate Planning
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Articles on HG.org Related to Pre-nuptial Agreement Law
- Role of Prenuptial Agreements and Estate Planning in Second MarriagesStatistics indicate that many individuals will be in a second, third or subsequent marriage. Getting married the second time around is often a lot more complicated than the first time. Additionally, spouses may see what the worst version is, based on the loss of the other spouse through death or divorce. Therefore, they are often much more likely to protect their legal and financial interests in subsequent numbers.
- Prenuptial Agreements: Gaining a Financial Picture Before MarriageEveryone has their own financial personality. Your spending and saving habits may differ greatly from friends and family. According to a 2011 study from Utah State University, married couples who disagree about money issues once a week are twice as likely to divorce than couples who have money conflicts less than once a month.
- Preserving Your Assets after Disclosing ThemDisclosure of assets is usually necessary when in a court case where the information has been required as per the situation. However, protecting what has been earned is often difficult. When this is part of the dissolution of a relationship, most of these circumstances end with the other spouse obtaining half of all assets as long as the state and time constraints permit this action. This could be a house, land, bank accounts, possessions and other types of property. When there are some assets acquired before the marriage, these could also be distributed to the divorcing spouse.
- Prenuptial Agreements and Digital Assets: Why You Need to Plan for ThemToday’s society largely stays in touch over social media and other electronic means. Individuals may share a number of digital assets or may want to keep them separate. Knowing how digital assets will be treated and divided in the event of divorce or death can provide clarity to this issue. Prenuptial agreements can help safeguard digital assets.
- What Does Texas’s Community Property Law Mean for Your Divorce?Under Texas law, most assets that either spouse acquires during a marriage will be deemed community property when the spouses divorce. If you are preparing to end your marriage, here are some key facts to know about protecting your interest in community and separate property.
- How Do You Transfer Assets in a New Jersey Divorce?Part and parcel of the divorce process is disclosing full income to determine the appropriate alimony and child support to be paid. In some cases, one spouse may choose to not make full disclosure, which results in much lower child support payments. Do you suspect that your spouse is withholding financial information? Enlisting an experienced Family Lawyer will help you ensure your settlement adds up.
- Prenuptial and Antenuptial Agreements in MinnesotaRetaining an experienced attorney is important part of negotiating, drafting and reviewing prenuptial contracts. Costly errors are not easily remedied, if they can be remedied at all.
- Which Parent Gets the House in a Divorce in New Jersey?If you have decided to have a divorce in the state of New Jersey, knowing how to divide the property is important.
- Alimony: Changes in Spousal Maintenance: Cohabitation or Remarriage in MinnesotaChanges in Minnesota's Spousal Maintenance law may affect those who cohabitate.
- How Do You Change a New Jersey Divorce Agreement?There are many people in New Jersey that have sought to legally alter their divorce decree or agreement over the decades. It happens for various reasons, but some people are reluctant to undergo the process simply because they do not know everything that it entails.
Pre-nuptial Agreement Law - US
- Prenuptial Agreements - Overview
Approximately 2.3 million people marry each year. Of those, over half will end in divorce. When national divorce statistics illustrate that the probability of a marital breakup is greater than 50/50, it should come as no surprise that the use of premarital (sometimes called either “prenuptial” or “antenuptial”) agreements is on the rise.
- Prenuptial Agreements - Wikipedia
A prenuptial agreement, antenuptial agreement, or premarital agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into prior to marriage, civil union or any other agreement prior to the main agreement by the people intending to marry or contract with each other. The content of a prenuptial agreement can vary widely, but commonly includes provisions for division of property and spousal support in the event of divorce or breakup of marriage. They may also include terms for the forfeiture of assets as a result of divorce on the grounds of adultery, further conditions of guardianship may be included as well.
- Uniform Marital Property Act
After three years of consideration, the Uniform Law Commissioners promulgated the Uniform Marital Property Act (UMPA) in 1983. For the first time, the family can be made into a functioning economic unit. And, for the first time, there is an opportunity to give more than lip service to the family as an economic entity.
- Uniform Premarital Agreement Act
The Uniform Premarital Agreement Act (UPAA) is a Uniform Act governing prenuptial agreements. It was drafted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws in 1983. The UPAA has been adopted by 27 states (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin)
Organizations Related to Pre-nuptial Agreement Law
If you are about to get married and are considering a prenuptial agreement, you will find a wealth of material here, all written by an attorney.
Publications Related to Pre-nuptial Agreement Law
- Bankrate.com - Prenuptial Agreements
A prenuptial accord is a contract between two people about to wed that spells out how assets will be distributed in the event of divorce or death. Such agreements have existed for thousands of years in some form or another, particularly in European and Far Eastern cultures, where royal families have always made provisions for protecting their wealth.
- Prenuptial Agreement FAQ - United States
A prenuptial agreement is a contract entered into by two people who are about to marry. A prenuptial agreement (often called a ‘prenup’ or ‘prenupt’) is used to specify how property and debts will be divided in the event of a breakup.
- Prenuptial Agreements in the United States - IAML Law Journal
Prenuptial agreements, sometimes also referred to as "antenuptial agreements" or "premarital agreements," are agreements between parties contemplating marriage that alter or confirm the legal rights and obligations that would otherwise arise under the laws governing marriages that end either through divorce or death. These agreements are fraught with controversy as to their appropriateness and their enforceability. Prenuptial agreements and the accompanying controversy are not unique to the United States. The purpose of this article is to give the non-American lawyer an overview of this rather complex area of American family law and estate planning, and also to highlight some of the common procedural and substantive requirements and issues currently in play in the United States today.