Robbery is defined as taking away of goods or property by force or intimidation, with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of those items. Robbery, armed robbery and assault with intent to rob, are commonly punishable with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. Other crimes included under robbery law consist of extortion, blackmail and to a certain extent, larceny.
To consult State Legislation regarding robbery laws and regulations please see the Criminal Code by State page.
Robbery Law - US
- Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) - Robbery
Robbery is the completed or attempted theft, directly from a person, of property or cash by force or threat of force, with or without a weapon, and with or without injury.
- Center for Problem-Oriented Policing - Robbery of Convenience Stores
This guide begins by describing the problem of convenience store robbery and reviewing factors that increase its risk. It then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local convenience store robbery problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and what is known about these from evaluative research and police practice.
- Extortion - Overview
Extortion, outwresting, or/and exaction is a criminal offense which occurs when a person unlawfully obtains either money, property or services from a person(s), entity, or institution, through coercion. Refraining from doing harm is sometimes euphemistically called protection. Extortion is commonly practiced by organized crime groups. The actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense. Making a threat of violence which refers to a requirement of a payment of money or property to halt future violence is sufficient to commit the offense. Exaction refers not only to extortion or the unlawful demanding and obtaining of something through force but additionally, in its formal definition, means the infliction of something such as pain and suffering or making somebody endure something unpleasant.
- FBI Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program - Robbery
The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program defines robbery as the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.
- Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual - Robbery, Extortion and Blackmail
The Guidelines are the product of the United States Sentencing Commission, which was created by the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984. The Guidelines' primary goal was to alleviate sentencing disparities that research had indicated was prevalent in the existing sentencing system, and the guidelines reform was specifically intended to provide for determinate sentencing. This refers to sentencing whose actual limits are determined at the time the sentence is imposed, as opposed to indeterminate sentencing, in which a sentence with a maximum (and, perhaps, a minimum) is pronounced but the actual sentence is determined by a parole commission or similar administrative body after the person has started serving their sentence. As part of the guidelines reform, parole was abolished.
- Hobbs Act - Extortion by Force, Violence, or Fear
The Hobbs Act, named after Congressman Sam Hobbs (D-AL) and codified at 18 U.S.C. § 1951, is a U.S. federal law that prohibits actual or attempted robbery or extortion affecting interstate or foreign commerce. Section 1951 also proscribes conspiracy to commit robbery or extortion without reference to the conspiracy statute at 18 U.S.C. § 371. Although the Hobbs Act was enacted as a statute to combat racketeering in labor-management disputes, the statute is frequently used in connection with cases involving public corruption, commercial disputes, and corruption directed at members of labor unions.
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) Violent Crime - Robbery
Established in 1972, NCJRS is a federally funded resource offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide.
- Robbery - Definition
Robbery is a crime of theft and can be classified as Larceny by force or by threat of force. The elements of the crime of robbery include the use of force or intimidation and all the elements of the crime of larceny. The penalty for robbery is always more severe than for larceny.
- US Criminal Code - Bank Robbery and Incidental Crimes
18 USCS § 2113 makes Bank robbery and the crimes done incidental to the robbery a Federal Crime and offense. Bank as used in the section means any member bank of the Federal Reserve System, and any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, or other banking institution organized or operating under the laws of the United States, including a branch or agency of a foreign bank, and any institution the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Organisations Related to Robbery Law
- National Center for Victims of Crime - Robbery
Robbery has become one of the most feared crimes in our nation, as it not only entails loss of property, but also the threat -- or actual use -- of violence. Robbery occurs more frequently than either rape or homicide. Even when victims do not sustain extensive injury or loss, they are often forced to suffer threats of violence and bodily harm at the hands of their assailant. Both property and personal safety are placed at substantial risk during a robbery. The victim encounters the robber face-to-face; therefore, a person who is robbed is immediately aware of a total loss of control. When a weapon is involved, this loss is even more acute, and these circumstances can cause both short-term and long-term crisis reactions for the victim
- National Neighborhood Watch Institute
The National Neighborhood Watch Institute was formed to supply law enforcement agencies and individual’s better tools for their crime prevention dollar. This was in response to a local police department asking us for help in the 1980s. We were then, and still are, part of InterPrint Corporation which was incorporated in 1973.
- USAonWatch - Neighborhood Watch
Since its beginnings, Neighborhood Watch has grown from an "extra eyes and ears" approach to crime prevention to a much more proactive, community-oriented endeavor providing a unique infrastructure that brings together local officials, law enforcement, and citizens for the protection of their communities. Today's Neighborhood Watch programs incorporate activities that not only address crime prevention issues, but also restore pride and unity to a neighborhood. It is not uncommon to see members of Neighborhood Watch groups participating in community cleanups and other activities that strive to improve the quality of life for community residents.
Publications Related to Robbery Law
- Bank Robbery Blogs
This blogs presents a variety of subjects and comments related to bank robberies.
- National Sheriffs' Association - Robbery Publications
The National Sheriffs' Association, now in its sixty-eighth year of serving law enforcement and other criminal justice professionals of the nation, is a non-profit organization dedicated to raising the level of professionalism among those in the criminal justice field.
- Robberies and Thefts - The New York Times
News about robberies and thefts, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.
Articles on HG.org Related to Robbery Law
- New York Robberies and the Criminal Law ProcessCriminal acts of robbery usually cause harm to others and lead to severe penalties for those caught after their actions are over. The illegal intent to take something from someone else by force generally occurs with a weapon, and other crimes are frequently part of these situations which could end in additional consequences.
- Differences between Texas Criminal Offenses in Shoplifting and RobberyIndividuals who are suspected of stealing in Texas may find themselves on the receiving end of property theft charges. These charges may include shoplifting, robbery or other crimes. Robbery and shoplifting have some similarities and many differences. It is important for criminal defendants to understand the nature of the charges against them.
- Defending Burglary, Robbery and Theft Related Charges in PhiladelphiaBurglary, robbery, and theft-related charges in Philadelphia and throughout Pennsylvania carry serious consequences which will affect your life now and in the future.
- Key Differences between Robbery and BurglaryThe key differences with robbery and burglary could determine sentencing that is light or heavy, fines that may be minor or excessive and other penalties. It is imperative to understand which is worse, how they affect the case and what to do when charges are issued.
- Burglary, Robbery, Shoplifting and Other Property Theft CrimesThere are many different types of theft crimes. It is important to know which of these has been committed so that a prosecutor does not face the case being thrown out when it goes before a judge.
- Differences Between Armed Robbery and Robbery in Georgia: Who Was the Victim? Was a Weapon Used?Robbery in Georgia is a felony. The potential jail time varies [depending on whether] a weapon is involved. or the victim is elderly.
- Federal Bank Robbery ChargesBank robbery is a crime with severe punishments because there is the intent to harm, the use of tools or equipment or the actual injury to others involved in these illegal acts. While federal charges may be issued, there must usually be some form of crossing state lines or an attack on government property.
- What Does the Prosecution Have to Prove When You’ve Been Charged with Armed Robbery?Armed robbery is a type of violent crime that can have serious repercussions. If you are charged with armed robbery or another type of violent crime, it is always best to talk to an experienced criminal defense lawyer who can give you a winning chance at possibly reducing your sentence or even dismissing your case. An experienced defense lawyer can represent you in court, handle all the complicated details of your case, and give you a keen understanding of the legal facts that can affect you.
- Crime of RobberyThe taking or attempting to take something of any value through the use of force, threats of force or through intimidating and fear has been determined to be a robbery by most states. It has also been defined through the removal of someone’s property or belongings with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of the property or belongings.
- Florida Sentencing Enhancements Pt. 3: Three Time Violent Felony Offenders & Violent Career CriminalsThis article is the third installment in our Florida Sentencing Enhancements series and presents an overview of the Three Time Violent Felony Offender and Violent Career Criminal statutes.
- All Criminal Law Articles
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